Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 339

Search results for: Paul C. Okolie

279 Electrospun Zinc Oxide Nanowires as Highly Sensitive Piezoelectric Transduction Elements for Nano-Scale Devices

Authors: K. Brince Paul, Nagendra Pratap Singh, Shiv Govind Singh, Siva Rama Krishna Vanjari

Abstract:

In this paper, we report optimized procedure for synthesizing highly oriented, horizontally aligned, Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires targeted towards developing highly sensitive piezoelectric transduction elements. The synthesis was carried out using Electrospinning technique, a facile, robust, low cost technique for producing nanowires. The as-synthesized ZnO nanowires were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Field Emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).The Piezoelectric behavior of these nanowires was characterized using Peizoelectric Force microscopy (PFM). A very high d33 coefficient of 23.1 pm/V obtained through the PFM measurements is an indicative of its potential application towards developing miniaturized piezoelectric transduction elements for nanoscale devices.

Keywords: electrospinning, piezoelectric, technique, zinc oxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
278 Embedding Knowledge Management in Business Process

Authors: Paul Ihuoma Oluikpe

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to explore and highlight the process of creating value for strategy management by embedding knowledge management in the business process. Knowledge management can be seen from a three-dimensional perspective of content, connections and competencies. These dimensions can be embedded in the knowledge processes (create, capture, share, and apply) and operationalized within a business process to effectively create a scenario where knowledge can be focused on enabling a process and the process in turn generates outcomes. The application of knowledge management on business processes of organizations is rare and underreported. Few researches have explored this paradigm although researches have tended to reinforce the notion that competitive advantage sits within the internal aspects of the firm. Given this notion, it is surprising that knowledge management research and practice have not focused sufficiently on the business process which is the basic unit of organizational decision implementation. This research serves to generate understanding on applying KM in business process using a large multinational in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Keywords: knowledge management, business process, strategy, multinational

Procedia PDF Downloads 412
277 Artificial Intelligence in Global Healthcare: Need for Robust Governance Frameworks

Authors: Sandeep Reddy, Sonia Allan, Simon Coghlan, Paul Cooper

Abstract:

Artificial Intelligence (AI) and its application in medicine has generated ample interest amongst policymakers and clinicians. Successes with AI in medical imaging interpretation and clinical decision support are paving the way for its incorporation into routine healthcare delivery. While there has been a focus on the development of ethical principles to guide its application in healthcare, challenges of this application go beyond what ethics principles can address thus requiring robust governance frameworks. Also, while ethical challenges of medical artificial intelligence are being discussed, the ethics of deploying AI in lower-income countries receive less attention than in other developed economies. This creates an imperative not only for sound ethical guidelines but also for robust governance frameworks to regulate AI in medicine around the world. In this article, we discuss what components need to be considered in developing these governance frameworks and who should lead this worldwide effort.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, global health, governance, ethics

Procedia PDF Downloads 19
276 Adhesion Problematic for Novel Non-Crimp Fabric and Surface Modification of Carbon-Fibres Using Oxy-Fluorination

Authors: Iris Käppler, Paul Matthäi, Chokri Cherif

Abstract:

In the scope of application of technical textiles, Non-Crimp Fabrics are increasingly used. In general, NCF exhibit excellent load bearing properties, but caused by the manufacturing process, there are some remaining disadvantages which have to be reduced. Regarding to this, a novel technique of processing NCF was developed substituting the binding-thread by an adhesive. This stitch-free method requires new manufacturing concept as well as new basic methods to prove adhesion of glue at fibres and textiles. To improve adhesion properties and the wettability of carbon-fibres by the adhesive, oxyfluorination was used. The modification of carbon-fibres by oxyfluorination was investigated via scanning electron microscope, X-ray photo electron spectroscopy and single fibre tensiometry. Special tensile tests were developed to determine the maximum force required for detachment.

Keywords: non-crimp fabric, adhesive, stitch-free, high-performance fibre

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
275 Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM): A Simplified Alternative for Implementing SCRM for Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Paul W. Murray, Marco Barajas

Abstract:

Recent changes in supply chains, especially globalization and collaboration, have created new risks for enterprises of all sizes. A variety of complex frameworks, often based on enterprise risk management strategies have been presented under the heading of Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM). The literature on promotes the benefits of a robust SCRM strategy; however, implementing SCRM is difficult and resource demanding for Large Enterprises (LEs), and essentially out of reach for Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). This research debunks the idea that SCRM is necessary for all enterprises and instead proposes a simple and effective Vendor Selection Template (VST). Empirical testing and a survey of supply chain practitioners provide a measure of validation to the VST. The resulting VSTis a valuable contribution because is easy to use, provides practical results, and is sufficiently flexible to be universally applied to SMEs.

Keywords: multiple regression analysis, supply chain management, risk assessment, vendor selection

Procedia PDF Downloads 321
274 Epileptic Seizure Prediction Focusing on Relative Change in Consecutive Segments of EEG Signal

Authors: Mohammad Zavid Parvez, Manoranjan Paul

Abstract:

Epilepsy is a common neurological disorders characterized by sudden recurrent seizures. Electroencephalogram (EEG) is widely used to diagnose possible epileptic seizure. Many research works have been devoted to predict epileptic seizure by analyzing EEG signal. Seizure prediction by analyzing EEG signals are challenging task due to variations of brain signals of different patients. In this paper, we propose a new approach for feature extraction based on phase correlation in EEG signals. In phase correlation, we calculate relative change between two consecutive segments of an EEG signal and then combine the changes with neighboring signals to extract features. These features are then used to classify preictal/ictal and interictal EEG signals for seizure prediction. Experiment results show that the proposed method carries good prediction rate with greater consistence for the benchmark data set in different brain locations compared to the existing state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: EEG, epilepsy, phase correlation, seizure

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
273 Process for Production of Added-Value Water–Extract from Liquid Biomass

Authors: Lozano Paul

Abstract:

Coupled Membrane Separation Technology (CMST), including Cross Flow Microfiltration (CFM) and Reverse Osmosis (RO), are used to concentrate microalgae biomass or/and to extract and concentrate water-soluble metabolites produced during micro-algae production cycle, as well as water recycling. Micro-algae biomass was produced using different feeding mixtures of ingredients: pure chemical origin compounds and natural/ecological water-extracted components from available local plants. Micro-algae was grown either in conventional plastic bags (100L/unit) or in small-scale innovative bioreactors (75L). Biomass was concentrated as CFM retentate using a P19-60 ceramic membrane (0.2μm pore size), and water-soluble micro-algae metabolites left in the CFM filtrate were concentrated by RO. Large volumes of water (micro-algae culture media) of were recycled by the CMTS for another biomass production cycle.

Keywords: extraction, membrane process, microalgae, natural compound

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
272 Efficient Management through Predicting of Use E-Management within Higher Educational Institutions

Authors: S. Maddi Muhammed, Paul Davis, John Geraghty, Mabruk Derbesh

Abstract:

This study discusses the probability of using electronic management in higher education institutions in Libya. This could be as sampled by creating an electronic gate at the faculties of Engineering and Computing "Information Technology" at Zaytuna University or any other university in Libya. As we all know, the competitive advantage amongst universities is based on their ability to use information technology efficiently and broadly. Universities today value information technology as part of the quality control and assurance and a ranking criterion for a range of services including e-learning and e-Registration. This could be done by developing email systems, electronic or virtual libraries, electronic cards, and other services provided to all students, faculty or staff. This paper discusses a range of important topics that explain how to apply the gate "E" with the faculties at Zaytuna University, Bani Walid colleges in Libya.

Keywords: e-management, educational institutions (EI), Libya, Zaytuna, information technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
271 Packaging in the Design Synthesis of Novel Aircraft Configuration

Authors: Paul Okonkwo, Howard Smith

Abstract:

A study to estimate the size of the cabin and major aircraft components as well as detect and avoid interference between internally placed components and the external surface, during the conceptual design synthesis and optimisation to explore the design space of a BWB, was conducted. Sizing of components follows the Bradley cabin sizing and rubber engine scaling procedures to size the cabin and engine respectively. The interference detection and avoidance algorithm relies on the ability of the Class Shape Transform parameterisation technique to generate polynomial functions of the surfaces of a BWB aircraft configuration from the sizes of the cabin and internal objects using few variables. Interference detection is essential in packaging of non-conventional configuration like the BWB because of the non-uniform airfoil-shaped sections and resultant varying internal space. The unique configuration increases the need for a methodology to prevent objects from being placed in locations that do not sufficiently enclose them within the geometry.

Keywords: packaging, optimisation, BWB, parameterisation, aircraft conceptual design

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
270 Adsorption of Xylene Cyanol FF onto Activated Carbon from Brachystegia Eurycoma Seed Hulls: Determination of the Optimal Conditions by Statistical Design of Experiments

Authors: F. G Okibe, C. E Gimba, V. O Ajibola, I. G Ndukwe, E. D. Paul

Abstract:

A full factorial experimental design technique at two levels and four factors (24) was used to optimize the adsorption at 615 nm of Xylene Cyanol ff in aqueous solutions onto activated carbon prepared from brachystegia eurycoma seed hulls by chemical carbonization method. The effect of pH (3 and 5), initial dye concentration (20 and 60 mg/l), adsorbent dosage (0.01 and 0.05 g), and contact time (30 and 60 min) on removal efficiency of the adsorbent for the dye were investigated at 298K. From the analysis of variance, response surface and cube plot, adsorbent dosage was observed to be the most significant factor affecting the adsorption process. However, from the interaction between the variables studied, the optimum removal efficiency was 96.80 % achieved with adsorbent dosage of 0.05 g, contact time 45 minutes, pH 3, and initial dye concentration 60 mg/l.

Keywords: factorial experimental design, adsorption, optimization, brachystegia eurycoma, xylene cyanol ff

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
269 Machine Learning Approach for Anomaly Detection in the Simulated Iec-60870-5-104 Traffic

Authors: Stepan Grebeniuk, Ersi Hodo, Henri Ruotsalainen, Paul Tavolato

Abstract:

Substation security plays an important role in the power delivery system. During the past years, there has been an increase in number of attacks on automation networks of the substations. In spite of that, there hasn’t been enough focus dedicated to the protection of such networks. Aiming to design a specialized anomaly detection system based on machine learning, in this paper we will discuss the IEC 60870-5-104 protocol that is used for communication between substation and control station and focus on the simulation of the substation traffic. Firstly, we will simulate the communication between substation slave and server. Secondly, we will compare the system's normal behavior and its behavior under the attack, in order to extract the right features which will be needed for building an anomaly detection system. Lastly, based on the features we will suggest the anomaly detection system for the asynchronous protocol IEC 60870-5-104.

Keywords: Anomaly detection, IEC-60870-5-104, Machine learning, Man-in-the-Middle attacks, Substation security

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
268 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors

Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde

Abstract:

Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.

Keywords: vacuum, thermal, flat-plate solar collector, insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
267 FT-IR Investigation of the Influence of Acid-Base Sites on Cr-Incorporated MCM-41 Nanoparticle in C-C Bond Formation

Authors: Dilip K. Paul

Abstract:

The most popular mesoporous molecular sieves, Mobil Composition of Matter (MCM) are keenly studied by researchers because of these materials possess amorphous silica wall and have a long range of ordered framework with uniform mesopores. These materials also possess large surface area, which can be up to more than 1000 m2g−1. Herein the investigation is focused upon the synthesis and characterization of chromium and aluminum doped MCM-41 using XRD and FTIR. Acid-base properties of Cr-Al-MCM 41 was investigated by molecularly sensitive transmission FT-IR spectroscopy by adsorbing pyridine. In addition, these MCM nanomaterial was used to catalyze C-C bond formation from acetaldehyde adsorption. The assignment of all infrared peaks during adsorption of pyridine provided detail information on the presence of acid-base sites which in turn helped us to explain the roles of these in the condensation reaction of aldehyde. Reaction mechanisms of C-C bond formation is therefore explored to shed some light on this elusive reaction detail.

Keywords: mesoporous nanomaterial, MCM 41, FTIR studies, acid-base studies

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
266 The Effectiveness of Exchange of Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Using Digital and Face to Face Sharing

Authors: Delio I. Castaneda, Paul Toulson

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge sharing effectiveness of two types of knowledge, tacit and explicit, depending on two channels: face to face or digital. Participants were 217 knowledge workers in New Zealand and researchers who attended a knowledge management conference in the United Kingdom. In the study, it was found that digital tools are effective to share explicit knowledge. In addition, digital tools that facilitated dialogue were effective to share tacit knowledge. It was also found that face to face communication was an effective way to share tacit and explicit knowledge. Results of this study contribute to clarify in what cases digital tools are effective to share tacit knowledge. Additionally, even though explicit knowledge can be easily shared using digital tools, this type of knowledge is also possible to be shared through dialogue. Result of this study may support practitioners to redesign programs and activities based on knowledge sharing to make strategies more effective.

Keywords: digital knowledge, explicit knowledge, knowledge sharing, tacit knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
265 Influence of HIV Testing on Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission among Undergraduate Youths in North-West University, Mafikeng

Authors: Paul Bigala, Samuel Oladipo, Steven Adebowale

Abstract:

This study examines factors influencing knowledge of HIV/AIDS Prevention Practices and Transmission (KHAPPT) among young undergraduate students (15-24 years). Knowledge composite index was computed for 820 randomly selected students. Chi-square, ANOVA, and multinomial logistic regression were used for the analyses (α=.05). The overall mean knowledge score was 16.5±3.4 out of a possible score of 28. About 83% of the students have undergone HIV test, 21.0% have high KHAPPT, 18% said there is cure for the disease, 23% believed that asking for condom is embarrassing and 11.7% said it is safe to share unsterilized sharp objects with friends or family members. The likelihood of high KHAPPT was higher among students who have had HIV test (OR=3.314; C.I=1.787-6.145, p<0.001) even when other variables were used as control. The identified predictors of high KHAPPT were; ever had HIV test, faculty, and ever used any HIV/AIDS prevention services. North-West University Mafikeng should intensify efforts on the HIV/AIDS awareness program on the campus.

Keywords: HIV/AIDS knowledge, undergraduate students, HIV testing, Mafikeng

Procedia PDF Downloads 298
264 Board of Directors Characteristics and Credit Union Financial Performance

Authors: Luisa Unda, Kamran Ahmed, Paul Mather

Abstract:

We examine the effect of board characteristics on the performance and asset quality of credit unions in Australia, using a large sample covering the period 2004-2012. Credit unions are unique in that they are customer-owned financial institutions and directors are democratically elected by members, which is distinctly different from other financial institutions, such as commercial banks. We find that board remuneration, board expertise, and attendance at board meetings have significantly positive impacts on credit union performance and asset quality, while board members who hold multiple directorships (busy directors), have a significant negative impact on credit union performance. Financial performance also improves with larger boards and long-tenured directors in credit unions. All of these relations hold after we control for alternative measures of performance, credit union characteristics and endogeneity problem.

Keywords: credit unions, corporate governance, board of directors, financial performance, Australia, asset quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 336
263 Facile Synthetic Process for Lamivudine and Emtricitabine

Authors: Devender Mandala, Paul Watts

Abstract:

Cis-Nucleosides mainly lamivudine (3TC) and emtricitabine (FTC) are an important tool in the treatment of Human immune deficiency virus (HIV), Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Human T-Lymotropoic virus (HTLV). Lamivudine and emtricitabine are potent nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (nRTI). These two drugs are synthesized by a four-stage process from the starting materials: menthyl glyoxylate hydrate and 1,4-dithane-2,5-diol to produce the 5-hydroxy oxathiolane which upon acetylation with acetic anhydride to yield 5-acetoxy oxathiolane. Then glycosylation of this acetyl product with silyl protected nucleoside to produce the intermediate. The reduction of this intermediates can provide the final targets. Although there are several different methods reported for the synthesis of lamivudine and emtricitabine as a single enantiomer, we required an efficient route, which was suitable for large-scale synthesis to support the development of these compounds. In this process, we successfully prepared the intermediates of lamivudine and emtricitabine without using any solvents and catalyst, thus promoting the green synthesis. All the synthesized compound were confirmed by TLC, GC, Mass, NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy.

Keywords: emtricitabine, green synthesis, lamivudine, nucleoside

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
262 Blockchain’s Feasibility in Military Data Networks

Authors: Brenden M. Shutt, Lubjana Beshaj, Paul L. Goethals, Ambrose Kam

Abstract:

Communication security is of particular interest to military data networks. A relatively novel approach to network security is blockchain, a cryptographically secured distribution ledger with a decentralized consensus mechanism for data transaction processing. Recent advances in blockchain technology have proposed new techniques for both data validation and trust management, as well as different frameworks for managing dataflow. The purpose of this work is to test the feasibility of different blockchain architectures as applied to military command and control networks. Various architectures are tested through discrete-event simulation and the feasibility is determined based upon a blockchain design’s ability to maintain long-term stable performance at industry standards of throughput, network latency, and security. This work proposes a consortium blockchain architecture with a computationally inexpensive consensus mechanism, one that leverages a Proof-of-Identity (PoI) concept and a reputation management mechanism.

Keywords: blockchain, consensus mechanism, discrete-event simulation, fog computing

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
261 A Non-Parametric Based Mapping Algorithm for Use in Audio Fingerprinting

Authors: Analise Borg, Paul Micallef

Abstract:

Over the past few years, the online multimedia collection has grown at a fast pace. Several companies showed interest to study the different ways to organize the amount of audio information without the need of human intervention to generate metadata. In the past few years, many applications have emerged on the market which are capable of identifying a piece of music in a short time. Different audio effects and degradation make it much harder to identify the unknown piece. In this paper, an audio fingerprinting system which makes use of a non-parametric based algorithm is presented. Parametric analysis is also performed using Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs). The feature extraction methods employed are the Mel Spectrum Coefficients and the MPEG-7 basic descriptors. Bin numbers replaced the extracted feature coefficients during the non-parametric modelling. The results show that non-parametric analysis offer potential results as the ones mentioned in the literature.

Keywords: audio fingerprinting, mapping algorithm, Gaussian Mixture Models, MFCC, MPEG-7

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
260 A Systems-Level Approach towards Transition to Electrical Vehicles

Authors: Mayuri Roy Choudhury, Deepti Paul

Abstract:

Many states in the United States are aiming for high renewable energy targets by the year 2045. In order to achieve this goal, they must do transition to Electrical Vehicles (EVS). We first applied the Multi-Level perspective framework to describe the inter-disciplinary complexities associated with the transition to EVs. Thereafter we addressed these complexities by creating an inter-disciplinary policy framework that uses data science algorithms to create evidence-based policies in favor of EVs. Our policy framework uses a systems level approach as it addresses transitions to EVs from a technology, economic, business and social perspective. By Systems-Level we mean approaching a problem from a multi-disciplinary perspective. Our systems-level approach could be a beneficial decision-making tool to a diverse number of stakeholders such as engineers, entrepreneurs, researchers, and policymakers. In addition, it will add value to the literature of electrical vehicles, sustainable energy, energy economics, and management as well as efficient policymaking.

Keywords: transition, electrical vehicles, systems-level, algorithms

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
259 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore

Abstract:

In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
258 Moral Brand Machines: Towards a Conceptual Framework

Authors: Khaled Ibrahim, Mathew Parackal, Damien Mather, Paul Hansen

Abstract:

The integration between marketing and technology has given brands unprecedented opportunities to reach accurate customer data and competence to change customers' behaviour. Technology has generated a transformation within brands from traditional branding to algorithmic branding. However, brands have utilised customer data in non-cognitive programmatic targeting. This algorithmic persuasion may be effective in reaching the targeted audience. But it may encounter a moral conflict simultaneously, as it might not consider our social principles. Moral branding is a critical topic; particularly, with the increasing interest in commercial settings to teaching machines human morals, e.g., autonomous vehicles and chatbots; however, it is understudied in the marketing literature. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the recent moral branding literature. Furthermore, applying human-like mind theory as initial framing to this paper explores a more comprehensive concept involving human morals, machine behaviour, and branding.

Keywords: brand machines, conceptual framework, moral branding, moral machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
257 An Investigation into Sealing Materials for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Paul Onyegbule, Harjit Singh

Abstract:

Vacuum glazing is an innovative transparent thermal insulator that has application in high performance window, especially in renewable energy. Different materials as well as sealing methods have been adopted to seal windows with different temperatures. The impact of temperatures on sealing layers has been found to have significant effects on the microstructure of the seal. This paper seeks to investigate the effects of sealing materials specifically glass powder and flux compound (borax) for vacuum glazing. The findings of the experiment conducted show that the sealing material was rigid with some leakage around the edge, and we found that this could be stopped by enhancing the uniformity of the seal within the periphery. Also, we found that due to the intense tensile stress from the oven surface temperature of the seal at 200 0C, a crack was observed at the side of the glass. Based on the above findings, this study concludes that a glass powder with a lower melting temperature of below 250 0C with the addition of an adhesive (borax flux) should be used for future vacuum seals.

Keywords: double glazed windows, U-value, heat loss, borax powder, edge seal

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
256 Public Perception on Child Street Hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Anyaogu, E. U. M. Igbo

Abstract:

This study examines the public view on child street hawking in Aba Urban, Abia State, Nigeria, its causes and effect on the child participant and society at large. The study tends to investigate the influence of socioeconomic status on child street hawking. The current situation reflects a chronic urban poverty, which disposed of parents/guardians to send their children and wards of school age to income yielding activities. A social survey research design was employed to select the respondents. A total of 1,108 questionnaires were administered to the respondents of 18 years and above and 1,038 were retrieved. Also, 24 in-depth interviews were conducted in the study area. The findings revealed that child street hawking is on the increase and a serious threat to social cohesion and national security. The study also revealed that poverty is a major cause of child street hawking. The study recommends that government should create job opportunities for urban dwellers, as well as provide social amenities and also put up poverty alleviation/eradication programmes for the people.

Keywords: Aba Urban, child street hawking, dangers, disposition, poverty

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
255 SNR Classification Using Multiple CNNs

Authors: Thinh Ngo, Paul Rad, Brian Kelley

Abstract:

Noise estimation is essential in today wireless systems for power control, adaptive modulation, interference suppression and quality of service. Deep learning (DL) has already been applied in the physical layer for modulation and signal classifications. Unacceptably low accuracy of less than 50% is found to undermine traditional application of DL classification for SNR prediction. In this paper, we use divide-and-conquer algorithm and classifier fusion method to simplify SNR classification and therefore enhances DL learning and prediction. Specifically, multiple CNNs are used for classification rather than a single CNN. Each CNN performs a binary classification of a single SNR with two labels: less than, greater than or equal. Together, multiple CNNs are combined to effectively classify over a range of SNR values from −20 ≤ SNR ≤ 32 dB.We use pre-trained CNNs to predict SNR over a wide range of joint channel parameters including multiple Doppler shifts (0, 60, 120 Hz), power-delay profiles, and signal-modulation types (QPSK,16QAM,64-QAM). The approach achieves individual SNR prediction accuracy of 92%, composite accuracy of 70% and prediction convergence one order of magnitude faster than that of traditional estimation.

Keywords: classification, CNN, deep learning, prediction, SNR

Procedia PDF Downloads 20
254 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Vivek Paul, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: airfoil, CFD, MAV, flight performance, endurance, climb, lift, drag

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
253 Unsupervised Text Mining Approach to Early Warning System

Authors: Ichihan Tai, Bill Olson, Paul Blessner

Abstract:

Traditional early warning systems that alarm against crisis are generally based on structured or numerical data; therefore, a system that can make predictions based on unstructured textual data, an uncorrelated data source, is a great complement to the traditional early warning systems. The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index (VIX), commonly referred to as the fear index, measures the cost of insurance against market crash, and spikes in the event of crisis. In this study, news data is consumed for prediction of whether there will be a market-wide crisis by predicting the movement of the fear index, and the historical references to similar events are presented in an unsupervised manner. Topic modeling-based prediction and representation are made based on daily news data between 1990 and 2015 from The Wall Street Journal against VIX index data from CBOE.

Keywords: early warning system, knowledge management, market prediction, topic modeling.

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
252 The German Air Passenger Tax: An Empirical Analysis of Tourism Outflows

Authors: Paul Gurr, Maik Moser

Abstract:

In Europe, some countries recently abolished air passenger taxes (APT), while others issued or consider issuing an APT. From a fiscal perspective, APT can benefit the environment, while generating a vast amount of tax revenue with relatively low administration costs. However, they may have significant negative effects on the economy. Focusing on the German air passenger tax issued 2011, this work estimates the elasticity of tourism outflows using data on passenger departures from German airports between 2010 and 2016 aggregated by destination country. The results are obtained by estimating a model of the demand for outbound tourism. In line with theory, the regression results indicate a negative relationship between taxes and departures from Germany. Furthermore, on average, an increase of the air passenger tax rate results in a relatively higher decrease of passenger departures. The elasticity of tourism outflows can be used to estimate tax revenue changes and hence evaluate possible policy actions. Neglecting environmental reasons, the results suggest that tax revenue might be maximized by reducing the air passenger tax rate. Besides Germany, this work is also important for countries which have or consider implementing APT.

Keywords: air passenger tax, Germany, Outbound tourism, panel data

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
251 Improving Inelastic Capacity of Cold-Formed Steel Beams Using Slotted Blotted Connection

Authors: Marzie Shahini, Alireza Bagheri Sabbagh, Rasoul Mirghaderi, Paul C. Davidson

Abstract:

The focus of this paper is to incorporating the slotted bolted connection into the cold-formed steel (CFS) beams with aim of increasing inelastic bending capacity through bolt slip. An extensive finite element analysis was conducted on the through plate CFS bolted connections which are equipped with the slotted hole. The studied parameters in this paper included the following: CFS beam section geometry, the value of slip force, CFS beam thickness. The numerical results indicate that CFS slotted bolted connection exhibit higher inelastic capacity in terms of ductility compare to connection with standards holes. Moreover, the effect of slip force was analysed by comparing the moment-rotation curves of different models with different slip force value. As a result, as the slip force became lower, there was a tendency for the plastic strain to extend from the CFS member to the connection region.

Keywords: slip-critical bolted connection, inelastic capacity, slotted holes, cold-formed steel, bolt slippage, slip force

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
250 Relationship between Finger Print Pattern and Gender among Adolescents of Igala Ethnic Group, Kogi State, Nigeria

Authors: Paul Idoko Ukanu, Sunday Abba, Balogun Sadiya

Abstract:

The study of the finger prints patterns among the Igala ethnic groups was done in order to see their association gender. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 602 subjects participated in this study, 322 females and 280 males, which were mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 13-19 years. The subjects fingerprint pattern was obtained by allowing them place the tip of each finger on the stamp pad, which is then imprinted on the questionnaire, this was done for both the left and right hand. Female had higher arch, whorl and loop finger print pattern in most of the right fingers than the males, the differences were statistically significant for the right index, right ring finger and right little finger, but were statistically insignificant for right thumb and right middle finger as p = 0.207 and 0.726, respectively. The result also revealed that males had higher arch finger print pattern in the right index and right little finger than the females, which was statistically significant (p = 0.001), and also a high whorl finger print pattern than the females in the right middle and ring finger.

Keywords: arch, loop, whorl, fingers

Procedia PDF Downloads 15