Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 149

Search results for: Ph-Garphos ligands

149 The Application of New Ligands including Different Atoms and Evaluation of Their Nucleophile Effects against Various Metals

Authors: Saman Hajmohamadi, Sohrab Hajmohamadi


The objectives of this experiment were to investigate the application of new ligands including different atoms and evaluation of their nucleophile effects against various metals. Chemistry researchers are really interested in this field. From among various ligands, there are some ligands with different coordinating ligands as well. There are great number of intermediate complexes and major elements of organic compositions with various atoms. There is a regular adding of new compositions. Complexes are the most important chemical combinations with various catalysts and biological, medicinal and other applications. Those complexes with ligands including different atom givers are really important and their synthesis could solve most of chemical problems. Supplying of new ligands is an important and key part of coordination chemistry which may cause some varieties and different properties in complexes with equal central nucleus. As a result, this research has evaluated new ligands including different coordination atoms, such as oxygen, nitrogen etc. along with their behavior against various metals like copper, nickel, iron etc.

Keywords: ligands, nucleophile, iron, cobalt, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
148 Chiral Diphosphine Ligands and Their Transition Metal Diphosphine Complexes in Asymmetric Catalysis

Authors: Shannen Lorraine, Paul Maragh, Tara Dasgupta, Kamaluddin Abdur-Rashid


(R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetramethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos) are novel, nucleophilic, chiral atropisomeric ligands. The research explored the synthesis of chiral transition metal complexes containing these ligands and their applications in various asymmetric catalytic transformations. Herein, the transition metal complexes having ruthenium(II), rhodium(I) and iridium(I) metal centres will be discussed. These are air stable complexes and were characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. Currently, there is an emphasis on 'greener' catalysts and the need for 'green' solvents in asymmetric catalysis. As such, the Ph-Garphos ligands were demethylated thereby introducing hydroxyl moieties unto the ligand scaffold. The facile tunability of the biaryl diphosphines led to the preparation of the (R)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (R-Ph-Garphos-OH), and (S)-(4,4',6,6'-tetrahydroxybiphenyl-2,2'-diyl)bis(diphenylphosphine) (S-Ph-Garphos-OH) ligands. These were successfully characterized by CHN analysis, 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy, and polarimetry. The use of the Ph-Garphos and Ph-Garphos-OH ligands and their transition metal complexes in asymmetric hydrogenations will be reported. Additionally, the scope of the research will highlight the applicability of the Ph-Garphos-OH ligand and its transitional metal complexes as 'green' catalysts.

Keywords: catalysis, asymmetric hydrogenation, diphosphine transition metal complexes, Ph-Garphos ligands

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
147 Synthesis and Anti-Cancer Evaluation of Uranyle Complexes

Authors: Abdol-Hassan Doulah


In this research, some of the inorganic complexes of uranyl with N- donor ligands were synthesized. Complexes were characteriezed by FT-IR and UV spectra, ¹HNMR, ¹³CNMR and some physical properties. The uranyl unit (UO2) is composed of a center of uranium atom with the charge (+6) and two oxygen atom by forming two U=O double bonds. The structure is linear (O=U=O, 180) and usually stable. So other ligands often coordinate to the U atom in the plane perpendicularly to the O=U=O axis. The antitumor activity of some of ligand and their complexes against a panel of human tumor cell lines (HT29: Haman colon adenocarcinoma cell line T47D: human breast adenocarcinoma cell line) were determined by MTT(3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. These data suggest that some of these compounds provide good models for the further design of potent antitumor compounds.

Keywords: inorganic, uranyl complex-donor ligands, Schiff bases, anticancer activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
146 Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Applications of Divalent Schiff Base Metal Complexes Derived from Amino Coumarins and Substituted Benzaldehydes and Acetophenones

Authors: Srinivas Nerella


A series of new heterodentate N, O-donor ligands derived from condensing 3-amino Coumarins with hydroxy benzaldehydes and acetophenones were used to afford new mononuclear Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II) and Pd(II) coordination compounds. All the complexes were characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, Mass, ESR, Electronic spectra, Conductance, Magnetic and Thermal studies. The ligands show hexa coordination in Mn(II), Co(II), Ni(II), and Pd(II) complexes resulting octahedral geometries, while the ligands in Zn(II) and Cu(II) complexes show tetra coordination resulting tetrahedral and square planar geometries respectively. These mononuclear complexes were investigated as catalysts in the hydrothiolation of aromatic and aliphatic alkynes with thiols. These metal complexes were acted as versatile catalysts and gave good yields.

Keywords: schiff bases, divalent metal complexes of schiff bases, Catalytic activity, hydrothiolation

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
145 A Platform to Screen Targeting Molecules of Ligand-EGFR Interactions

Authors: Wei-Ting Kuo, Feng-Huei Lin


Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often constitutively stimulated in cancer owing to the binding of ligands such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), so it is necessary to investigate the interaction between EGFR and its targeting biomolecules which were over ligands binding. This study would focus on the binding affinity and adhesion force of two targeting products anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) and peptide A to EGFR comparing with EGF. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) was used to obtain the equilibrium dissociation constant to evaluate the binding affinity. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was performed to detect adhesion force. The result showed that binding affinity of mAb to EGFR was higher than that of EGF to EGFR, and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. The adhesion force between EGFR and mAb that was higher than EGF and peptide A to EGFR was lowest. From the studies, we could conclude that mAb had better adhesion force and binding affinity to EGFR than that of EGF and peptide A. SPR and AFM could confirm the interaction between receptor and targeting ligand easily and carefully. It provide a platform to screen ligands for receptor targeting and drug delivery.

Keywords: adhesion force, binding affinity, epidermal growth factor receptor, target molecule

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
144 In Silico Design of Organometallic Complexes as Potential Antibacterial Agents

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Strahinja Z. Kovačević, Lidija R. Jevrić, Stela Jokić


The complexes of transition metals with various organic ligands have been extensively studied as models of some important pharmaceutical molecules. It was found that biological properties of different substituted organic molecules are improved when they are complexed by different metals. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In the present work, we have bioassayed the antibacterial potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Cu or Zn) against yeast Sarcina lutea. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Cu, Zn) showed good to moderate inhibitory activity against Sarcina lutea. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and improved antibacterial activity in comparison with non-complexed ligands. These results are part of the CMST COST Action No. 1105 "Functional metal complexes that bind to biomolecules".

Keywords: organometallic complexes, benzimidazoles, chemometric design, Sarcina lutea

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
143 Ligand-Depended Adsorption Characteristics of Silver Nanoparticles on Activated Carbon

Authors: Hamza Simsir, Nurettin Eltugral, Selhan Karagöz


Surface modification and functionalization has been an important tool for scientists in order to open new frontiers in nano science and nanotechnology. Desired surface characteristics for the intended applications can be achieved with surface functionalization. In this work, the effect of water soluble ligands on the adsorption capabilities of silver nanoparticles onto AC which was synthesized from German beech wood, was investigated. Sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were used as the ligands. Silver nanoparticles with different surface coatings have average sizes range from 10 to 13 nm. They were synthesized in aqueous media by reducing Ag (I) ion in the presence of ligands. These particles displayed adsorption tendencies towards AC when they were mixed together and shaken in distilled water. Silver nanoparticles (NaBH4-AgNPs) reduced and stabilized by NaBH4 adsorbed onto AC with a homogenous dispersion of aggregates with sizes in the range of 100-400 nm. Beside, silver nanoparticles, which were prepared in the presence of both NaBH4 and PVA (NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs), demonstrated that NaBH4/PVA-Ag NPs adsorbed and dispersed homogenously but, they aggregated with larger sizes on the AC surface (range from 300 to 600 nm). In addition, desorption resistance of Ag nanoparticles were investigated in distilled water. According to the results AgNPs were not desorbed on the AC surface in distilled water.

Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, ligand, activated carbon, adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
142 Electrochemical Coordination Polymers of Copper(II) Synthesis by Using Rigid and Felexible Ligands

Authors: P. Mirahmadpour, M. H. Banitaba, D. Nematollahi


The chemistry of coordination polymers in recent years has grown exponentially not only because of their interesting architectures but also due to their various technical applications in many fields including ion exchange, chemical catalysis, small molecule separations, and drug release. The use of bridging ligands for the controlled self-assembly of one, two or three dimensional metallo-supramolecular species is the subject of serious study in last decade. Numerous different synthetic methods have been offered for the preparation of coordination polymers such as (a) diffusion from the gas phase, (b) slow diffusion of the reactants into a polymeric matrix, (c) evaporation of the solvent at ambient or reduced temperatures, (d) temperature controlled cooling, (e) precipitation or recrystallisation from a mixture of solvents and (f) hydrothermal synthesis. The electrosynthetic process suggested several advantages over conventional approaches. A general advantage of electrochemical synthesis is that it allows synthesis under milder conditions than typical solvothermal or microwave synthesis. In this work we have introduced a simple electrochemical method for growing metal coordination polymers based on copper with a flexible 2,2’-thiodiacetic acid (TDA) and rigid 1,2,4,5-benzenetetracarboxylate (BTC) ligands. The structure of coordination polymers were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), elemental analysis, thermal gravimetric (TG) and differential thermal analyses (DTA). The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that different conformations of the ligands and different coordination modes of the carboxylate group as well as different coordination geometries of the copper atoms. Electrochemical synthesis of coordination polymers has different advantages such as faster synthesis at lower temperature in compare with conventional chemical methods and crystallization of desired materials in a single synthetic step.

Keywords: 1, 2, 4, 5-benzenetetracarboxylate, coordination polymer, copper, 2, 2’-thiodiacetic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
141 Application of a Series of New Platinum Organometallic Complexes Derived from Bidentate Schiff Base Ligands in the Hydrogenative and Dehydrogenative Silylation of Styrene

Authors: M. Belhadj Lachachi, Tayeb Benabdallah, M. Hadj Youcef, Jason M. Lynama


The application of inorganic chemistry to catalysis and environmental chemistry is a rapidly developing field, and novel catalytic metal complexes are now having an impact on the industrial development practice. Advances in organometallic chemistry are crucial for improving the design of compounds to reduce toxic side effects and understand their mechanisms of action. The reaction of platinum(II) organometallic complexes with bidentate Schiff bases derived from 2-Hydroxynaphtalydeneaniline have been carried out. It concerns N,N’-naphtalidene para-nitroaniline (1-a), the, the N,N’-naphtalidene para-ethoxyaniline (1-b), the N,N’-naphtalideneaniline (1-c), the N,N’-naphtalidene para-chloroaniline (1-d) and the N,N’-naphtalidene para-methoxyaniline (1-e). The ligands were fully characterized by I.R., elemental analysis, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, ESI Mass Spectrometry and X-Ray Diffraction. The resulting metal complexes were obtained as a cationic species, through a simple substitution reaction, leading to two geometric isomers [1, 2], and characterized by IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, LIFDI Mass Spectrometry and supported by Elemental Analysis and X-Ray diffraction. Furthermore, a bimetallic platinum complex was prepared from the same ligands and dichloro(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum and characterized by X-Ray diffraction [3]The catalytic properties of the prepared platinum complexes in the hydrogenative and dehydrogenative silylation of styrene were investigated, and reaction kinetics conversion to products was determined by 1H-NMR and confirmed by GC-MS. This presentation will detail a comparison of the catalytic activity of five platinum organometallic complexes bearing different Schiff base ligands in the hydrosilylation of styrene, varying the experimental conditions of temperature, nature of the complex and the loading of the catalyst.

Keywords: catalysis, hydrosilylation, organometallic, schiff base

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
140 Chiral Ruthenium Aminophosphine and Phosphine Iminopyridine Complexes: Synthesis and Application to Asymmetric Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation

Authors: Littlelet N. Scarlet, Kamaluddin Abdur-Rashid, Paul T. Maragh, Tara Dasgupta


Aminophosphines are a privileged class of ancillary ligands with emerging importance in homogeneous catalysis. The unique combination of soft phosphorus (P) and hard nitrogen (N) centres affords a variety of transition metal complexes as potential pre-catalysts for synthetically useful reactions. Herein three ligand systems will be reported; two bidentate ligands - (S)-8-(diphenyl-phosphino)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-amine, (S)THNANH2, and (Rc)-1-((Sp)-2-diphenylphosphino) ferrocenylethylamine, (RcSp)PPFNH2 - and a tridentate (Rc)-1-((Sp)-2-diphenylphosphino) ferrocenylimino-pyridine, (RcSp)PPFNNH2 ligand; the latter prepared from the condensation of selected ferrocene aminophosphines with pyridine-2-carboxaldehyde. Suitable combinations of these aminophosphine ligands with ruthenium precursors have afforded highly efficient systems for the asymmetric hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of selected ketones in 2-propanol. The Ru-(S)THNANH2 precatalyst was the most efficient in the asymmetric hydrogenation of selected ketones with 100% conversions within 4 hours at a catalyst loading of 0.1 mol%. The Ru-(RcSp)PPFNNH2 precatalyst was the most efficient in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of the ketones with conversions as high as 98% with 0.1 mol% catalyst. However, the enantioselectivities were generally low.

Keywords: aminophosphine, asymmetric hydrogenation, homogeneous catalysis, ruthenium (II), transfer hydrogenation

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139 Free Energy Computation of A G-Quadruplex-Ligand Structure: A Classical Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Juan Antonio Mondragon Sanchez, Ruben Santamaria


The DNA G-quadruplex is a four-stranded DNA structure formed by stacked planes of four base paired guanines (G-quartet). Guanine rich DNA sequences appear in many sites of genomic DNA and can potential form G-quadruplexes, such as those occurring at 3'-terminus of the human telomeric DNA. The formation and stabilization of a G-quadruplex by small ligands at the telomeric region can inhibit the telomerase activity. In turn, the ligands can be used to down regulate oncogene expression making G-quadruplex an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Many G-quadruplex ligands have been proposed with a planar core to facilitate the pi–pi stacking and electrostatic interactions with the G-quartets. However, many drug candidates are impossibilitated to discriminate a G-quadruplex from a double helix DNA structure. In this context, it is important to investigate the site topology for the interaction of a G-quadruplex with a ligand. In this work, we determine the free energy surface of a G-quadruplex-ligand to study the binding modes of the G-quadruplex (TG4T) with the daunomycin (DM) drug. The complex TG4T-DM is studied using classical molecular dynamics in combination with metadynamics simulations. The metadynamics simulations permit an enhanced sampling of the conformational space with a modest computational cost and obtain free energy surfaces in terms of the collective variables (CV). The free energy surfaces of TG4T-DM exhibit other local minima, indicating the presence of additional binding modes of daunomycin that are not observed in short MD simulations without the metadynamics approach. The results are compared with similar calculations on a different structure (the mutated mu-G4T-DM where the 5' thymines on TG4T-DM have been deleted). The results should be of help to design new G-quadruplex drugs, and understand the differences in the recognition topology sites of the duplex and quadruplex DNA structures in their interaction with ligands.

Keywords: g-quadruplex, cancer, molecular dynamics, metadynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 372
138 The Influence of Ligands Molecular Structure on the Antibacterial Activity of Some Metal Complexes

Authors: Sanja O. Podunavac-Kuzmanović, Lidija R. Jevrić, Strahinja Z. Kovačević


In last decade, metal-organic complexes have captured intensive attention because of their wide range of biological activities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancerous, antimicrobial and antiHIV. Therefore, it is of great importance for the development of coordination chemistry to explore the assembly of functional organic ligands with metal ion and to investigate the relationship between the structure and property. In view of our studies, we reasoned that benzimidazoles complexed to metal ions could act as a potent antibacterial agents. Thus, we have bioassayed the inhibitory potency of benzimidazoles and their metal salts (Co or Ni) against Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli. In order to validate our in vitro study, we performed in silico studies using molecular docking software’s. The investigated compounds and their metal complexes (Co, Ni) showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. In silico docking studies of the synthesized compounds suggested that complexed benzimidazoles have a greater binding affinity and enhanced antibacterial activity in comparison with noncomplexed ligands. In view of their enhanced inhibitory properties we propose that the studied complexes can be used as potential pharmaceuticals. This study is financially supported by COST action CM1306 and the project No. 114-451-347/2015-02, financially supported by the Provincial Secretariat for Science and Technological Development of Vojvodina.

Keywords: benzimidazoles, complexes, antibacterial, Escherichia coli, metal

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
137 Hyaluronic Acid Binding to Link Domain of Stabilin-2 Receptor

Authors: Aleksandra Twarda, Dobrosława Krzemień, Grzegorz Dubin, Tad A. Holak


Stabilin-2 belongs to the group of scavenger receptors and plays a crucial role in clearance of more than 10 ligands from the bloodstream, including hyaluronic acid, products of degradation of extracellular matrix and metabolic products. The Link domain, a defining feature of stabilin-2, has a sequence similar to Link domains in other hyaluronic acid receptors, such as CD44 or TSG-6, and is responsible for most of ligands binding. Present knowledge of signal transduction by stabilin-2, as well as ligands’ recognition and binding mechanism, is limited. Until now, no experimental structures have been solved for any segments of stabilin-2. It has recently been demonstrated that the stabilin-2 knock-out or blocking of the receptor by an antibody effectively opposes cancer metastasis by elevating the level of circulating hyaluronic acid. Moreover, loss of expression of stabilin-2 in a peri-tumourous liver correlates with increased survival. Solving of the crystal structure of stabilin-2 and elucidation of the binding mechanism of hyaluronic acid could enable the precise characterization of the interactions in the binding site. These results may allow for designing specific small-molecule inhibitors of stabilin-2 that could be used in cancer therapy. To carry out screening for crystallization of stabilin-2, we cloned constructs of the Link domain of various lengths with or without surrounding domains. The folding properties of the constructs were checked by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It is planned to show the binding of hyaluronic acid to the Link domain using several biochemical methods, i.a. NMR, isothermal titration calorimetry and fluorescence polarization assay.

Keywords: stabilin-2, Link domain, X-ray crystallography, NMR, hyaluronic acid, cancer

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
136 High Throughput Virtual Screening against ns3 Helicase of Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV)

Authors: Soma Banerjee, Aamen Talukdar, Argha Mandal, Dipankar Chaudhuri


Japanese Encephalitis is a major infectious disease with nearly half the world’s population living in areas where it is prevalent. Currently, treatment for it involves only supportive care and symptom management through vaccination. Due to the lack of antiviral drugs against Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV), the quest for such agents remains a priority. For these reasons, simulation studies of drug targets against JEV are important. Towards this purpose, docking experiments of the kinase inhibitors were done against the chosen target NS3 helicase as it is a nucleoside binding protein. Previous efforts regarding computational drug design against JEV revealed some lead molecules by virtual screening using public domain software. To be more specific and accurate regarding finding leads, in this study a proprietary software Schrödinger-GLIDE has been used. Druggability of the pockets in the NS3 helicase crystal structure was first calculated by SITEMAP. Then the sites were screened according to compatibility with ATP. The site which is most compatible with ATP was selected as target. Virtual screening was performed by acquiring ligands from databases: KinaseSARfari, KinaseKnowledgebase and Published inhibitor Set using GLIDE. The 25 ligands with best docking scores from each database were re-docked in XP mode. Protein structure alignment of NS3 was performed using VAST against MMDB, and similar human proteins were docked to all the best scoring ligands. The low scoring ligands were chosen for further studies and the high scoring ligands were screened. Seventy-three ligands were listed as the best scoring ones after performing HTVS. Protein structure alignment of NS3 revealed 3 human proteins with RMSD values lesser than 2Å. Docking results with these three proteins revealed the inhibitors that can interfere and inhibit human proteins. Those inhibitors were screened. Among the ones left, those with docking scores worse than a threshold value were also removed to get the final hits. Analysis of the docked complexes through 2D interaction diagrams revealed the amino acid residues that are essential for ligand binding within the active site. Interaction analysis will help to find a strongly interacting scaffold among the hits. This experiment yielded 21 hits with the best docking scores which could be investigated further for their drug like properties. Aside from getting suitable leads, specific NS3 helicase-inhibitor interactions were identified. Selection of Target modification strategies complementing docking methodologies which can result in choosing better lead compounds are in progress. Those enhanced leads can lead to better in vitro testing.

Keywords: antivirals, docking, glide, high-throughput virtual screening, Japanese encephalitis, ns3 helicase

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
135 Optimization of the Conditions of Oligomerization and Polymerization Processes of Selected Olefins with the Use of Complex Compounds of Transition Metal Ions

Authors: Joanna Drzeżdżon, Marzena Białek


Polyolefins are a group of materials used today in all areas of life. They are used in food, domestic and other industries. In particular, polyethylene and polypropylene have found application in the production of packaging materials, pipes, containers, car parts, as well as elements of medical equipment, e.g., syringes. Optimization of the polymerization and oligomerization processes of selected olefins is a very important stage before the technological implementation of polyolefin production. The purpose of the studies is to determine the conditions for ethylene polymerization as well as 3-buten-2-ol and 2-chloro-2-propen-1-ol oligomerization with the use of oxovanadium(IV) dipicolinate complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands. Additionally, the studies aim to determine the catalytic activities of the dipicolinate oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N-heterocyclic ligands in the studied polymerization and oligomerization processes.

Keywords: polymerization, oligomerization, dipicolinate, vanadium, ethylene, 3-buten-2-ol

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
134 On the Thermodynamics of Biological Cell Adhesion

Authors: Ben Nadler


Cell adhesion plays a vital role in many cell activities. The motivation to model cell adhesion is to study important biological processes, such as cell spreading, cell aggregation, tissue formation, and cell adhesion, which are very challenging to study by experimental methods alone. This study provides important insight into cell adhesion, which can lead to improve regenerative medicine and tissue formation techniques. In this presentation the biological cells adhesion is mediated by receptors–ligands binding and the diffusivity of the receptor on the cell membrane surface. The ability of receptors to diffuse on the cell membrane surface yields a very unique and complicated adhesion mechanism, which is exclusive to cells. The phospholipid bilayer, which is the main component in the cell membrane, shows fluid-like behavior associated with the molecules’ diffusivity. The biological cell is modeled as a fluid-like membrane with negligible bending stiffness enclosing the cytoplasm fluid. The in-plane mechanical behavior of the cell membrane is assumed to depend only on the area change, which is motivated by the fluidity of the phospholipid bilayer. In addition, the presence of receptors influences on the local mechanical properties of the cell membrane is accounted for by including stress-free area change, which depends on the receptor density. Based on the physical properties of the receptors and ligands the attraction between the receptors and ligands is modeled as a charged-nonpolar which is a noncovalent interaction. Such interaction is a short-range type, which decays fast with distance. The mobility of the receptor on the cell membrane is modeled using the diffusion equation and Fick’s law is used to model the receptor–receptor interactions. The resultant interaction force, which includes receptor–ligand and receptor–receptor interaction, is decomposed into tangential part, which governs the receptor diffusion, and normal part, which governs the cell deformation and adhesion. The formulation of the governing equations and numerical simulations will be presented. Analysis of the adhesion characteristic and properties are discussed. The roles of various thermomechanical properties of the cell, receptors and ligands on the cell adhesion are investigated.

Keywords: cell adhesion, cell membrane, receptor-ligand interaction, receptor diffusion

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133 A One Dimensional Cdᴵᴵ Coordination Polymer: Synthesis, Structure and Properties

Authors: Z. Derikvand, M. Dusek, V. Eigner


One dimensional coordination polymer of Cdᴵᴵ based on pyrazine (pz) and 3-nitrophthalic acid (3-nphaH₂), namely poly[[diaqua bis(3-nitro-2-carboxylato-1-carboxylic acid)(µ₂-pyrazine) cadmium(II)]dihydrate], {[Cd(3-nphaH)2(pz)(H₂O)₂]. 2H₂O}ₙ was prepared and characterized. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cdᴵᴵ center, two (3-nphaH)– anions, two halves of two crystallographically distinct pz ligands, two coordinated and two uncoordinated water molecules. The Cdᴵᴵ cation is surrounded by four oxygen atoms from two (3-nphaH)– and two water molecules as well as two nitrogen atoms from two pz ligands in distorted octahedral geometry. Complicated hydrogen bonding network accompanied with N–O···π and C–O···π stacking interactions leads to formation of a 3D supramolecular network. Commonly, this kind of C–O–π and N–O···π interaction is detected in electron-rich CO/NO groups of (3-nphaH)– ligand and electron-deficient π-system of pyrazine.

Keywords: supramolecular chemistry, Cd coordination polymer, crystal structure, 3-nithrophethalic acid

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132 Zinc (II) Complexes of Nitrogen, Oxygen and Sulfur Coordination Modes: Synthesis, Spectral Studies and Antibacterial Activities

Authors: Ayodele Odularu, Peter Ajibade, Albert Bolhuis


This study aimed at assessing the antibacterial activities of four zinc (II) complexes. Zinc (II) complexes of nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur coordination modes were synthesized using direct substitution reaction. The characterization techniques involved physicochemical properties (molar conductivity) and spectroscopic techniques. The molar conductivity gave the non-electrolytic nature of zinc (II) complexes. The spectral studies of zinc (II) complexes were done using electronic spectra (UV-Vis) and Fourier Transform Infra-red Spectroscopy (FT-IR). Spectral data from the spectroscopic studies confirmed the coordination of the mixed ligands with zinc (II) ion. The antibacterial activities of zinc(II) complexes of were all in supportive of Overtone’s concept and Tweedy’s theory of chelation for bacterial strains of S. aureus MRSA252 and E coli MC4100 because the zones of inhibition were greater than the corresponding ligands. In summary, all zinc (II) complexes of ZEPY, ZE1PH, ZE1PY and ZE135PY all have potentials for antibacterial activities.

Keywords: antibacterial activities, spectral studies, syntheses, zinc(II) complexes

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131 Binding Ability of Carbazolylphenyl Dendrimers with Zinc (II) Tetraphenylporphyrin Core towards Cryptands

Authors: Galina Mamardashvili, Nugzar Mamardashvili, Win Dehaen


The processes of complexation of the Zn-tetraarylporphyrins with eight 4-(4-(3,6-bis(t-butyl)carbazol-9-yl-phenyl)-1,2,3-triazole (ZnP1) and eight 4-(4-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9-H-carbazol-9-yl)phenoxy)methyl)-2,4,6-trimethylphenyl (ZnP2)with the 1,10-diaza-4,7,13,18tetraoxabicyclo[8.5.5]eicosane (L1),1,10-diaza-4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane (L2)and 1,10-diaza-5,6,14,15-dibenzo-4,7,13,16,21,24 hexaoxabicyclo[8.8.8] hexacosane (L3) were investigated by the method of spectrophotometric titration and 1H NMR-spectroscopy. We determined the structures of the host-guest complexes, and their stability constants in toluene were calculated. It was found out that the ZnP1 interacts with the guest molecules L1, L2 with the formation of stable "nest" type complexes and does not form similar complexes with the L3 (presumably due to the fact that the L3 does not match the size of the porphyrin ZnP(1) cavity). On the other hand, the porphyrin ZnP2 binds all of the ligands L1-L3, however complexes thus formed are less stable than complexes ZnP1-L1, ZnP1-L2. In the report, we will also discuss the influence of the alkali cations additives on the stability of the complexes between the porphyrin ZnP1, ZnP2 hosts and guest molecules of the ligands L1-L3.

Keywords: porphyrin, cryptand, cation, complex guest-host

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
130 Structural and Binding Studies of Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa Provide a Platform for the Structure Based Inhibitor Design against Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase

Authors: Sujata Sharma, Avinash Singh, Lovely Gautam, Pradeep Sharma, Mau Sinha, Asha Bhushan, Punit Kaur, Tej P. Singh


Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (Pth) Pth is an essential bacterial enzyme that catalyzes the release of free tRNA and peptide moeities from peptidyl tRNAs during stalling of protein synthesis. In order to design inhibitors of Pth from Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PaPth), we have determined the structures of PaPth in its native state and in the bound states with two compounds, amino acylate-tRNA analogue (AAtA) and 5-azacytidine (AZAC). The peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase gene from Pseudomonas aeruginosa was amplified by Phusion High-Fidelity DNA Polymerase using forward and reverse primers, respectively. The E. coliBL21 (λDE3) strain was used for expression of the recombinant peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The protein was purified using a Ni-NTA superflow column. The crystallization experiments were carried out using hanging drop vapour diffusion method. The crystals diffracted to 1.50 Å resolution. The data were processed using HKL-2000. The polypeptide chain of PaPth consists of 194 amino acid residues from Met1 to Ala194. The centrally located β-structure is surrounded by α-helices from all sides except the side that has entrance to the substrate binding site. The structures of the complexes of PaPth with AAtA and AZAC showed the ligands bound to PaPth in the substrate binding cleft and interacted with protein atoms extensively. The residues that formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds with the atoms of AAtA included Asn12, His22, Asn70, Gly113, Asn116, Ser148, and Glu161 of the symmetry related molecule. The amino acids that were involved in hydrogen bonded interactions in case of AZAC included, His22, Gly113, Asn116, and Ser148. As indicated by fittings of two ligands and the number of interactions made by them with protein atoms, AAtA appears to be a more compatible with the structure of the substrate binding cleft. However, there is a further scope to achieve a better stacking than that of O-tyrosyl moiety because it is not still ideally stacked. These observations about the interactions between the protein and ligands have provided the information about the mode of binding of ligands, nature and number of interactions. This information may be useful for the design of tight inhibitors of Pth enzymes.

Keywords: peptidyl tRNA hydrolase, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pth enzymes, O-tyrosyl

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129 Phytochemicals from Enantia Chlorantha Stem Bark Inhibits the Activity ?-Amylase and ?-Glucosidase: Molecular Docking Studies

Authors: Hammed Tanimowo Aiyelabegan, Oluchukwu Franklin Aladi, Mutiu Adewumi Alabi, Raliat Abimbola Aladodo, Emmanuel Oladipupo Ajani, Abdulganiyu Giwa, Esther Owolabi


The study aimed to evaluate the inhibitory activities of ligands from Enantia chlorantha stem bark on α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In silico pharmacokinetic properties and docking scores were employed to analyse the inhibition using SwissADME and Autodock4.2, respectively. Results revealed that drug-likeness, pharmacokinetics and bioavailability radar of all the ligands except jatrorrhizine and acarbose falls within the radar according to the Lipinski rule of 5. The binding energies of the protein-ligand interactions also show that the ligand fits into the active site. The results obtained from this study show that the chemical constituents from Enantia chlorantha stem bark may bring about positive physiological changes in a patient suffering from diabetes mellitus. Further in vitro studies on diabetes cell lines and in vivo studies on the animal may validate these compounds for diabetes treatment. These phytoconstituents could help in the development of novel anti-diabetic molecules.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, ?-amylase, ?-glucosidase, in silico, Enantia chlorantha stem bark

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128 Design and Development of Bioactive a-Hydroxy Carboxylate Group Modified MnFe₂O₄ Nanoparticle: Comparative Fluorescence Study, Magnetism and DNA Nuclease Activity

Authors: Indranil Chakraborty, Kalyan Mandal


Three new α-hydroxy carboxylate group functionalized MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticles (NPs) have been developed to explore the microscopic origin of ligand modified fluorescence and magnetic properties of nearly monodispersed MnFe₂O₄ NPs. The surface functionalization has been carried out with three small organic ligands (tartrate, malate, and citrate) having different number of α-hydroxy carboxylate functional group along with steric effect. Detailed study unveils that α-hydroxy carboxylate moiety of the ligands plays key role to generate intrinsic fluorescence in functionalized MnFe₂O₄ NPs through the activation of ligand to metal charge transfer transitions, associated with ligand-Mn²⁺/Fe³⁺ interactions along with d-d transition corresponding to d-orbital energy level splitting of Fe³⁺ ions on NP surface. Further, MnFe₂O₄ NPs show a maximum 140.88% increase in coercivity and 97.95% decrease in magnetization compared to its bare one upon functionalization. The ligands that induce smallest crystal field splitting of d-orbital energy level of transition metal ions are found to result in strongest ferromagnetic activation of the NPs. Finally, our developed tartrate functionalized MnFe₂O₄ (T-MnFe₂O₄) NPs have been utilized for studying DNA binding interaction and nuclease activity for stimulating their beneficial activities toward diverse biomedical applications. The spectroscopic measurements indicate that T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs bind calf thymus DNA by intercalative mode. The ability of T-MnFe₂O₄ NPs to induce DNA cleavage was studied by gel electrophoresis technique where the complex is found to promote the cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA from the super coiled form I to linear coiled form II and nicked coiled form III with good efficiency. This may be taken into account for designing new biomolecular detection agents and anti-cancer drug which can open up a new door toward diverse non-invasive biomedical applications.

Keywords: MnFe₂O₄ nanoparticle, α-hydroxy carboxylic acid, comparative fluorescence, magnetism study, DNA interaction, nuclease activity

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127 3D Interpenetrated Network Based on 1,3-Benzenedicarboxylate and 1,2-Bis(4-Pyridyl) Ethane

Authors: Laura Bravo-García, Gotzone Barandika, Begoña Bazán, M. Karmele Urtiaga, Luis M. Lezama, María I. Arriortua


Solid coordination networks (SCNs) are materials consisting of metal ions or clusters that are linked by polyfunctional organic ligands and can be designed to form tridimensional frameworks. Their structural features, as for example high surface areas, thermal stability, and in other cases large cavities, have opened a wide range of applications in fields like drug delivery, host-guest chemistry, biomedical imaging, chemical sensing, heterogeneous catalysis and others referred to greenhouse gases storage or even separation. In this sense, the use of polycarboxylate anions and dipyridyl ligands is an effective strategy to produce extended structures with the needed characteristics for these applications. In this context, a novel compound, [Cu4(m-BDC)4(bpa)2DMF]•DMF has been obtained by microwave synthesis, where m-BDC is 1,3-benzenedicarboxylate and bpa 1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane. The crystal structure can be described as a three dimensional framework formed by two equal, interpenetrated networks. Each network consists of two different CuII dimers. Dimer 1 have two coppers with a square pyramidal coordination, and dimer 2 have one with a square pyramidal coordination and other with octahedral one, the last dimer is unique in literature. Therefore, the combination of both type of dimers is unprecedented. Thus, benzenedicarboxylate ligands form sinusoidal chains between the same type of dimers, and also connect both chains forming these layers in the (100) plane. These layers are connected along the [100] direction through the bpa ligand, giving rise to a 3D network with 10 Å2 voids in average. However, the fact that there are two interpenetrated networks results in a significant reduction of the available volume. Structural analysis was carried out by means of single crystal X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. Thermal and magnetic properties have been measured by means of thermogravimetry (TG), X-ray thermodiffractometry (TDX), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Additionally, CO2 and CH4 high pressure adsorption measurements have been carried out for this compound.

Keywords: gas adsorption, interpenetrated networks, magnetic measurements, solid coordination network (SCN), thermal stability

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126 Synthetic, Characterization and Biological Studies of Bis(Tetrathiomolybdate) Compounds of Pt (II), Pd (II) and Ni (II)

Authors: V. K. Srivastava


The chemistry of compounds containing transition metals bound to sulfur containing ligands has been actively studied. Interest in these compounds arises from the identification of the biological importance of iron-sulfur containing proteins as well as the unusual behaviour of several types of synthetic metal-sulfur complexes. Metal complexes (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Pt(Mos₄)₂, (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Pd(MoS₄)₂, (C₆H₅)₄P)₂ Ni(MoS₄)₂ of bioinorganic relevance were investigated. The complexes [M(M'S₄)₂]²⁻ were prepared with high yield and purity as salts of the variety of organic cations. The diamagnetism and spectroscopic properties of these complexes confirmed that their structures are essentially equivalent with two bidentate M'S₄²⁻ ligands coordinated to the central d⁸ metal in a square planer geometry. The interaction of the complexes with CT-DNA was studied. Results showed that metal complexes increased DNA's relative viscosity and quench the fluorescence intensity of EB bound to DNA. In antimicrobial activities, all complexes showed good antimicrobial activity higher than ligand against gram positive, gram negative bacteria and fungi. The antitumor properties have been tested in vitro against two tumor human cell lines, Hela (derived from cervical cancer) and MCF-7 (derived from breast cancer) using metabolic activity tests. Result showed that the complexes are promising chemotherapeutic alternatives in the search of anticancer agents.

Keywords: anti cancer, biocidal, DNA binding, spectra

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125 Synthesis of Rare-Earth Pyrazolate Compounds

Authors: Nazli Eslamirad, Peter C. Junk, Jun Wang, Glen B. Deacon


Since coordination behavior of pyrazoles and pyrazolate ions are widely versatile towards a great range of metals such as d-block, f-block as well as main group elements; they attract interest as ligands for preparing compounds. A variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes have been synthesized by redox transmetalation/protolysis (RTP) previously, therefore, a variety of rare-earth pyrazolate complexes using two pyrazoles, 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (Me₂pzH) and 3,5-di-tert -butylpyrazolate (t-Bu₂pzH), in which the structures span the whole La-Lu array beside Sc and Y has been synthesized by RTP reaction. There have been further developments in this study: Synthesizing structure of [Tb(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ which is isomorphous with those of the previously reported [Dy(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ and [Lu(Me₂pz)₃(thf)]₂ analogous that has two µ-1(N):2(Nʹ)-Me2pz ligands (the most common pyrazolate ligation for non-rare-earth complexes). Previously most of the reported compounds using t-Bu2pzH were monomeric compounds however the lanthanum derivative [La(Me₂pz)₃thf₂] ,which has been reported previously without crystal structure, has now been structurally characterized, along with cerium and lutetium analogue. Also a polymeric structure with samarium has now been synthesized which the neodymium analogue has been reported previously and comparing these polymeric structures can support the idea that the geometry of Sm(tBu₂pz)₃ affect the coordination of the solvent. Also, by using 1,2-dimethoxyethane (DME) instead of tetrahydrofuran (THF) new [Er(tBu₂pz)₃ (dme)₂] has now been reported.

Keywords: lanthanoid complexes, pyrazolate, redox transmetalation/protolysis, x-ray crystal structures

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124 An In-silico Pharmacophore-Based Anti-Viral Drug Development for Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Romasa Qasim, G. M. Sayedur Rahman, Nahid Hasan, M. Shazzad Hosain


Millions of people worldwide suffer from Hepatitis C, one of the fatal diseases. Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are the available treatments for patients with Hepatitis C, but these treatments have their own side-effects. Our research focused on the development of an orally taken small molecule drug targeting the proteins in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which has lesser side effects. Our current study aims to the Pharmacophore based drug development of a specific small molecule anti-viral drug for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Drug designing using lab experimentation is not only costly but also it takes a lot of time to conduct such experimentation. Instead in this in silico study, we have used computer-aided techniques to propose a Pharmacophore-based anti-viral drug specific for the protein domains of the polyprotein present in the Hepatitis C Virus. This study has used homology modeling and ab initio modeling for protein 3D structure generation followed by pocket identification in the proteins. Drug-able ligands for the pockets were designed using de novo drug design method. For ligand design, pocket geometry is taken into account. Out of several generated ligands, a new Pharmacophore is proposed, specific for each of the protein domains of HCV.

Keywords: pharmacophore-based drug design, anti-viral drug, in-silico drug design, Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

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123 Mining the Proteome of Fusobacterium nucleatum for Potential Therapeutics Discovery

Authors: Abdul Musaweer Habib, Habibul Hasan Mazumder, Saiful Islam, Sohel Sikder, Omar Faruk Sikder


The plethora of genome sequence information of bacteria in recent times has ushered in many novel strategies for antibacterial drug discovery and facilitated medical science to take up the challenge of the increasing resistance of pathogenic bacteria to current antibiotics. In this study, we adopted subtractive genomics approach to analyze the whole genome sequence of the Fusobacterium nucleatum, a human oral pathogen having association with colorectal cancer. Our study divulged 1499 proteins of Fusobacterium nucleatum, which has no homolog in human genome. These proteins were subjected to screening further by using the Database of Essential Genes (DEG) that resulted in the identification of 32 vitally important proteins for the bacterium. Subsequent analysis of the identified pivotal proteins, using the KEGG Automated Annotation Server (KAAS) resulted in sorting 3 key enzymes of F. nucleatum that may be good candidates as potential drug targets, since they are unique for the bacterium and absent in humans. In addition, we have demonstrated the 3-D structure of these three proteins. Finally, determination of ligand binding sites of the key proteins as well as screening for functional inhibitors that best fitted with the ligands sites were conducted to discover effective novel therapeutic compounds against Fusobacterium nucleatum.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, drug target, Fusobacterium nucleatum, homology modeling, ligands

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122 Organic Light Emitting Devices Based on Low Symmetry Coordination Structured Lanthanide Complexes

Authors: Zubair Ahmed, Andrea Barbieri


The need to reduce energy consumption has prompted a considerable research effort for developing alternative energy-efficient lighting systems to replace conventional light sources (i.e., incandescent and fluorescent lamps). Organic light emitting device (OLED) technology offers the distinctive possibility to fabricate large area flat devices by vacuum or solution processing. Lanthanide β-diketonates complexes, due to unique photophysical properties of Ln(III) ions, have been explored as emitting layers in OLED displays and in solid-state lighting (SSL) in order to achieve high efficiency and color purity. For such applications, the excellent photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and stability are the two key points that can be achieved simply by selecting the proper organic ligands around the Ln ion in a coordination sphere. Regarding the strategies to enhance the PLQY, the most common is the suppression of the radiationless deactivation pathways due to the presence of high-frequency oscillators (e.g., OH, –CH groups) around the Ln centre. Recently, a different approach to maximize the PLQY of Ln(β-DKs) has been proposed (named 'Escalate Coordination Anisotropy', ECA). It is based on the assumption that coordinating the Ln ion with different ligands will break the centrosymmetry of the molecule leading to less forbidden transitions (loosening the constraints of the Laporte rule). The OLEDs based on such complexes are available, but with low efficiency and stability. In order to get efficient devices, there is a need to develop some new Ln complexes with enhanced PLQYs and stabilities. For this purpose, the Ln complexes, both visible and (NIR) emitting, of variant coordination structures based on the various fluorinated/non-fluorinated β-diketones and O/N-donor neutral ligands were synthesized using a one step in situ method. In this method, the β-diketones, base, LnCl₃.nH₂O and neutral ligands were mixed in a 3:3:1:1 M ratio in ethanol that gave air and moisture stable complexes. Further, they were characterized by means of elemental analysis, NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Thereafter, their photophysical properties were studied to select the best complexes for the fabrication of stable and efficient OLEDs. Finally, the OLEDs were fabricated and investigated using these complexes as emitting layers along with other organic layers like NPB,N,N′-Di(1-naphthyl)-N,N′-diphenyl-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine (hole-transporting layer), BCP, 2,9-Dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline (hole-blocker) and Alq3 (electron-transporting layer). The layers were sequentially deposited under high vacuum environment by thermal evaporation onto ITO glass substrates. Moreover, co-deposition techniques were used to improve charge transport in the devices and to avoid quenching phenomena. The devices show strong electroluminescence at 612, 998, 1064 and 1534 nm corresponding to ⁵D₀ →⁷F₂(Eu), ²F₅/₂ → ²F₇/₂ (Yb), ⁴F₃/₂→ ⁴I₉/₂ (Nd) and ⁴I1₃/₂→ ⁴I1₅/₂ (Er). All the devices fabricated show good efficiency as well as stability.

Keywords: electroluminescence, lanthanides, paramagnetic NMR, photoluminescence

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121 Structural, Electrochemical and Electrocatalysis Studies of a New 2D Metal-Organic Coordination Polymer of Ni (II) Constructed by Naphthalene-1,4-Dicarboxylic Acid; Oxidation and Determination of Fructose

Authors: Zohreh Derikvand


One new 2D metal-organic coordination polymer of Ni(II) namely [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, where ndc = naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylic acid and DMSO= dimethyl sulfoxide has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral (IR, UV-Vis), thermal (TG/DTG) analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 possesses a 2D layer structure constructed from dinuclear nickel(II) building blocks in which two crystallographically independent Ni2+ ions are bridged by ndc2– ligands and water molecule. The ndc2– ligands adopt μ3 bridging modes, linking the metal centers into a two-dimensional coordination framework. The two independent NiII cations are surrounded by dimethyl sulfoxide and naphthalene-1,4-dicarboxylate molecules in distorted octahedron geometry. In the crystal structures of 1 there are non-classical hydrogen bonding arrangements and C-H–π stacking interactions. Electrochemical behavior of [Ni2(ndc)2(DMSO)4(H2O)]n, (Ni-NDA) on the surface of carbon nanotube (CNTs) glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was described. The surface structure and composition of the sensor were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Oxidation of fructose on the surface of modified electrode was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and the results showed that the Ni-NDA/CNTs film displays excellent electrochemical catalytic activities towards fructose oxidation.

Keywords: naphthalene-1, 4-dicarboxylic acid, crystal structure, coordination polymer, electrocatalysis, impedance spectroscopy

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120 Design and Preliminary Evaluation of Benzoxazolone-Based Agents for Targeting Mitochondrial-Located Translocator Protein

Authors: Nidhi Chadha, A. K. Tiwari, Marilyn D. Milton, Anil K. Mishra


Translocator protein (18 kDa) TSPO is highly expressed during microglia activation in neuroinflammation. Although a number of PET ligands have been developed for the visualization of activated microglia, one of the advantageous approaches is to develop potential optical imaging (OI) probe. Our study involves computational screening, synthesis and evaluation of TSPO ligand through various imaging modalities namely PET/SPECT/Optical. The initial computational screening involves pharmacophore modeling from the library designing having oxo-benzooxazol-3-yl-N-phenyl-acetamide groups and synthesis for visualization of efficacy of these compounds as multimodal imaging probes. Structure modeling of monomer, Ala147Thr mutated, parallel and anti-parallel TSPO dimers was performed and docking analysis was performed for distinct binding sites. Computational analysis showed pattern of variable binding profile of known diagnostic ligands and NBMP via interactions with conserved residues along with TSPO’s natural polymorphism of Ala147→Thr, which showed alteration in the binding affinity due to considerable changes in tertiary structure. Preliminary in vitro binding studies shows binding affinity in the range of 1-5 nm and selectivity was also certified by blocking studies. In summary, this skeleton was found to be potential probe for TSPO imaging due to ease in synthesis, appropriate lipophilicity and reach to specific region of brain.

Keywords: TSPO, molecular modeling, imaging, docking

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