Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 336

Search results for: Paul C. Okolie

36 Evaluation of Prehabilitation Prior to Surgery for an Orthopaedic Pathway

Authors: Stephen McCarthy, Joanne Gray, Esther Carr, Gerard Danjoux, Paul Baker, Rhiannon Hackett


Background: The Go Well Health (GWH) platform is a web-based programme that allows patients to access personalised care plans and resources, aimed at prehabilitation prior to surgery. The online digital platform delivers essential patient education and support for patients prior to undergoing total hip replacements (THR) and total knee replacements (TKR). This study evaluated the impact of an online digital platform (ODP) in terms of functional health outcomes, health related quality of life and hospital length of stay following surgery. Methods: A retrospective cohort study comparing a cohort of patients who used the online digital platform (ODP) to deliver patient education and support (PES) prior to undergoing THR and TKR surgery relative to a cohort of patients who did not access the ODP and received usual care. Routinely collected Patient Reported Outcome Measures (PROMs) data was obtained on 2,406 patients who underwent a knee replacement (n=1,160) or a hip replacement (n=1,246) between 2018 and 2019 in a single surgical centre in the United Kingdom. The Oxford Hip and Knee Score and the European Quality of Life Five-Dimensional tool (EQ5D-5L) was obtained both pre-and post-surgery (at 6 months) along with hospital LOS. Linear regression was used to compare the estimate the impact of GWH on both health outcomes and negative binomial regressions were used to impact on LOS. All analyses adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Comorbidity Score and either pre-operative Oxford Hip/Knee scores or pre-operative EQ-5D scores. Fractional polynomials were used to represent potential non-linear relationships between the factors included in the regression model. Findings: For patients who underwent a knee replacement, GWH had a statistically significant impact on Oxford Knee Scores and EQ5D-5L utility post-surgery (p=0.039 and p=0.002 respectively). GWH did not have a statistically significant impact on the hospital length of stay. For those patients who underwent a hip replacement, GWH had a statistically significant impact on Oxford Hip Scores and EQ5D-5L utility post (p=0.000 and p=0.009 respectively). GWH also had a statistically significant reduction in the hospital length of stay (p=0.000). Conclusion: Health Outcomes were higher for patients who used the GWH platform and underwent THR and TKR relative to those who received usual care prior to surgery. Patients who underwent a hip replacement and used GWH also had a reduced hospital LOS. These findings are important for health policy and or decision makers as they suggest that prehabilitation via an ODP can maximise health outcomes for patients following surgery whilst potentially making efficiency savings with reductions in LOS.

Keywords: digital prehabilitation, online digital platform, orthopaedics, surgery

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35 Estimation of the Dynamic Fragility of Padre Jacinto Zamora Bridge Due to Traffic Loads

Authors: Kimuel Suyat, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon


The Philippines, composed of many islands, is connected with approximately 8030 bridges. Continuous evaluation of the structural condition of these bridges is needed to safeguard the safety of the general public. With most bridges reaching its design life, retrofitting and replacement may be needed. Concerned government agencies allocate huge costs for periodic monitoring and maintenance of these structures. The rising volume of traffic and aging of these infrastructures is challenging structural engineers to give rise for structural health monitoring techniques. Numerous techniques are already proposed and some are now being employed in other countries. Vibration Analysis is one way. The natural frequency and vibration of a bridge are design criteria in ensuring the stability, safety and economy of the structure. Its natural frequency must not be so high so as not to cause discomfort and not so low that the structure is so stiff causing it to be both costly and heavy. It is well known that the stiffer the member is, the more load it attracts. The frequency must not also match the vibration caused by the traffic loads. If this happens, a resonance occurs. Vibration that matches a systems frequency will generate excitation and when this exceeds the member’s limit, a structural failure will happen. This study presents a method for calculating dynamic fragility through the use of vibration-based monitoring system. Dynamic fragility is the probability that a structural system exceeds a limit state when subjected to dynamic loads. The bridge is modeled in SAP2000 based from the available construction drawings provided by the Department of Public Works and Highways. It was verified and adjusted based from the actual condition of the bridge. The bridge design specifications are also checked using nondestructive tests. The approach used in this method properly accounts the uncertainty of observed values and code-based structural assumptions. The vibration response of the structure due to actual loads is monitored using installed sensors on the bridge. From the determinacy of these dynamic characteristic of a system, threshold criteria can be established and fragility curves can be estimated. This study conducted in relation with the research project between Department of Science and Technology, Mapúa Institute of Technology, and the Department of Public Works and Highways also known as Mapúa-DOST Smart Bridge Project deploys Structural Health Monitoring Sensors at Zamora Bridge. The bridge is selected in coordination with the Department of Public Works and Highways. The structural plans for the bridge are also readily available.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, dynamic characteristic, threshold criteria, traffic loads

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
34 Effect of Tooth Bleaching Agents on Enamel Demineralisation

Authors: Najlaa Yousef Qusti, Steven J. Brookes, Paul A. Brunton


Background: Tooth discoloration can be an aesthetic problem, and tooth whitening using carbamide peroxide bleaching agents are a popular treatment option. However, there are concerns about possible adverse effects such as demineralisation of the bleached enamel; however, the cause of this demineralisation is unclear. Introduction: Teeth can become stained or discoloured over time. Tooth whitening is an aesthetic solution for tooth discoloration. Bleaching solutions of 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) have become the standard agent used in dentist-prescribed and home-applied ’vital bleaching techniques’. These materials release hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂), the active whitening agent. However, there is controversy in the literature regarding the effect of bleaching agents on enamel integrity and enamel mineral content. The purpose of this study was to establish if carbamide peroxide bleaching agents affect the acid solubility of enamel (i.e., make teeth more prone to demineralisation). Materials and Methods: Twelve human premolar teeth were sectioned longitudinally along the midline and varnished to leave the natural enamel surface exposed. The baseline behavior of each tooth half in relation to its demineralisation in acid was established by sequential exposure to 4 vials containing 1ml of 10mM acetic acid (1 minute/vial). This was followed by exposure to 10% CP for 8 hours. After washing in distilled water, the tooth half was sequentially exposed to 4 further vials containing acid to test if the acid susceptibility of the enamel had been affected. The corresponding tooth half acted as a control and was exposed to distilled water instead of CP. The mineral loss was determined by measuring [Ca²⁺] and [PO₄³⁻] released in each vial using a calcium ion-selective electrode and the phosphomolybdenum blue method, respectively. The effect of bleaching on the tooth surfaces was also examined using SEM. Results: Exposure to carbamide peroxide did not significantly alter the susceptibility of enamel to acid attack, and SEM of the enamel surface revealed a slight alteration in surface appearance. SEM images of the control enamel surface showed a flat enamel surface with some shallow pits, whereas the bleached enamel appeared with an increase in surface porosity and some areas of mild erosion. Conclusions: Exposure to H₂O₂ equivalent to 10% CP does not significantly increase subsequent acid susceptibility of enamel as determined by Ca²⁺ release from the enamel surface. The effects of bleaching on mineral loss were indistinguishable from distilled water in the experimental system used. However, some surface differences were observed by SEM. The phosphomolybdenum blue method for phosphate is compromised by peroxide bleaching agents due to their oxidising properties. However, the Ca²⁺ electrode is unaffected by oxidising agents and can be used to determine the mineral loss in the presence of peroxides.

Keywords: bleaching, carbamide peroxide, demineralisation, teeth whitening

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33 Building an Opinion Dynamics Model from Experimental Data

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Paul J. Maher, Caoimhe O'Reilly, Michael Quayle


Opinion dynamics is a sub-field of agent-based modeling that focuses on people’s opinions and their evolutions over time. Despite the rapid increase in the number of publications in this field, it is still not clear how to apply these models to real-world scenarios. Indeed, there is no agreement on how people update their opinion while interacting. Furthermore, it is not clear if different topics will show the same dynamics (e.g., more polarized topics may behave differently). These problems are mostly due to the lack of experimental validation of the models. Some previous studies started bridging this gap in the literature by directly measuring people’s opinions before and after the interaction. However, these experiments force people to express their opinion as a number instead of using natural language (and then, eventually, encoding it as numbers). This is not the way people normally interact, and it may strongly alter the measured dynamics. Another limitation of these studies is that they usually average all the topics together, without checking if different topics may show different dynamics. In our work, we collected data from 200 participants on 5 unpolarized topics. Participants expressed their opinions in natural language (“agree” or “disagree”). We also measured the certainty of their answer, expressed as a number between 1 and 10. However, this value was not shown to other participants to keep the interaction based on natural language. We then showed the opinion (and not the certainty) of another participant and, after a distraction task, we repeated the measurement. To make the data compatible with opinion dynamics models, we multiplied opinion and certainty to obtain a new parameter (here called “continuous opinion”) ranging from -10 to +10 (using agree=1 and disagree=-1). We firstly checked the 5 topics individually, finding that all of them behaved in a similar way despite having different initial opinions distributions. This suggested that the same model could be applied for different unpolarized topics. We also observed that people tend to maintain similar levels of certainty, even when they changed their opinion. This is a strong violation of what is suggested from common models, where people starting at, for example, +8, will first move towards 0 instead of directly jumping to -8. We also observed social influence, meaning that people exposed with “agree” were more likely to move to higher levels of continuous opinion, while people exposed with “disagree” were more likely to move to lower levels. However, we also observed that the effect of influence was smaller than the effect of random fluctuations. Also, this configuration is different from standard models, where noise, when present, is usually much smaller than the effect of social influence. Starting from this, we built an opinion dynamics model that explains more than 80% of data variance. This model was also able to show the natural conversion of polarization from unpolarized states. This experimental approach offers a new way to build models grounded on experimental data. Furthermore, the model offers new insight into the fundamental terms of opinion dynamics models.

Keywords: experimental validation, micro-dynamics rule, opinion dynamics, update rule

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32 Inter-Personal and Inter-Organizational Relationships in Supply Chain Integration: A Resource Orchestration Perspective

Authors: Bill Wang, Paul Childerhouse, Yuanfei Kang


Purpose: The research is to extend resource orchestration theory (ROT) into supply chain management (SCM) area to investigate the dyadic relationships at both individual and organizational levels in supply chain integration (SCI). Also, we try to explore the interaction mechanism between inter-personal relationships (IPRs) and inter-organizational (IORs) during the whole SCI process. Methodology/approach: The research employed an exploratory multiple case study approach of four New Zealand companies. The data was collected via semi-structured interviews with top, middle, and lower level managers and operators from different departments of both suppliers and customers triangulated with company archival data. Findings: The research highlights the important role of both IPRs and IORs in the whole SCI process. Both IPRs and IORs are valuable, inimitable resources but IORs are formal and exterior while IPRs are informal and subordinated. In the initial stage of SCI process, IPRs are seen as key resources antecedents to IOR building while three IPRs dimensions work differently: personal credibility acts as an icebreaker to strengthen the confidence forming IORs, and personal affection acts as a gatekeeper, whilst personal communication expedites the IORs process. In the maintenance and development stage, IORs and IPRs interact each other continuously: good interaction between IPRs and IORs can facilitate SCI process while the bad interaction between IPRs can damage the SCI process. On the other hand, during the life-cycle of SCI process, IPRs can facilitate the formation, development of IORs while IORs development can cultivate the ties of IPRs. Out of the three dimensions of IPRs, Personal communication plays a more important role to develop IORs than personal credibility and personal affection. Originality/value: This research contributes to ROT in supply chain management literature by highlighting the interaction of IPRs and IORs in SCI. The intangible resources and capabilities of three dimensions of IPRs need to be orchestrated and nurtured to achieve efficient and effective IORs in SCI. Also, IPRs and IORs need to be orchestrated in terms of breadth, depth, and life-cycle of whole SCI process. Our study provides further insight into the rarely explored inter-personal level of SCI. Managerial implications: Our research provides top management with further evidence of the significance roles of IPRs at different levels when working with trading partners. This highlights the need to actively manage and develop these soft IPRs skills as an intangible competitive resource. Further, the research identifies when staff with specific skills and connections should be utilized during the different stages of building and maintaining inter-organizational ties. More importantly, top management needs to orchestrate and balance the resources of IPRs and IORs.

Keywords: case study, inter-organizational relationships, inter-personal relationships, resource orchestration, supply chain integration

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31 Incidence and Risk Factors of Traumatic Lumbar Puncture in Newborns in a Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Heena Dabas, Anju Paul, Suman Chaurasia, Ramesh Agarwal, M. Jeeva Sankar, Anurag Bajpai, Manju Saksena


Background: Traumatic lumbar puncture (LP) is a common occurrence and causes substantial diagnostic ambiguity. There is paucity of data regarding its epidemiology. Objective: To assess the incidence and risk factors of traumatic LP in newborns. Design/Methods: In a prospective cohort study, all inborn neonates admitted in NICU and planned to undergo LP for a clinical indication of sepsis were included. Neonates with diagnosed intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) of grade III and IV were excluded. The LP was done by operator - often a fellow or resident assisted by bedside nurse. The unit has policy of not routinely using any sedation/analgesia during the procedure. LP is done by 26 G and 0.5-inch-long hypodermic needle inserted in third or fourth lumbar space while the infant is in lateral position. The infants were monitored clinically and by continuous measurement of vital parameters using multipara monitor during the procedure. The occurrence of traumatic tap along with CSF parameters and other operator and assistant characteristics were recorded at the time of procedure. Traumatic tap was defined as presence of visible blood or more than 500 red blood cells on microscopic examination. Microscopic trauma was defined when CSF is not having visible blood but numerous RBCs. The institutional ethics committee approved the study protocol. A written informed consent from the parents and the health care providers involved was obtained. Neonates were followed up till discharge/death and final diagnosis was assigned along with treating team. Results: A total of 362 (21%) neonates out of 1726 born at the hospital were admitted during the study period (July 2016 to January, 2017). Among these neonates, 97 (26.7%) were suspected of sepsis. A total of 54 neonates were enrolled who met the eligibility criteria and parents consented to participate in the study. The mean (SD) birthweight was 1536 (732) grams and gestational age 32.0 (4.0) weeks. All LPs were indicated for late onset sepsis at the median (IQR) age of 12 (5-39) days. The traumatic LP occurred in 19 neonates (35.1%; 95% C.I 22.6% to 49.3%). Frank blood was observed in 7 (36.8%) and in the remaining, 12(63.1%) CSF was detected to have microscopic trauma. The preliminary risk factor analysis including birth weight, gestational age and operator/assistant and other characteristics did not demonstrate clinically relevant predictors. Conclusion: A significant number of neonates requiring lumbar puncture in our study had high incidence of traumatic tap. We were not able to identify modifiable risk factors. There is a need to understand the reasons and further reduce this issue for improving management in NICUs.

Keywords: incidence, newborn, traumatic, lumbar puncture

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30 Perspectives of Healthcare Workers on Healthcare-Associated Infections and Infection Control in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Esther Paul, Ibrahim A. M. Alzaydani, Al Hakami, Caryl Beynon


Research Objectives and Goal: The main aim of the current study was to explore the perspectives of healthcare workers on Healthcare-associated infections (HAI) and infection control measures in a tertiary care Hospital in Abha, Saudi Arabia. As per our knowledge, this is perhaps the first qualitative study on HAI to be done in Saudi Arabia. The goal of the study was to understand the perspectives of the healthcare workers on the current protocol and guidelines for HAI and infections control measures in the hospital, the effectiveness of the current protocol for HAI and infection control measures and ways of reducing the incidence of HAI and improve infection control measures. Methods used: A qualitative research design was used to collect the data from 25 healthcare workers consisting of doctors and nurses, recruited by Snowball strategy via semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim immediately. An interview guide consisting of open-ended questions about the existing HAI and infection control practices in the healthcare facility, the awareness of the healthcare workers about HAI and the need for safe infection control measures were used to collect the data. The transcribed data were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. Results: Using thematic analysis four themes were identified.1.Knowledge of HAI and infection control 2. Infection control measures in practice 3. The gap in infection control measures and HAI 4. Required Implementations. The first theme covered the participants' knowledge on HAI, its definition, the types of HAI and the infection control measures.Most of the participants were aware of HAI and had some idea of the definition of HAI, its significance and the dangers posed by HAI, but few residents had no idea of the types of HAI. The second theme was focussed on the infection control measures in practice. Most of the participants were aware of the importance of infection control measures like hand hygiene, catheter care, and waste disposal. The nurses were responsible for most of the disinfection and sterilization measures and practiced it effectively. However, some doctors and residents had no inkling about these measures. The third theme emphasized that although most of the participants were aware of HAI and infection control measures and were in practice. There were some lacunae regarding their knowledge of the different types of HAI, Personal Protective Equipment practices, communication among the healthcare personnel and the hospital administrations and the means of waste disposal. The fourth and the final theme identified that most of the participants felt the need for implementations of changes regarding existing protocols, workshops/seminars, methods of waste disposal and sterilization and disinfection practices. Conclusion: The current qualitative study concluded that there is a need for better educational programs and hands-on training for all the healthcare personnel including the paramedical staff as well. The residents should have adequate knowledge of infection control practices to guide the nurses and should share the responsibility with the nurses in the practice of effective infection control measures

Keywords: healthcare-associated infections, infection control measures, perspectives, qualitative

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29 Validating the Micro-Dynamic Rule in Opinion Dynamics Models

Authors: Dino Carpentras, Paul Maher, Caoimhe O'Reilly, Michael Quayle


Opinion dynamics is dedicated to modeling the dynamic evolution of people's opinions. Models in this field are based on a micro-dynamic rule, which determines how people update their opinion when interacting. Despite the high number of new models (many of them based on new rules), little research has been dedicated to experimentally validate the rule. A few studies started bridging this literature gap by experimentally testing the rule. However, in these studies, participants are forced to express their opinion as a number instead of using natural language. Furthermore, some of these studies average data from experimental questions, without testing if differences existed between them. Indeed, it is possible that different topics could show different dynamics. For example, people may be more prone to accepting someone's else opinion regarding less polarized topics. In this work, we collected data from 200 participants on 5 unpolarized topics. Participants expressed their opinions using natural language ('agree' or 'disagree') and the certainty of their answer, expressed as a number between 1 and 10. To keep the interaction based on natural language, certainty was not shown to other participants. We then showed to the participant someone else's opinion on the same topic and, after a distraction task, we repeated the measurement. To produce data compatible with standard opinion dynamics models, we multiplied the opinion (encoded as agree=1 and disagree=-1) with the certainty to obtain a single 'continuous opinion' ranging from -10 to 10. By analyzing the topics independently, we observed that each one shows a different initial distribution. However, the dynamics (i.e., the properties of the opinion change) appear to be similar between all topics. This suggested that the same micro-dynamic rule could be applied to unpolarized topics. Another important result is that participants that change opinion tend to maintain similar levels of certainty. This is in contrast with typical micro-dynamics rules, where agents move to an average point instead of directly jumping to the opposite continuous opinion. As expected, in the data, we also observed the effect of social influence. This means that exposing someone with 'agree' or 'disagree' influenced participants to respectively higher or lower values of the continuous opinion. However, we also observed random variations whose effect was stronger than the social influence’s one. We even observed cases of people that changed from 'agree' to 'disagree,' even if they were exposed to 'agree.' This phenomenon is surprising, as, in the standard literature, the strength of the noise is usually smaller than the strength of social influence. Finally, we also built an opinion dynamics model from the data. The model was able to explain more than 80% of the data variance. Furthermore, by iterating the model, we were able to produce polarized states even starting from an unpolarized population. This experimental approach offers a way to test the micro-dynamic rule. This also allows us to build models which are directly grounded on experimental results.

Keywords: experimental validation, micro-dynamic rule, opinion dynamics, update rule

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28 Ecosystem Approach in Aquaculture: From Experimental Recirculating Multi-Trophic Aquaculture to Operational System in Marsh Ponds

Authors: R. Simide, T. Miard


Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) is used to reduce waste from aquaculture and increase productivity by co-cultured species. In this study, we designed a recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system which requires low energy consumption, low water renewal and easy-care. European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were raised with co-cultured sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), deteritivorous polychaete fed on settled particulate matter, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) used to extract suspended matters, macroalgae (Ulva sp.) used to uptake dissolved nutrients and gastropod (Phorcus turbinatus) used to clean the series of 4 tanks from fouling. Experiment was performed in triplicate during one month in autumn under an experimental greenhouse at the Institute Océanographique Paul Ricard (IOPR). Thanks to the absence of a physical filter, any pomp was needed to pressure water and the water flow was carried out by a single air-lift followed by gravity flow.Total suspended solids (TSS), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), turbidity, phytoplankton estimation and dissolved nutrients (ammonium NH₄, nitrite NO₂⁻, nitrate NO₃⁻ and phosphorus PO₄³⁻) were measured weekly while dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously recorded. Dissolved nutrients stay under the detectable threshold during the experiment. BOD5 decreased between fish and macroalgae tanks. TSS highly increased after 2 weeks and then decreased at the end of the experiment. Those results show that bioremediation can be well used for aquaculture system to keep optimum growing conditions. Fish were the only feeding species by an external product (commercial fish pellet) in the system. The others species (extractive species) were fed from waste streams from the tank above or from Ulva produced by the system for the sea urchin. In this way, between the fish aquaculture only and the addition of the extractive species, the biomass productivity increase by 5.7. In other words, the food conversion ratio dropped from 1.08 with fish only to 0.189 including all species. This experimental recirculating multi-trophic aquaculture system was efficient enough to reduce waste and increase productivity. In a second time, this technology has been reproduced at a commercial scale. The IOPR in collaboration with Les 4 Marais company run for 6 month a recirculating IMTA in 8000 m² of water allocate between 4 marsh ponds. A similar air-lift and gravity recirculating system was design and only one feeding species of shrimp (Palaemon sp.) was growth for 3 extractive species. Thanks to this joint work at the laboratory and commercial scales we will be able to challenge IMTA system and discuss about this sustainable aquaculture technology.

Keywords: bioremediation, integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA), laboratory and commercial scales, recirculating aquaculture, sustainable

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27 A Cross-Cultural Validation of the Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (Smiley) among Filipino Pediatric Lupus Patients

Authors: Jemely M. Punzalan, Christine B. Bernal, Beatrice B. Canonigo, Maria Rosario F. Cabansag, Dennis S. Flores, Paul Joseph T. Galutira, Remedios D. Chan


Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is one of the most common autoimmune disorders predominates in women of childbearing age. Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY) is the only health specific quality of life tool for pediatric SLE, which has been translated to different languages except in Filipino. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to develop a Filipino translation of the SMILEY and to examine the validity and reliability of this translation. Methodology: The SMILEY was translated into Filipino by a bilingual individual and back-translated by another bilingual individual blinded from the original English version. The translation was evaluated for content validity by a panel of experts and subjected to pilot testing. The pilot-tested translation was used in the validity and reliability testing proper. The SMILEY, together with the previously validated PEDSQL 4.0 Generic Core Scale was administered to lupus pediatric patients and their parent at two separate occasions: a baseline and a re-test seven to fourteen days apart. Tests for convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability were performed. Results: A total of fifty children and their parent were recruited. The mean age was 15.38±2.62 years (range 8-18 years), mean education at high school level. The mean duration of SLE was 28 months (range 1-81 months). Subjects found the questionnaires to be relevant, easy to understand and answer. The validity of the SMILEY was demonstrated in terms of content validity, convergent validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Age, socioeconomic status and educational attainment did not show a significant effect on the scores. The difference between scores of child and parent report was showed to be significant with SMILEY total (p=0.0214), effect on social life (p=0.0000), and PEDSQL physical function (p=0.0460). Child reports showed higher scores for the following domains compared to their parent. Conclusion: SMILEY is a brief, easy to understand, valid and reliable tool for assessing pediatric SLE specific HRQOL. It will be useful in providing better care, understanding and may offer critical information regarding the effect of SLE in the quality of life of our pediatric lupus patients. It will help physician understands the needs of their patient not only on treatment of the specific disease but as well as the impact of the treatment on their daily lives.

Keywords: systemic lupus erythematosus, pediatrics, quality of life, Simple Measure of Impact of Lupus Erythematosus in Youngsters (SMILEY)

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26 Development of Bilayer Coating System for Mitigating Corrosion of Offshore Wind Turbines

Authors: Adamantini Loukodimou, David Weston, Shiladitya Paul


Offshore structures are subjected to harsh environments. It is documented that carbon steel needs protection from corrosion. The combined effect of UV radiation, seawater splash, and fluctuating temperatures diminish the integrity of these structures. In addition, the possibility of damage caused by floating ice, seaborne debris, and maintenance boats make them even more vulnerable. Their inspection and maintenance when far out in the sea are difficult, risky, and expensive. The most known method of mitigating corrosion of offshore structures is the use of cathodic protection. There are several zones in an offshore wind turbine. In the atmospheric zone, due to the lack of a continuous electrolyte (seawater) layer between the structure and the anode at all times, this method proves inefficient. Thus, the use of protective coatings becomes indispensable. This research focuses on the atmospheric zone. The conversion of commercially available and conventional paint (epoxy) system to an autonomous self-healing paint system via the addition of suitable encapsulated healing agents and catalyst is investigated in this work. These coating systems, which can self-heal when damaged, can provide a cost-effective engineering solution to corrosion and related problems. When the damage of the paint coating occurs, the microcapsules are designed to rupture and release the self-healing liquid (monomer), which then will react in the presence of the catalyst and solidify (polymerization), resulting in healing. The catalyst should be compatible with the system because otherwise, the self-healing process will not occur. The carbon steel substrate will be exposed to a corrosive environment, so the use of a sacrificial layer of Zn is also investigated. More specifically, the first layer of this new coating system will be TSZA (Thermally Sprayed Zn85/Al15) and will be applied on carbon steel samples with dimensions 100 x 150 mm after being blasted with alumina (size F24) as part of the surface preparation. Based on the literature, it corrodes readily, so one additional paint layer enriched with microcapsules will be added. Also, the reaction and the curing time are of high importance in order for this bilayer system of coating to work successfully. For the first experiments, polystyrene microcapsules loaded with 3-octanoyltio-1-propyltriethoxysilane were conducted. Electrochemical experiments such as Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) confirmed the corrosion inhibiting properties of the silane. The diameter of the microcapsules was about 150-200 microns. Further experiments were conducted with different reagents and methods in order to obtain diameters of about 50 microns, and their self-healing properties were tested in synthetic seawater using electrochemical techniques. The use of combined paint/electrodeposited coatings allows for further novel development of composite coating systems. The potential for the application of these coatings in offshore structures will be discussed.

Keywords: corrosion mitigation, microcapsules, offshore wind turbines, self-healing

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25 Experimental Investigation of Absorbent Regeneration Techniques to Lower the Cost of Combined CO₂ and SO₂ Capture Process

Authors: Bharti Garg, Ashleigh Cousins, Pauline Pearson, Vincent Verheyen, Paul Feron


The presence of SO₂ in power plant flue gases makes flue gas desulfurization (FGD) an essential requirement prior to post combustion CO₂ (PCC) removal facilities. Although most of the power plants worldwide deploy FGD in order to comply with environmental regulations, generally the achieved SO₂ levels are not sufficiently low for the flue gases to enter the PCC unit. The SO₂ level in the flue gases needs to be less than 10 ppm to effectively operate the PCC installation. The existing FGD units alone cannot bring down the SO₂ levels to or below 10 ppm as required for CO₂ capture. It might require an additional scrubber along with the existing FGD unit to bring the SO₂ to the desired levels. The absence of FGD units in Australian power plants brings an additional challenge. SO₂ concentrations in Australian power station flue gas emissions are in the range of 100-600 ppm. This imposes a serious barrier on the implementation of standard PCC technologies in Australia. CSIRO’s developed CS-Cap process is a unique solution to capture SO₂ and CO₂ in a single column with single absorbent which can potentially bring cost-effectiveness to the commercial deployment of carbon capture in Australia, by removing the need for FGD. Estimated savings of removing SO₂ through a similar process as CS-Cap is around 200 MMUSD for a 500 MW Australian power plant. Pilot plant trials conducted to generate the proof of concept resulted in 100% removal of SO₂ from flue gas without utilising standard limestone-based FGD. In this work, removal of absorbed sulfur from aqueous amine absorbents generated in the pilot plant trials has been investigated by reactive crystallisation and thermal reclamation. More than 95% of the aqueous amines can be reclaimed back from the sulfur loaded absorbent via reactive crystallisation. However, the recovery of amines through thermal reclamation is limited and depends on the sulfur loading on the spent absorbent. The initial experimental work revealed that reactive crystallisation is a better fit for CS-Cap’s sulfur-rich absorbent especially when it is also capable of generating K₂SO₄ crystals of highly saleable quality ~ 99%. Initial cost estimation carried on both the technologies resulted in almost similar capital expenditure; however, the operating cost is considerably higher in thermal reclaimer than that in crystalliser. The experimental data generated in the laboratory from both the regeneration techniques have been used to generate the simulation model in Aspen Plus. The simulation model illustrates the economic benefits which could be gained by removing flue gas desulfurization prior to standard PCC unit and replacing it with a CS-Cap absorber column co-capturing CO₂ and SO₂, and it's absorbent regeneration system which would be either reactive crystallisation or thermal reclamation.

Keywords: combined capture, cost analysis, crystallisation, CS-Cap, flue gas desulfurisation, regeneration, sulfur, thermal reclamation

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24 Health and Performance Fitness Assessment of Adolescents in Middle Income Schools in Lagos State

Authors: Onabajo Paul


The testing and assessment of physical fitness of school-aged adolescents in Nigeria has been going on for several decades. Originally, these tests strictly focused on identifying health and physical fitness status and comparing the results of adolescents with others. There is a considerable interest in health and performance fitness of adolescents in which results attained are compared with criteria representing positive health rather than simply on score comparisons with others. Despite the fact that physical education program is being studied in secondary schools and physical activities are encouraged, it is observed that regular assessment of students’ fitness level and health status seems to be scarce or not being done in these schools. The purpose of the study was to assess the heath and performance fitness of adolescents in middle-income schools in Lagos State. A total number of 150 students were selected using the simple random sampling technique. Participants were measured on hand grip strength, sit-up, pacer 20 meter shuttle run, standing long jump, weight and height. The data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics of means, standard deviations, and range and compared with fitness norms. It was concluded that majority 111(74.0%) of the adolescents achieved the healthy fitness zone, 33(22.0%) were very lean, and 6(4.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of Body Mass Index test. For muscular strength, majority 78(52.0%) were weak, 66(44.0%) were normal, and 6(4.0%) were strong according to the normative standard of hand-grip strength test. For aerobic capacity fitness, majority 93(62.0%) needed improvement and were at health risk, 36(24.0%) achieved healthy fitness zone, and 21(14.0%) needed improvement according to the normative standard of PACER test. Majority 48(32.0%) of the participants had good hip flexibility, 38(25.3%) had fair status, 27(18.0%) needed improvement, 24(16.0%) had very good hip flexibility status, and 13(8.7%) of the participants had excellent status. Majority 61(40.7%) had average muscular endurance status, 30(20.0%) had poor status, 29(18.3%) had good status, 28(18.7%) had fair muscular endurance status, and 2(1.3%) of the participants had excellent status according to the normative standard of sit-up test. Majority 52(34.7%) had low jump ability fitness, 47(31.3%) had marginal fitness, 31(20.7%) had good fitness, and 20(13.3%) had high performance fitness according to the normative standard of standing long jump test. Based on the findings, it was concluded that majority of the adolescents had better Body Mass Index status, and performed well in both hip flexibility and muscular endurance tests. Whereas majority of the adolescents performed poorly in aerobic capacity test, muscular strength and jump ability test. It was recommended that to enhance wellness, adolescents should be involved in physical activities and recreation lasting 30 minutes three times a week. Schools should engage in fitness program for students on regular basis at both senior and junior classes so as to develop good cardio-respiratory, muscular fitness and improve overall health of the students.

Keywords: adolescents, health-related fitness, performance-related fitness, physical fitness

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23 Vortex Control by a Downstream Splitter Plate in Psudoplastic Fluid Flow

Authors: Sudipto Sarkar, Anamika Paul


Pseudoplastic (n<1, n is the power index) fluids have great importance in food, pharmaceutical and chemical process industries which require a lot of attention. Unfortunately, due to its complex flow behavior inadequate research works can be found even in laminar flow regime. A practical problem is solved in the present research work by numerical simulation where we tried to control the vortex shedding from a square cylinder using a horizontal splitter plate placed at the downstream flow region. The position of the plate is at the centerline of the cylinder with varying distance from the cylinder to calculate the critical gap-ratio. If the plate is placed inside this critical gap, the vortex shedding from the cylinder suppressed completely. The Reynolds number considered here is in unsteady laminar vortex shedding regime, Re = 100 (Re = U∞a/ν, where U∞ is the free-stream velocity of the flow, a is the side of the cylinder and ν is the maximum value of kinematic viscosity of the fluid). Flow behavior has been studied for three different gap-ratios (G/a = 2, 2.25 and 2.5, where G is the gap between cylinder and plate) and for a fluid with three different flow behavior indices (n =1, 0.8 and 0.5). The flow domain is constructed using Gambit 2.2.30 and this software is also used to generate the mesh and to impose the boundary conditions. For G/a = 2, the domain size is considered as 37.5a × 16a with 316 × 208 grid points in the streamwise and flow-normal directions respectively after a thorough grid independent study. Fine and equal grid spacing is used close to the geometry to capture the vortices shed from the cylinder and the boundary layer developed over the flat plate. Away from the geometry meshes are unequal in size and stretched out. For other gap-ratios, proportionate domain size and total grid points are used with similar kind of mesh distribution. Velocity inlet (u = U∞), pressure outlet (Neumann condition), symmetry (free-slip boundary condition) at upper and lower domain boundary conditions are used for the simulation. Wall boundary condition (u = v = 0) is considered both on the cylinder and the splitter plate surfaces. Discretized forms of fully conservative 2-D unsteady Navier Stokes equations are then solved by Ansys Fluent 14.5. SIMPLE algorithm written in finite volume method is selected for this purpose which is a default solver inculcate in Fluent. The results obtained for Newtonian fluid flow agree well with previous works supporting Fluent’s usefulness in academic research. A thorough analysis of instantaneous and time-averaged flow fields are depicted both for Newtonian and pseudoplastic fluid flow. It has been observed that as the value of n reduces the stretching of shear layers also reduce and these layers try to roll up before the plate. For flow with high pseudoplasticity (n = 0.5) the nature of vortex shedding changes and the value of critical gap-ratio reduces. These are the remarkable findings for laminar periodic vortex shedding regime in pseudoplastic flow environment.

Keywords: CFD, pseudoplastic fluid flow, wake-boundary layer interactions, critical gap-ratio

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22 A Greener Approach towards the Synthesis of an Antimalarial Drug Lumefantrine

Authors: Luphumlo Ncanywa, Paul Watts


Malaria is a disease that kills approximately one million people annually. Children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa lost their lives due to malaria. Malaria continues to be one of the major causes of death, especially in poor countries in Africa. Decrease the burden of malaria and save lives is very essential. There is a major concern about malaria parasites being able to develop resistance towards antimalarial drugs. People are still dying due to lack of medicine affordability in less well-off countries in the world. If more people could receive treatment by reducing the cost of drugs, the number of deaths in Africa could be massively reduced. There is a shortage of pharmaceutical manufacturing capability within many of the countries in Africa. However one has to question how Africa would actually manufacture drugs, active pharmaceutical ingredients or medicines developed within these research programs. It is quite likely that such manufacturing would be outsourced overseas, hence increasing the cost of production and potentially limiting the full benefit of the original research. As a result the last few years has seen major interest in developing more effective and cheaper technology for manufacturing generic pharmaceutical products. Micro-reactor technology (MRT) is an emerging technique that enables those working in research and development to rapidly screen reactions utilizing continuous flow, leading to the identification of reaction conditions that are suitable for usage at a production level. This emerging technique will be used to develop antimalarial drugs. It is this system flexibility that has the potential to reduce both the time was taken and risk associated with transferring reaction methodology from research to production. Using an approach referred to as scale-out or numbering up, a reaction is first optimized within the laboratory using a single micro-reactor, and in order to increase production volume, the number of reactors employed is simply increased. The overall aim of this research project is to develop and optimize synthetic process of antimalarial drugs in the continuous processing. This will provide a step change in pharmaceutical manufacturing technology that will increase the availability and affordability of antimalarial drugs on a worldwide scale, with a particular emphasis on Africa in the first instance. The research will determine the best chemistry and technology to define the lowest cost manufacturing route to pharmaceutical products. We are currently developing a method to synthesize Lumefantrine in continuous flow using batch process as bench mark. Lumefantrine is a dichlorobenzylidine derivative effective for the treatment of various types of malaria. Lumefantrine is an antimalarial drug used with artemether for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The results obtained when synthesizing Lumefantrine in a batch process are transferred into a continuous flow process in order to develop an even better and reproducible process. Therefore, development of an appropriate synthetic route for Lumefantrine is significant in pharmaceutical industry. Consequently, if better (and cheaper) manufacturing routes to antimalarial drugs could be developed and implemented where needed, it is far more likely to enable antimalarial drugs to be available to those in need.

Keywords: antimalarial, flow, lumefantrine, synthesis

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21 Assessment of Commercial Antimicrobials Incorporated into Gelatin Coatings and Applied to Conventional Heat-Shrinking Material for the Prevention of Blown Pack Spoilage in Vacuum Packaged Beef Cuts

Authors: Andrey A. Tyuftin, Rachael Reid, Paula Bourke, Patrick J. Cullen, Seamus Fanning, Paul Whyte, Declan Bolton , Joe P. Kerry


One of the primary spoilage issues associated with vacuum-packed beef products is blown pack spoilage (BPS) caused by the psychrophilic spore-forming strain of Clostridium spp. Spores derived from this organism can be activated after heat-shrinking (eg. 90°C for 3 seconds). To date, research into the control of Clostridium spp in beef packaging is limited. Active packaging in the form of antimicrobially-active coatings may be one approach to its control. Antimicrobial compounds may be incorporated into packaging films or coated onto the internal surfaces of packaging films using a carrier matrix. Three naturally-sourced, commercially-available antimicrobials, namely; Auranta FV (AFV) (bitter oranges extract) from Envirotech Innovative Products Ltd, Ireland; Inbac-MDA (IMDA) from Chemital LLC, Spain, mixture of different organic acids and sodium octanoate (SO) from Sigma-Aldrich, UK, were added into gelatin solutions at 2 concentrations: 2.5 and 3.5 times their minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) against Clostridium estertheticum (DSMZ 8809). These gelatin solutions were coated onto the internal polyethylene layer of cold plasma treated, heat-shrinkable laminates conventionally used for meat packaging applications. Atmospheric plasma was used in order to enhance adhesion between packaging films and gelatin coatings. Pouches were formed from these coated packaging materials, and beef cuts which had been inoculated with C. estertheticum were vacuum packaged. Inoculated beef was vacuum packaged without employing active films and this treatment served as the control. All pouches were heat-sealed and then heat-shrunk at 90°C for 3 seconds and incubated at 2°C for 100 days. During this storage period, packs were monitored for the indicators of blown pack spoilage as follows; gas bubbles in drip, loss of vacuum (onset of BPS), blown, the presence of sufficient gas inside the packs to produce pack distension and tightly stretched, “overblown” packs/ packs leaking. Following storage and assessment of indicator date, it was concluded that AFV- and SO-containing packaging inhibited the growth of C. estertheticum, significantly delaying the blown pack spoilage of beef primals. IMDA did not inhibit the growth of C. estertheticum. This may be attributed to differences in release rates and possible reactions with gelatin. Overall, active films were successfully produced following plasma surface treatment, and experimental data demonstrated clearly that the use of antimicrobially-active films could significantly prolong the storage stability of beef primals through the effective control of BPS.

Keywords: active packaging, blown pack spoilage, Clostridium, antimicrobials, edible coatings, food packaging, gelatin films, meat science

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20 Data Calibration of the Actual versus the Theoretical Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Based Accelerometer Reading through Remote Monitoring of Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover

Authors: John Mark Payawal, Francis Aldrine Uy, John Paul Carreon


This paper shows the application of Structural Health Monitoring, SHM into bridges. Bridges are structures built to provide passage over a physical obstruction such as rivers, chasms or roads. The Philippines has a total of 8,166 national bridges as published on the 2015 atlas of the Department of Public Works and Highways (DPWH) and only 2,924 or 35.81% of these bridges are in good condition. As a result, PHP 30.464 billion of the 2016 budget of DPWH is allocated on roads and/or bridges maintenance alone. Intensive spending is owed to the present practice of outdated manual inspection and assessment, and poor structural health monitoring of Philippine infrastructures. As the School of Civil, Environmental, & Geological Engineering of Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) continuous its well driven passion in research based projects, a partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) and the DPWH launched the application of Structural Health Monitoring, (SHM) in Padre Jacinto Zamora Flyover. The flyover is located along Nagtahan Boulevard in Sta. Mesa, Manila that connects Brgy. 411 and Brgy. 635. It gives service to vehicles going from Lacson Avenue to Mabini Bridge passing over Legarda Flyover. The flyover is chosen among the many located bridges in Metro Manila as the focus of the pilot testing due to its site accessibility, and complete structural built plans and specifications necessary for SHM as provided by the Bureau of Design, BOD department of DPWH. This paper focuses on providing a method to calibrate theoretical readings from STAAD Vi8 Pro and sync the data to actual MEMS accelerometer readings. It is observed that while the design standards used in constructing the flyover was reflected on the model, actual readings of MEMS accelerometer display a large difference compared to the theoretical data ran and taken from STAAD Vi8 Pro. In achieving a true seismic response of the modeled bridge or hence syncing the theoretical data to the actual sensor reading also called as the independent variable of this paper, analysis using single degree of freedom (SDOF) of the flyover under free vibration without damping using STAAD Vi8 Pro is done. The earthquake excitation and bridge responses are subjected to earthquake ground motion in the form of ground acceleration or Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA. Translational acceleration load is used to simulate the ground motion of the time history analysis acceleration record in STAAD Vi8 Pro.

Keywords: accelerometer, analysis using single degree of freedom, micro electro mechanical system, peak ground acceleration, structural health monitoring

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19 Inverted Diameter-Limit Thinning: A Promising Alternative for Mixed Populus tremuloides Stands Management

Authors: Ablo Paul Igor Hounzandji, Benoit Lafleur, Annie DesRochers


Introduction: Populus tremuloides [Michx] regenerates rapidly and abundantly by root suckering after harvest, creating stands with interconnected stems. Pre-commercial thinning can be used to concentrate growth on fewer stems to reach merchantability faster than un-thinned stands. However, conventional thinning methods are typically designed to reach even spacing between residual stems (1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), which can lead to treated stands consisting of weaker/smaller stems compared to the original stands. Considering the nature of P. tremuloides's regeneration, with large underground biomass of interconnected roots, aiming to keep the most vigorous and largest stems, regardless of their spatial distribution, inverted diameter-limit thinning could be more beneficial to post-thinning stand productivity because it would reduce the imbalance between roots and leaf area caused by thinning. Aims: This study aimed to compare stand and stem productivity of P. tremuloides stands thinned with a conventional thinning treatment (CT; 1,100 stem ha⁻¹, evenly distributed), two levels of inverted diameter-limit thinning (DL1 and DL2, keeping the largest 1100 or 2200 stems ha⁻¹, respectively, regardless of their spatial distribution) and a control unthinned treatment. Because DL treatments can create substantial or frequent gaps in the thinned stands, we also aimed to evaluate the potential of this treatment to recreate mixed conifer-broadleaf stands by fill-planting Picea glauca seedlings. Methods: Three replicate 21 year-old sucker-regenerated aspen stands were thinned in 2010 according to four treatments: CT, DL1, DL2, and un-thinned control. Picea glauca seedlings were underplanted in gaps created by the DL1 and DL2 treatments. Stand productivity per hectare, stem quality (diameter and height, volume stem⁻¹) and survival and height growth of fill-planted P. glauca seedlings were measured 8 year post-treatments. Results: Productivity, volume, diameter, and height were better in the treated stands (CT, DL1, and DL2) than in the un-thinned control. Productivity of CT and DL1 stands was similar 4.8 m³ ha⁻¹ year⁻¹. At the tree level, diameter and height of the trees in the DL1 treatment were 5% greater than those in the CT treatment. The average volume of trees in the DL1 treatment was 11% higher than the CT treatment. Survival after 8 years of fill planted P. glauca seedlings was 2% greater in the DL1 than in the DL2 treatment. DL1 treatment also produced taller seedlings (+20 cm). Discussion: Results showed that DL treatments were effective in producing post-thinned stands with larger stems without affecting stand productivity. In addition, we showed that these treatments were suitable to introduce slower growing conifer seedlings such as Picea glauca in order to re-create or maintain mixed stands despite the aggressive nature of P. tremuloides sucker regeneration.

Keywords: Aspen, inverted diameter-limit, mixed forest, populus tremuloides, silviculture, thinning

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18 Mood Symptom Severity in Service Members with Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms after Service Dog Training

Authors: Tiffany Riggleman, Andrea Schultheis, Kalyn Jannace, Jerika Taylor, Michelle Nordstrom, Paul F. Pasquina


Introduction: Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) remain significant problems for military and veteran communities. Symptoms of PTSD often include poor sleep, intrusive thoughts, difficulty concentrating, and trouble with emotional regulation. Unfortunately, despite its high prevalence, service members diagnosed with PTSD often do not seek help, usually because of the perceived stigma surrounding behavioral health care. To help address these challenges, non-pharmacological, therapeutic approaches are being developed to help improve care and enhance compliance. The Service Dog Training Program (SDTP), which involves teaching patients how to train puppies to become mobility service dogs, has been successfully implemented into PTS/PTSD care programs with anecdotal reports of improved outcomes. This study was designed to assess the biopsychosocial effects of SDTP from military beneficiaries with PTS symptoms. Methods: Individuals between the ages of 18 and 65 with PTS symptom were recruited to participate in this prospective study. Each subject completes 4 weeks of baseline testing, followed by 6 weeks of active service dog training (twice per week for one hour sessions) with a professional service dog trainer. Outcome measures included the Posttraumatic Stress Checklist for the DSM-5 (PCL-5), Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), social support/interaction, anthropometrics, blood/serum biomarkers, and qualitative interviews. Preliminary analysis of 17 participants examined mean scores on the GAD-7, PCL-5, and PHQ-9, pre- and post-SDTP, and changes were assessed using Wilcoxon Signed-Rank tests. Results: Post-SDTP, there was a statistically significant mean decrease in PCL-5 scores of 13.5 on an 80-point scale (p=0.03) and a significant mean decrease of 2.2 in PHQ-9 scores on a 27 point scale (p=0.04), suggestive of decreased PTSD and depression symptoms. While there was a decrease in mean GAD-7 scores post-SDTP, the difference was not significant (p=0.20). Recurring themes among results from the qualitative interviews include decreased pain, forgetting about stressors, improved sense of calm, increased confidence, improved communication, and establishing a connection with the service dog. Conclusion: Preliminary results of the first 17 participants in this study suggest that individuals who received SDTP had a statistically significant decrease in PTS symptom, as measured by the PCL-5 and PHQ-9. This ongoing study seeks to enroll a total of 156 military beneficiaries with PTS symptoms. Future analyses will include additional psychological outcomes, pain scores, blood/serum biomarkers, and other measures of the social aspects of PTSD, such as relationship satisfaction and sleep hygiene.

Keywords: post-concussive syndrome, posttraumatic stress, service dog, service dog training program, traumatic brain injury

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17 Cockpit Integration and Piloted Assessment of an Upset Detection and Recovery System

Authors: Hafid Smaili, Wilfred Rouwhorst, Paul Frost


The trend of recent accident and incident cases worldwide show that the state-of-the-art automation and operations, for current and future demanding operational environments, does not provide the desired level of operational safety under crew peak workload conditions, specifically in complex situations such as loss-of-control in-flight (LOC-I). Today, the short term focus is on preparing crews to recognise and handle LOC-I situations through upset recovery training. This paper describes the cockpit integration aspects and piloted assessment of both a manually assisted and automatic upset detection and recovery system that has been developed and demonstrated within the European Advanced Cockpit for Reduction Of StreSs and workload (ACROSS) programme. The proposed system is a function that continuously monitors and intervenes when the aircraft enters an upset and provides either manually pilot-assisted guidance or takes over full control of the aircraft to recover from an upset. In order to mitigate the highly physical and psychological impact during aircraft upset events, the system provides new cockpit functionalities to support the pilot in recovering from any upset both manually assisted and automatically. A piloted simulator assessment was made in Oct-Nov 2015 using ten pilots in a representative civil large transport fly-by-wire aircraft in terms of the preference of the tested upset detection and recovery system configurations to reduce pilot workload, increase situational awareness and safe interaction with the manually assisted or automated modes. The piloted simulator evaluation of the upset detection and recovery system showed that the functionalities of the system are able to support pilots during an upset. The experiment showed that pilots are willing to rely on the guidance provided by the system during an upset. Thereby, it is important for pilots to see and understand what the aircraft is doing and trying to do especially in automatic modes. Comparing the manually assisted and the automatic recovery modes, the pilot’s opinion was that an automatic recovery reduces the workload so that they could perform a proper screening of the primary flight display. The results further show that the manually assisted recoveries, with recovery guidance cues on the cockpit primary flight display, reduced workload for severe upsets compared to today’s situation. The level of situation awareness was improved for automatic upset recoveries where the pilot could monitor what the system was trying to accomplish compared to automatic recovery modes without any guidance. An improvement in situation awareness was also noticeable with the manually assisted upset recovery functionalities as compared to the current non-assisted recovery procedures. This study shows that automatic upset detection and recovery functionalities are likely to positively impact the operational safety by means of reduced workload, improved situation awareness and crew stress reduction. It is thus believed that future developments for upset recovery guidance and loss-of-control prevention should focus on automatic recovery solutions.

Keywords: aircraft accidents, automatic flight control, loss-of-control, upset recovery

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16 Flux-Gate vs. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance Magnetic Sensors Characteristics in Closed-Loop Operation

Authors: Neoclis Hadjigeorgiou, Spyridon Angelopoulos, Evangelos V. Hristoforou, Paul P. Sotiriadis


The increasing demand for accurate and reliable magnetic measurements over the past decades has paved the way for the development of different types of magnetic sensing systems as well as of more advanced measurement techniques. Anisotropic Magneto Resistance (AMR) sensors have emerged as a promising solution for applications requiring high resolution, providing an ideal balance between performance and cost. However, certain issues of AMR sensors such as non-linear response and measurement noise are rarely discussed in the relevant literature. In this work, an analog closed loop compensation system is proposed, developed and tested as a means to eliminate the non-linearity of AMR response, reduce the 1/f noise and enhance the sensitivity of magnetic sensor. Additional performance aspects, such as cross-axis and hysteresis effects are also examined. This system was analyzed using an analytical model and a P-Spice model, considering both the sensor itself as well as the accompanying electronic circuitry. In addition, a commercial closed loop architecture Flux-Gate sensor (calibrated and certified), has been used for comparison purposes. Three different experimental setups have been constructed for the purposes of this work, each one utilized for DC magnetic field measurements, AC magnetic field measurements and Noise density measurements respectively. The DC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to calibrate and characterize the system under consideration. A high-accuracy DC power supply has been used for providing the operating current to the Helmholtz coils. The results were recorded by a multichannel voltmeter The AC magnetic field measurements have been conducted in laboratory environment employing a cubic Helmholtz coil setup in order to examine the effective bandwidth not only of the proposed system but also for the Flux-Gate sensor. A voltage controlled current source driven by a function generator has been utilized for the Helmholtz coil excitation. The result was observed by the oscilloscope. The third experimental apparatus incorporated an AC magnetic shielding construction composed of several layers of electric steel that had been demagnetized prior to the experimental process. Each sensor was placed alone and the response was captured by the oscilloscope. The preliminary experimental results indicate that closed loop AMR response presented a maximum deviation of 0.36% with respect to the ideal linear response, while the corresponding values for the open loop AMR system and the Fluxgate sensor reached 2% and 0.01% respectively. Moreover, the noise density of the proposed close loop AMR sensor system remained almost as low as the noise density of the AMR sensor itself, yet considerably higher than that of the Flux-Gate sensor. All relevant numerical data are presented in the paper.

Keywords: AMR sensor, chopper, closed loop, electronic noise, magnetic noise, memory effects, flux-gate sensor, linearity improvement, sensitivity improvement

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15 Foslip Loaded and CEA-Affimer Functionalised Silica Nanoparticles for Fluorescent Imaging of Colorectal Cancer Cells

Authors: Yazan S. Khaled, Shazana Shamsuddin, Jim Tiernan, Mike McPherson, Thomas Hughes, Paul Millner, David G. Jayne


Introduction: There is a need for real-time imaging of colorectal cancer (CRC) to allow tailored surgery to the disease stage. Fluorescence guided laparoscopic imaging of primary colorectal cancer and the draining lymphatics would potentially bring stratified surgery into clinical practice and realign future CRC management to the needs of patients. Fluorescent nanoparticles can offer many advantages in terms of intra-operative imaging and therapy (theranostic) in comparison with traditional soluble reagents. Nanoparticles can be functionalised with diverse reagents and then targeted to the correct tissue using an antibody or Affimer (artificial binding protein). We aimed to develop and test fluorescent silica nanoparticles and targeted against CRC using an anti-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) Affimer (Aff). Methods: Anti-CEA and control Myoglobin Affimer binders were subcloned into the expressing vector pET11 followed by transformation into BL21 Star™ (DE3) E.coli. The expression of Affimer binders was induced using 0.1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). Cells were harvested, lysed and purified using nickle chelating affinity chromatography. The photosensitiser Foslip (soluble analogue of 5,10,15,20-Tetra(m-hydroxyphenyl) chlorin) was incorporated into the core of silica nanoparticles using water-in-oil microemulsion technique. Anti-CEA or control Affs were conjugated to silica nanoparticles surface using sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (sulfo SMCC) chemical linker. Binding of CEA-Aff or control nanoparticles to colorectal cancer cells (LoVo, LS174T and HC116) was quantified in vitro using confocal microscopy. Results: The molecular weights of the obtained band of Affimers were ~12.5KDa while the diameter of functionalised silica nanoparticles was ~80nm. CEA-Affimer targeted nanoparticles demonstrated 9.4, 5.8 and 2.5 fold greater fluorescence than control in, LoVo, LS174T and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.002) for the single slice analysis. A similar pattern of successful CEA-targeted fluorescence was observed in the maximum image projection analysis, with CEA-targeted nanoparticles demonstrating 4.1, 2.9 and 2.4 fold greater fluorescence than control particles in LoVo, LS174T, and HCT116 cells respectively (p < 0.0002). There was no significant difference in fluorescence for CEA-Affimer vs. CEA-Antibody targeted nanoparticles. Conclusion: We are the first to demonstrate that Foslip-doped silica nanoparticles conjugated to anti-CEA Affimers via SMCC allowed tumour cell-specific fluorescent targeting in vitro, and had shown sufficient promise to justify testing in an animal model of colorectal cancer. CEA-Affimer appears to be a suitable targeting molecule to replace CEA-Antibody. Targeted silica nanoparticles loaded with Foslip photosensitiser is now being optimised to drive photodynamic killing, via reactive oxygen generation.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, silica nanoparticles, Affimers, antibodies, imaging

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14 Effect of Rolling Shear Modulus and Geometric Make up on the Out-Of-Plane Bending Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Panel

Authors: Md Tanvir Rahman, Mahbube Subhani, Mahmud Ashraf, Paul Kremer


Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is made from layers of timber boards orthogonally oriented in the thickness direction, and due to this, CLT can withstand bi-axial bending in contrast with most other engineered wood products such as laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glued laminated timber (GLT). Wood is cylindrically anisotropic in nature and is characterized by significantly lower elastic modulus and shear modulus in the planes perpendicular to the fibre direction, and is therefore classified as orthotropic material and is thus characterized by 9 elastic constants which are three elastic modulus in longitudinal direction, tangential direction and radial direction, three shear modulus in longitudinal tangential plane, longitudinal radial plane and radial tangential plane and three Poisson’s ratio. For simplification, timber materials are generally assumed to be transversely isotropic, reducing the number of elastic properties characterizing it to 5, where the longitudinal plane and radial planes are assumed to be planes of symmetry. The validity of this assumption was investigated through numerical modelling of CLT with both orthotropic mechanical properties and transversely isotropic material properties for three softwood species, which are Norway spruce, Douglas fir, Radiata pine, and three hardwood species, namely Victorian ash, Beech wood, and Aspen subjected to uniformly distributed loading under simply supported boundary condition. It was concluded that assuming the timber to be transversely isotropic results in a negligible error in the order of 1 percent. It was also observed that along with longitudinal elastic modulus, ratio of longitudinal shear modulus (GL) and rolling shear modulus (GR) has a significant effect on a deflection for CLT panels of lower span to depth ratio. For softwoods such as Norway spruce and Radiata pine, the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus, GL to rolling shear modulus GR is reported to be in the order of 12 to 15 times in literature. This results in shear flexibility in transverse layers leading to increased deflection under out-of-plane loading. The rolling shear modulus of hardwoods has been found to be significantly higher than those of softwoods, where the ratio between longitudinal shear modulus to rolling shear modulus as low as 4. This has resulted in a significant rise in research into the manufacturing of CLT from entirely from hardwood, as well as from a combination of softwood and hardwoods. The commonly used beam theory to analyze the performance of CLT panels under out-of-plane loads are the Shear analogy method, Gamma method, and k-method. The shear analogy method has been found to be the most effective method where shear deformation is significant. The effect of the ratio of longitudinal shear modulus and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer on the deflection of CLT under uniformly distributed load with respect to its length to depth ratio was investigated using shear analogy method. It was observed that shear deflection is reduced significantly as the ratio of the shear modulus of the longitudinal layer and rolling shear modulus of cross-layer decreases. This indicates that there is significant room for improvement of the bending performance of CLT through developing hybrid CLT from a mix of softwood and hardwood.

Keywords: rolling shear modulus, shear deflection, ratio of shear modulus and rolling shear modulus, timber

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13 Effect of Climate Change on the Genomics of Invasiveness of the Whitefly Bemisia tabaci Species Complex by Estimating the Effective Population Size via a Coalescent Method

Authors: Samia Elfekih, Wee Tek Tay, Karl Gordon, Paul De Barro


Invasive species represent an increasing threat to food biosecurity, causing significant economic losses in agricultural systems. An example is the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, which is a complex of morphologically indistinguishable species causing average annual global damage estimated at US$2.4 billion. The Bemisia complex represents an interesting model for evolutionary studies because of their extensive distribution and potential for invasiveness and population expansion. Within this complex, two species, Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) have invaded well beyond their home ranges whereas others, such as Indian Ocean (IO) and Australia (AUS), have not. In order to understand why some Bemisia species have become invasive, genome-wide sequence scans were used to estimate population dynamics over time and relate these to climate. The Bayesian Skyline Plot (BSP) method as implemented in BEAST was used to infer the historical effective population size. In order to overcome sampling bias, the populations were combined based on geographical origin. The datasets used for this particular analysis are genome-wide SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) called separately in each of the following groups: Sub-Saharan Africa (Burkina Faso), Europe (Spain, France, Greece and Croatia), USA (Arizona), Mediterranean-Middle East (Israel, Italy), Middle East-Central Asia (Turkmenistan, Iran) and Reunion Island. The non-invasive ‘AUS’ species endemic to Australia was used as an outgroup. The main findings of this study show that the BSP for the Sub-Saharan African MED population is different from that observed in MED populations from the Mediterranean Basin, suggesting evolution under a different set of environmental conditions. For MED, the effective size of the African (Burkina Faso) population showed a rapid expansion ≈250,000-310,000 years ago (YA), preceded by a period of slower growth. The European MED populations (i.e., Spain, France, Croatia, and Greece) showed a single burst of expansion at ≈160,000-200,000 YA. The MEAM1 populations from Israel and Italy and the ones from Iran and Turkmenistan are similar as they both show the earlier expansion at ≈250,000-300,000 YA. The single IO population lacked the latter expansion but had the earlier one. This pattern is shared with the Sub-Saharan African (Burkina Faso) MED, suggesting IO also faced a similar history of environmental change, which seems plausible given their relatively close geographical distributions. In conclusion, populations within the invasive species MED and MEAM1 exhibited signatures of population expansion lacking in non-invasive species (IO and AUS) during the Pleistocene, a geological epoch marked by repeated climatic oscillations with cycles of glacial and interglacial periods. These expansions strongly suggested the potential of some Bemisia species’ genomes to affect their adaptability and invasiveness.

Keywords: whitefly, RADseq, invasive species, SNP, climate change

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12 A Mathematical Model for Studying Landing Dynamics of a Typical Lunar Soft Lander

Authors: Johns Paul, Santhosh J. Nalluveettil, P. Purushothaman, M. Premdas


Lunar landing is one of the most critical phases of lunar mission. The lander is provided with a soft landing system to prevent structural damage of lunar module by absorbing the landing shock and also assure stability during landing. Presently available software are not capable to simulate the rigid body dynamics coupled with contact simulation and elastic/plastic deformation analysis. Hence a separate mathematical model has been generated for studying the dynamics of a typical lunar soft lander. Parameters used in the analysis includes lunar surface slope, coefficient of friction, initial touchdown velocity (vertical and horizontal), mass and moment of inertia of lander, crushing force due to energy absorbing material in the legs, number of legs and geometry of lander. The mathematical model is capable to simulate plastic and elastic deformation of honey comb, frictional force between landing leg and lunar soil, surface contact simulation, lunar gravitational force, rigid body dynamics and linkage dynamics of inverted tripod landing gear. The non linear differential equations generated for studying the dynamics of lunar lander is solved by numerical method. Matlab programme has been used as a computer tool for solving the numerical equations. The position of each kinematic joint is defined by mathematical equations for the generation of equation of motion. All hinged locations are defined by position vectors with respect to body fixed coordinate. The vehicle rigid body rotations and motions about body coordinate are only due to the external forces and moments arise from footpad reaction force due to impact, footpad frictional force and weight of vehicle. All these force are mathematically simulated for the generation of equation of motion. The validation of mathematical model is done by two different phases. First phase is the validation of plastic deformation of crushable elements by employing conservation of energy principle. The second phase is the validation of rigid body dynamics of model by simulating a lander model in ADAMS software after replacing the crushable elements to elastic spring element. Simulation of plastic deformation along with rigid body dynamics and contact force cannot be modeled in ADAMS. Hence plastic element of primary strut is replaced with a spring element and analysis is carried out in ADAMS software. The same analysis is also carried out using the mathematical model where the simulation of honeycomb crushing is replaced by elastic spring deformation and compared the results with ADAMS analysis. The rotational motion of linkages and 6 degree of freedom motion of lunar Lander about its CG can be validated by ADAMS software by replacing crushing element to spring element. The model is also validated by the drop test results of 4 leg lunar lander. This paper presents the details of mathematical model generated and its validation.

Keywords: honeycomb, landing leg tripod, lunar lander, primary link, secondary link

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11 Barriers and Facilitators of Physical Activity among Adults and Older Adults from Black and Minority Ethnic Groups in the UK: A Meta-Ethnographic Study

Authors: Janet Ige, Paul Pilkington, Selena Gray, Jane Powell


Older adults from socially disadvantaged groups and Black and Minority Ethnic (BME) groups experience a higher burden of physical inactivity. Physical inactivity among BME groups is associated with the disproportionately higher level of health inequalities. People from minority ethnic groups encounter more barriers to physical activity. However, this is not often reported. There is very limited review-level evidence on the barriers and facilitators of physical activity among older adults from BME groups in the UK. This study aims to answer the following research question: what are the barriers and facilitators of physical activity participation among adults and older adults from BME background in the UK? To address this, we conducted a review of qualitative studies investigating the barriers and opportunities for physical activity among of BME adults and older adults in the UK. Method: This study is nested in an interpretive paradigm of meta-ethnography. A structured search for published literature was conducted on 6 electronic databases (MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Allied and Complementary Medicine) from January 2007 to July 2017. Hand searching of the reference list of publications was performed in addition to a search conducted on Google Scholar to identify grey literature. Studies were eligible provided they employed any qualitative method and included participants identified as being BME, aged 50 and above, living in any community within the UK. In total, 1036 studies were identified from the structured search for literature, 718 studies were screened by titles after duplicates were removed. On applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, a final selection of 10 studies was considered eligible for synthesis. Quality assessment was performed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Logic maps were used to show the relationship between factors that impact on physical activity participation among adults and older adults Result: Six key themes emerged from the data: awareness of the links between physical activity and health, interaction, and engagement with health professionals, cultural expectations and social responsibilities, appropriate environment, religious fatalism and practical challenges. Findings also showed that the barriers and facilitators of physical activity exist at the individual, community, and socio-economic, cultural and environmental level. There was a substantial gap in research among Black African groups. Findings from the review also informed the design of an ongoing survey investigating the experience and attitude of adults from Somali backgrounds towards physical activity in the UK. Conclusion: Identifying the barriers and facilitators of physical activity among BME groups is a crucial step in addressing the widening inequality gap. Findings from this study highlight the importance of engaging local BME residents in the design of exercise facilities within the community. This will ensure that cultural and social concerns are recognized and properly addressed.

Keywords: BME, UK, meta-ethnographic, adults

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10 Immobilization of Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme on Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles

Authors: Istvan Szilagyi, Marko Pavlovic, Paul Rouster


Antioxidant enzymes are the most efficient defense systems against reactive oxygen species, which cause severe damage in living organisms and industrial products. However, their supplementation is problematic due to their high sensitivity to the environmental conditions. Immobilization on carrier nanoparticles is a promising research direction towards the improvement of their functional and colloidal stability. In that way, their applications in biomedical treatments and manufacturing processes in the food, textile and cosmetic industry can be extended. The main goal of the present research was to prepare and formulate antioxidant bionanocomposites composed of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme, anionic clay (layered double hydroxide, LDH) nanoparticle and heparin (HEP) polyelectrolyte. To characterize the structure and the colloidal stability of the obtained compounds in suspension and solid state, electrophoresis, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, spectrophotometry, thermogravimetry, X-ray diffraction, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy were used as experimental techniques. LDH-SOD composite was synthesized by enzyme immobilization on the clay particles via electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions, which resulted in a strong adsorption of the SOD on the LDH surface, i.e., no enzyme leakage was observed once the material was suspended in aqueous solutions. However, the LDH-SOD showed only limited resistance against salt-induced aggregation and large irregularly shaped clusters formed during short term interval even at lower ionic strengths. Since sufficiently high colloidal stability is a key requirement in most of the applications mentioned above, the nanocomposite was coated with HEP polyelectrolyte to develop highly stable suspensions of primary LDH-SOD-HEP particles. HEP is a natural anticoagulant with one of the highest negative line charge density among the known macromolecules. The experimental results indicated that it strongly adsorbed on the oppositely charged LDH-SOD surface leading to charge inversion and to the formation of negatively charged LDH-SOD-HEP. The obtained hybrid materials formed stable suspension even under extreme conditions, where classical colloid chemistry theories predict rapid aggregation of the particles and unstable suspensions. Such a stabilization effect originated from electrostatic repulsion between the particles of the same sign of charge as well as from steric repulsion due to the osmotic pressure raised during the overlap of the polyelectrolyte chains adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the SOD enzyme kept its structural and functional integrity during the immobilization and coating processes and hence, the LDH-SOD-HEP bionanocomposite possessed excellent activity in decomposition of superoxide radical anions, as revealed in biochemical test reactions. In conclusion, due to the improved colloidal stability and the good efficiency in scavenging superoxide radical ions, the developed enzymatic system is a promising antioxidant candidate for biomedical or other manufacturing processes, wherever the aim is to decompose reactive oxygen species in suspensions.

Keywords: clay, enzyme, polyelectrolyte, formulation

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9 Genetic Diversity of Norovirus Strains in Outpatient Children from Rural Communities of Vhembe District, South Africa, 2014-2015

Authors: Jean Pierre Kabue, Emma Meader, Afsatou Ndama Traore, Paul R. Hunter, Natasha Potgieter


Norovirus is now considered the most common cause of outbreaks of nonbacterial gastroenteritis. Limited data are available for Norovirus strains in Africa, especially in rural and peri-urban areas. Despite the excessive burden of diarrhea disease in developing countries, Norovirus infections have been to date mostly reported in developed countries. There is a need to investigate intensively the role of viral agents associated with diarrhea in different settings in Africa continent. To determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Norovirus strains circulating in the rural communities in the Limpopo Province, South Africa and investigate the genetic relationship between Norovirus strains, a cross-sectional study was performed on human stools collected from rural communities. Between July 2014 and April 2015, outpatient children under 5 years of age from rural communities of Vhembe District, South Africa, were recorded for the study. A total of 303 stool specimens were collected from those with diarrhea (n=253) and without (n=50) diarrhea. NoVs were identified using real-time one-step RT-PCR. Partial Sequence analyses were performed to genotype the strains. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to compare identified NoVs genotypes to the worldwide circulating strains. Norovirus detection rate was 41.1% (104/253) in children with diarrhea. There was no significant difference (OR=1.24; 95% CI 0.66-2.33) in Norovirus detection between symptomatic and asymptomatic children. Comparison of the median CT values for NoV in children with diarrhea and without diarrhea revealed significant statistical difference of estimated GII viral load from both groups, with a much higher viral burden in children with diarrhea. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting on the differences in estimated viral load of GII and GI NoV positive cases and controls. GII.Pe (n=9) were the predominant genotypes followed by GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012 (n=8) suspected recombinant and GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants(n=7). Two unassigned GII.4 variants and an unusual RdRp genotype GII.P15 were found. With note, the rare GIIP15 identified in this study has a common ancestor with GIIP15 strain from Japan previously reported as GII/untypeable recombinant strain implicated in a gastroenteritis outbreak. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this unusual genotype in the African continent. Though not confirmed predictive of diarrhea disease in this study, the high detection rate of NoV is an indication of subsequent exposure of children from rural communities to enteric pathogens due to poor sanitation and hygiene practices. The results reveal that the difference between asymptomatic and symptomatic children with NoV may possibly be related to the NoV genogroups involved. The findings emphasize NoV genetic diversity and predominance of GII.Pe/GII.4 Sydney 2012, indicative of increased NoV activity. An uncommon GII.P15 and two unassigned GII.4 variants were also identified from rural settings of the Vhembe District/South Africa. NoV surveillance is required to help to inform investigations into NoV evolution, and to support vaccine development programmes in Africa.

Keywords: asymptomatic, common, outpatients, norovirus genetic diversity, sporadic gastroenteritis, South African rural communities, symptomatic

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8 „Real and Symbolic in Poetics of Multiplied Screens and Images“

Authors: Kristina Horvat Blazinovic


In the context of a work of art, one can talk about the idea-concept-term-intention expressed by the artist by using various forms of repetition (external, material, visible repetition). Such repetitions of elements (images in space or moving visual and sound images in time) suggest a "covert", "latent" ("dressed") repetition – i.e., "hidden", "latent" term-intention-idea. Repeating in this way reveals a "deeper truth" that the viewer needs to decode and which is hidden "under" the technical manifestation of the multiplied images. It is not only images, sounds, and screens that are repeated - something else is repeated through them as well, even if, in some cases, the very idea of repetition is repeated. This paper examines serial images and single-channel or multi-channel artwork in the field of video/film art and video installations, which in a way implies the concept of repetition and multiplication. Moving or static images and screens (as multi-screens) are repeated in time and space. The categories of the real and the symbolic partly refer to the Lacan registers of reality, i.e., the Imaginary - Symbolic – Real trinity that represents the orders within which human subjectivity is established. Authors such as Bruce Nauman, VALIE EXPORT, Ragnar Kjartansson, Wolf Vostell, Shirin Neshat, Paul Sharits, Harun Farocki, Dalibor Martinis, Andy Warhol, Douglas Gordon, Bill Viola, Frank Gillette, and Ira Schneider, and Marina Abramovic problematize, in different ways, the concept and procedures of multiplication - repetition, but not in the sense of "copying" and "repetition" of reality or the original, but of repeated repetitions of the simulacrum. Referential works of art are often connected by the theme of the traumatic. Repetitions of images and situations are a response to the traumatic (experience) - repetition itself is a symptom of trauma. On the other hand, repeating and multiplying traumatic images results in a new traumatic effect or cancels it. Reflections on repetition as a temporal and spatial phenomenon are in line with the chapters that link philosophical considerations of space and time and experience temporality with their manifestation in works of art. The observations about time and the relation of perception and memory are according to Henry Bergson and his conception of duration (durée) as "quality of quantity." The video works intended to be displayed as a video loop, express the idea of infinite duration ("pure time," according to Bergson). The Loop wants to be always present - to fixate in time. Wholeness is unrecognizable because the intention is to make the effect infinitely cyclic. Reflections on time and space end with considerations about the occurrence and effects of time and space intervals as places and moments "between" – the points of connection and separation, of continuity and stopping - by reference to the "interval theory" of Soviet filmmaker DzigaVertov. The scale of opportunities that can be explored in interval mode is wide. Intervals represent the perception of time and space in the form of pauses, interruptions, breaks (e.g., emotional, dramatic, or rhythmic) denote emptiness or silence, distance, proximity, interstitial space, or a gap between various states.

Keywords: video installation, performance, repetition, multi-screen, real and symbolic, loop, video art, interval, video time

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7 A Next-Generation Pin-On-Plate Tribometer for Use in Arthroplasty Material Performance Research

Authors: Lewis J. Woollin, Robert I. Davidson, Paul Watson, Philip J. Hyde


Introduction: In-vitro testing of arthroplasty materials is of paramount importance when ensuring that they can withstand the performance requirements encountered in-vivo. One common machine used for in-vitro testing is a pin-on-plate tribometer, an early stage screening device that generates data on the wear characteristics of arthroplasty bearing materials. These devices test vertically loaded rotating cylindrical pins acting against reciprocating plates, representing the bearing surfaces. In this study, a pin-on-plate machine has been developed that provides several improvements over current technology, thereby progressing arthroplasty bearing research. Historically, pin-on-plate tribometers have been used to investigate the performance of arthroplasty bearing materials under conditions commonly encountered during a standard gait cycle; nominal operating pressures of 2-6 MPa and an operating frequency of 1 Hz are typical. There has been increased interest in using pin-on-plate machines to test more representative in-vivo conditions, due to the drive to test 'beyond compliance', as well as their testing speed and economic advantages over hip simulators. Current pin-on-plate machines do not accommodate the increased performance requirements associated with more extreme kinematic conditions, therefore a next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer has been developed to bridge the gap between current technology and future research requirements. Methodology: The design was driven by several physiologically relevant requirements. Firstly, an increased loading capacity was essential to replicate the peak pressures that occur in the natural hip joint during running and chair-rising, as well as increasing the understanding of wear rates in obese patients. Secondly, the introduction of mid-cycle load variation was of paramount importance, as this allows for an approximation of the loads present in a gait cycle to be applied and to test the fatigue properties of materials. Finally, the rig must be validated against previous-generation pin-on-plate and arthroplasty wear data. Results: The resulting machine is a twelve station device that is split into three sets of four stations, providing an increased testing capacity compared to most current pin-on-plate tribometers. The loading of the pins is generated using a pneumatic system, which can produce contact pressures of up to 201 MPa on a 3.2 mm² round pin face. This greatly exceeds currently achievable contact pressures in literature and opens new research avenues such as testing rim wear of mal-positioned hip implants. Additionally, the contact pressure of each set can be changed independently of the others, allowing multiple loading conditions to be tested simultaneously. Using pneumatics also allows the applied pressure to be switched ON/OFF mid-cycle, another feature not currently reported elsewhere, which allows for investigation into intermittent loading and material fatigue. The device is currently undergoing a series of validation tests using Ultra-High-Molecular-Weight-Polyethylene pins and 316L Stainless Steel Plates (polished to a Ra < 0.05 µm). The operating pressures will be between 2-6 MPa, operating at 1 Hz, allowing for validation of the machine against results reported previously in the literature. The successful production of this next-generation pin-on-plate tribometer will, following its validation, unlock multiple previously unavailable research avenues.

Keywords: arthroplasty, mechanical design, pin-on-plate, total joint replacement, wear testing

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