Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 107

Search results for: Pakize Ozlem Kurt Polat

47 Effects of Tomato-Crispy Salad Intercropping on Diameter of Tomato Fruits under Greenhouse Conditions

Authors: Halil Demir, Ersin Polat

Abstract:

This study, in which crispy salad plants was cultivated between the two rows of tomato, was conducted in Spring 2007 in a research glasshouse at Akdeniz University. Crispy salad (Lactuca sativa var. crispa cv. Bohemia) plants were intercropped with tomato (Solanum lycopersicon cv. Selin F1) plants as the main crop. Tomato seedlings were planted according to double line plantation system with 100 cm large spacing, 50 cm narrow spacing and 50 cm within row plant spacing. In both control and intercropping applications, each plot was 9.75 m2 according to plantation distances and there were 26 plants per each plot for tomato. Crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30 cm spacing as one row in the middle of tomato plants and with 30x30 spacing as two rows between plants rows. Moreover, salad seedlings were transplanted between tomato plants above the tomato rows that were planted in two rows with intervals of 50 cm and also with 25x25 cm spacing as the third row in the middle of tomato rows. While tomato plants were growing during the research, fruit width and height were measured periodically with 15 days in the tomato fruits of the third cluster from the formation of fruit to fruit ripening. According to results, while there were no differences between cropping systems in terms of fruit width, the highest fruit height was found in Control trial in the first measurement. In the second measurement while the highest fruit width was determined with 64.39 mm in Control, there were no differences between cropping systems. In the third measurement, the highest fruit width and height were obtained from Control with 68.47 mm and 55.52 mm, respectively. As a conclusion the trial, which crispy salad seedlings were planted with 30x30 cm spacing as two rows between tomato plants rows, was determined as a best intercropping application.

Keywords: intercropping, tomato, crispy salad, glasshouse

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
46 Dynamic Risk Model for Offshore Decommissioning Using Bayesian Belief Network

Authors: Ahmed O. Babaleye, Rafet E. Kurt

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The global oil and gas industry is beginning to witness an increase in the number of installations moving towards decommissioning. Decommissioning of offshore installations is a complex, costly and hazardous activity, making safety one of the major concerns. Among existing removal options, complete and partial removal options pose the highest risks. Therefore, a dynamic risk model of the accidents from the two options is important to assess the risks on an overall basis. In this study, a risk-based safety model is developed to conduct quantitative risk analysis (QRA) for jacket structure systems failure. Firstly, bow-tie (BT) technique is utilised to model the causal relationship between the system failure and potential accident scenarios. Subsequently, to relax the shortcomings of BT, Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) were established to dynamically assess associated uncertainties and conditional dependencies. The BBN is developed through a similitude mapping of the developed bow-tie. The BBN is used to update the failure probabilities of the contributing elements through diagnostic analysis, thus, providing a case-specific and realistic safety analysis method when compared to a bow-tie. This paper presents the application of dynamic safety analysis to guide the allocation of risk control measures and consequently, drive down the avoidable cost of remediation.

Keywords: Bayesian belief network, offshore decommissioning, dynamic safety model, quantitative risk analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
45 Studying Educational Processes through a Multifocal Viewpoint: Educational and Social Studies

Authors: Atara Shriki, Noa Shriki

Abstract:

Lifelong learning is considered as essential for teacher's professional development, which in turn has implications for the improvement of the entire education system. In recent years, many programs designed to support teachers' professional development are criticized for not achieving their goal. A variety of reasons have been proposed for the purpose of explaining the causes of the ineffectiveness of such programs. In this study, we put to test the possibility that teachers do not change as a result of their participation in professional programs due to a gap between the contents and approaches included in them and teacher's beliefs about teaching and learning. Eighteen elementary school mathematics teachers participated in the study. These teachers were involved in collaborating with their students in inquiring mathematical ideas, while implementing action research. Employing educational theories, the results indicated that this experience had a positive effect on teacher's professional development. In particular, there was an evident change in their beliefs regarding their role as mathematics teachers. However, while employing a different perspective for analyzing the data, the lens of Kurt Lewin's theory of re-education, we realized that this change of beliefs must be questioned. Therefore, it is suggested that analysis of educational processes should be carried out not only through common educational theories, but also on the basis of social and organizational theories. It is assumed that both the field of education and the fields of social studies and organizational consulting will benefit from the multifocal viewpoint

Keywords: Professional Development, teachers' beliefs, educational theories, re-education

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44 Reflections of Young Language Learners’ and Teacher Candidates’ for ‘Easy English’ Project

Authors: F. Özlem Saka

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There should be connections between universities and state schools in order to improve the quality of instruction. ELT department of Akdeniz University carries out a project named ‘Easy English’ with a state primary school in Antalya for 2 years. According to the Project requirements, junior students at university teach English to 3rd grade primary school students during the term. They are supposed to teach the topics planned before, preparing different activities for the students. This study reflects the ideas of both students at university and at state school related to the language programme carried out. Their ideas have been collected with a questionnaire consisting of similar structured questions. The result shows that both groups like the programme and evaluate it from their own perspectives. It is believed the efficient results of this project will lead to planning similar programmes for different levels. From this study, curriculum planners and teachers can get ideas to improve language teaching at primary level as both university students, being the teachers in the project and students at state primary school have positive feelings and thoughts about it.

Keywords: foreign language teacher training, games in English teaching, songs in English teaching, teaching English to young learners

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
43 Fear of Childbirth According to Parity

Authors: Kiymet Yesilcicek Calik, Ozlem Karabulutlu, Nazli Akar

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Objectives: To examine fear of childbirth according to parity, gestational age, prenatal education, and obstetric history. Methods: The study was performed as a questionnaire design in a State Hospital in Kars, Turkey with 403 unselected pregnant who were recruited from the delivery unit. The data were collected via 3 questionnaires; the first with sociodemographic and obstetric features, the second with Wijma Delivery Expectance/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ) scale, and the third with the scale of Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). Results: The W-DEQ and BAI scores were higher in nulliparous than multiparous woman (W-DEQ 67.08±28.33, 59.87±26.91, P=0.039<0.05, BAI 18.97±9.5, 16.65±11.83, P=0.0009<0.05 respectively). Moreover, W-DEQ and BAI scores of pregnant whose gestational week was ≤37 / ≥41 and who didn’t receive training and had vaginal delivery was higher than those whose gestational week was 38-40 weeks and who received prenatal training and had cesarean delivery (W-DEQ 67.54±29.20, 56.44±22.59, 69.72±25.53 p<0.05, BAI 21.41±9.07; 15.77±11.20, 18.36±10.57 p<0.05 respectively). Both in nulliparous and multiparous, as W-DEQ score increases BAI score increases too (r=0.256; p=0.000<0.05). Conclusions: Severe fear of childbirth and anxiety was more common in nulliparous women, preterm and post-term pregnancy and who did not receive prenatal training and had vaginal delivery.

Keywords: Pregnant Women, parity, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), fear of birth, Wijma Delivery Expectance/Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ)

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42 Hydroxyapatite Based Porous Scaffold for Tooth Tissue Engineering

Authors: Pakize Neslihan Taslı, Alev Cumbul, Gul Merve Yalcın, Fikrettin Sahin

Abstract:

A key experimental trial in the regeneration of large oral and craniofacial defects is the neogenesis of osseous and ligamentous interfacial structures. Currently, oral regenerative medicine strategies are unpredictable for repair of tooth supporting tissues destroyed as a consequence of trauma, chronic infection or surgical resection. A different approach combining the gel-casting method with Hydroxy Apatite HA-based scaffold and different cell lineages as a hybrid system leads to successively mimic the early stage of tooth development, in vitro. HA is widely accepted as a bioactive material for guided bone and tooth regeneration. In this study, it was reported that, HA porous scaffold preparation, characterization and evaluation of structural and chemical properties. HA is the main factor that exists in tooth and it is in harmony with structural, biological, and mechanical characteristics. Here, this study shows mimicking immature tooth at the late bell stage design and construction of HA scaffolds for cell transplantation of human Adipose Stem Cells (hASCs), human Bone Marrow Stem Cells (hBMSCs) and Gingival Epitelial cells for the formation of human tooth dentin-pulp-enamel complexes in vitro. Scaffold characterization was demonstrated by SEM, FTIR and pore size and density measurements. The biological contraction of dental tissues against each other was demonstrated by mRNA gene expressions, histopatologic observations and protein release profile by ELISA tecnique. The tooth shaped constructs with a pore size ranging from 150 to 300 µm arranged by gathering right amounts of materials provide interconnected macro-porous structure. The newly formed tissue like structures that grow and integrate within the HA designed constructs forming tooth cementum like tissue, pulp and bone structures. These findings are important as they emphasize the potential biological effect of the hybrid scaffold system. In conclusion, this in vitro study clearly demonstrates that designed 3D scaffolds shaped as a immature tooth at the late bell stage were essential to form enamel-dentin-pulp interfaces with an appropriate cell and biodegradable material combination. The biomimetic architecture achieved here is providing a promising platform for dental tissue engineering.

Keywords: Tissue Engineering, adipose stem cells, tooth regeneration, hydroxyapatite tooth engineering, porous scaffold

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41 Eimeria spp. in Naturally Infected Calves

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici

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Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by various species of Eimeria and most signs of disease are chronic or subclinical. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in calves in Konya, in Turkey. The study, conducted from January- February 2015, involved 240 faecal samples of calves in the age groups of <1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months in Konya city centre, in Turkey. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of calves submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt floatation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 8.33% of all samples. The positivity rates in each of the age groups were different. According to the age groups (<1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months), the Eimeria spp. were determined as 0.83, 22.73 and 7.41%, respectively. After examination of stool, detected oocysts were sporulated in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 22º C and species were identified as E. cylindrica, E. zuernii, E. ellipsoidalis, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. auburnensis, E. canadensis, E. illinoisensis and E. brasiliensis in infected calves. In conclusion, the highest prevalence was observed in the age group of 1-3 months. The presence of Eimeria species in calves demonstrated for the first time in the Konya region in Turkey. Other etiologic agents should also be investigated in calves more seriously. Further molecular epidemiological studies should be performed in this community.

Keywords: Diarrhea, calves, Eimeria spp, bovine coccidiosis

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40 Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Some Benzoxazole Derivatives as Inhibitors of Acetylcholinesterase / Butyrylcholinesterase and Tyrosinase

Authors: Ozlem Temiz-Arpaci, Meryem Tasci, Fatma Sezer Senol, İlkay Erdogan Orhan

Abstract:

Alzheimer’s disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a progressive deterioration of memory and cognition, occurs more frequently in elderly people. Current treatment approaches in this disease with the major therapeutic strategy are based on the AChE and BChE inhibition. On the other hand, tyrosinase inhibition has become a target for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD) since this enzyme may play a role in neuromelanin formation in the human brain and could be critical in the formation of dopamine neurotoxicity associated with neurodegeneration linked to PD. Also benzoxazoles are structural isosteres of natural nucleotides that can interact with biopolymers so that benzoxazoles showed a lot of different biological activities. In this study, a series of 2,5-disubstituted-benzoxazole derivatives were synthesized and were evaluated as possible inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) / butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and tyrosinase. The results demonstrated that the compounds exhibited a weak spectrum of AChE / BChE inhibitory activity ranging between 3.92% - 54.32% except compound 8 which showed no activity against AChE and compound 4 which showed no activity against BChE at the specified molar concentrations. Also, the compounds indicated lower than tyrosinase inhibitory activity of ranging between 8.14% - 22.90% to that of reference (kojic acid).

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, benzoxazoles, AChE and BChE inhibition, tyrosinase inhibition

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39 Efficient Mercury Sorbent: Activated Carbon and Metal Organic Framework Hybrid

Authors: Yongseok Hong, Kurt Louis Solis

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In the present study, a hybrid sorbent using the metal organic framework (MOF), UiO-66, and powdered activated carbon (pAC) is synthesized to remove cationic and anionic metals simultaneously. UiO-66 is an octahedron-shaped MOF with a Zr₆O₄(OH)₄ metal node and 1,4-benzene dicarboxylic acid (BDC) organic linker. Zr-based MOFs are attractive for trace element remediation in wastewaters, because Zr is relatively non-toxic as compared to other classes of MOF and, therefore, it will not cause secondary pollution. Most remediation studies with UiO-66 target anions such as fluoride, but trace element oxyanions such as arsenic, selenium, and antimony have also been investigated. There have also been studies involving mercury removal by UiO-66 derivatives, however these require post-synthetic modifications or have lower effective surface areas. Activated carbon is known for being a readily available, well-studied, effective adsorbent for metal contaminants. Solvothermal method was employed to prepare hybrid sorbent from UiO66 and activated carbon, which could be used to remove mercury and selenium simultaneously. The hybrid sorbent was characterized using FSEM-EDS, FT-IR, XRD, and TGA. The results showed that UiO66 and activated carbon are successfully composited. From BET studies, the hybrid sorbent has a SBET of 1051 m² g⁻¹. Adsorption studies were performed, where the hybrid showed maximum adsorption of 204.63 mg g⁻¹ and 168 mg g⁻¹ for Hg (II) and selenite, respectively, and follows the Langmuir model for both species. Kinetics studies have revealed that the Hg uptake of the hybrid is pseudo-2nd order and has rate constant of 5.6E-05 g mg⁻¹ min⁻¹ and the selenite uptake follows the simplified Elovich model with α = 2.99 mg g⁻¹ min⁻¹, β = 0.032 g mg⁻¹.

Keywords: Adsorption, Mercury, metal organic framework, flue gas wastewater, selenite

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38 A Design Approach in Architectural Education: Parasitic Architecture

Authors: Ozlem Senyigit, Nur Yilmaz

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Throughout the architectural education, it is aimed to provide students with the ability to find original solutions to current problems. In this sense, workshops that provide creative thinking within the action, experiencing the environment, and finding instant solutions to problems have an important place in the education process. Parasitic architecture, which is a contemporary design approach in the architectural agenda, includes small scale designs integrated into the carrier system of existing structures in spaces of the existing urban fabric which resembles the host-parasite relationship in the biology field. The scope of this study consists of a 12-weeks long experimental workshop of the 'parasitic architecture', which was designed within the scope of Basic Design 2 course of the Department of Architecture of Çukurova University in the 2017-2018 academic year. In this study, parasitic architecture was discussed as a space design method. Students analyzed the campus of the Çukurova University and drew sketches to identify gaps in it. During the workshop, the function-form-context relationship was discussed. The output products were evaluated within the context of urban spaces/gaps, functional requirements, and students gained awareness not just about the urban occupancy but also gaps.

Keywords: architectural education, design approach, parasitic architecture, experimental workshop

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37 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity Through RAPD Markers Among Melia azedarach L (Chinabery)

Authors: Muhammad Rafiq, Nadir Ali Rind, Özlem Aksoy, Muhammad Umar Dahot, Salih Dikilitaş, Burçak Tütünoğlu

Abstract:

Melia azedarach L. is freshly fruited small to medium sized tree native to China and North western India. It is growing in Pakistan and Turkey in various areas facing great environmental changes to maintain its survival. The species is valued for its high quality wood, medicinal, ornamental and shade purposes. The present work was aimed to estimate the genetic variation among the populations of Melia azedarach L. leaf samples that were collected from five different locations of Turkey and three different areas of Pakistan. These populations were chosen on the random bases by applying RAPD primers in order to construct a dendogram using UPGMA method to show genetic diversity. After that appropriate conservation strategies were suggested. 14 primers producing polymorphic and monomorphic bands were analyzed. Genetic distances were calculated for all the species studied by RAPD-PCR methods. According to the results the lowest genetic identity values and the highest genetic polymorphic values were determined. It is observed that there was a clear split among populations from different areas in Turkey and Pakistan. These differences may be due to eco-geographical association with genetic variation and should be conserved to retain the genetic variation of the species.

Keywords: Conservation, Genetic Diversity, medicinal plant, RAPD-PCR, melia azedarach L

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36 Identifying of Hybrid Lines for Lpx-B1 Gene in Durum Wheat

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yıldırım, Ramazan Özbey

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The basic criteria which determine durum wheat quality is its suitability for pasta processing that is pasta making quality. Bright yellow color is a desired property in pasta products. Durum wheat pasta making quality is affected by grain pigment content and oxidative enzymes which affect adversely bright yellow color. Of the oxidative enzymes, lipoxygenase LOX is the most effective one on oxidative bleaching of yellow pigments in durum wheat products. Thus, wheat cultivars that are high in yellow pigments but low in LOX enzyme activity should be preferred for the production of pasta with high color quality. The aim of this study was to reduce lipoxygenase activities of the backcross durum wheat lines that were previously improved for their protein quality. For this purpose, two advanced lines with different parents (TMB2 and TMB3) were used recurrent parents. Also, Gediz-75 wheat with low LOX enzyme activity was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region (Lpx-B1.1) were selected using SSR markers by marker assisted selection method. As a result, the study will be completed in three years instead of six years required in a classical backcross breeding study, leading to the development of high-quality candidate varieties. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Project No: 112T910).

Keywords: MAS, triticum durum, durum wheat, lipoxygenase, LOX, Lpx-B1.1

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35 Distribution of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of İzmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, Z. U. Yümün, I. F. Barut, E. Kam

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After development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely on the sea coasts. This concentration also brings environmental pollution in the sea. This study focuses on the Gulf of İzmir where is located in West of Turkey and it is a fascinating natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. Natural radionuclides’ pollution of the marine environment which is also known as a significant environmental anxiety. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is variant) were collected from the Gulf of İzmir’s four different locations which were Karşıyaka, İnciraltı, Çeşmealtı and Bayraklı. These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and they were dried at room temperature in a week for moisture removal. Then, they were sieved with 1 mm sieve holes, and finally these powdered samples were relocation to polyethylene Marinelli beakers of 100 ml versions. Each prepared sediment was waited to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium for 40 days. Gamma spectrometry measurements were settled using a HPG (High- Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. Semiconductor detectors are very good at separating power of the energy, they are easily able to differentiate peaks that are pretty close to each other. That is why, gamma spectroscopy’s usage is common for the determination of the activities of U - 238, Th - 232, Ra - 226, Cr - 137 and K - 40 in Bq kg⁻¹. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of activities’ values are in respectively; 2.2 ± 1.5 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.98 ± 0.02 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 8 ± 0.96 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.93 ± 0.14 Bq/ kg⁻¹, and 76.05 ± 0.93 Bq/ kg⁻¹. The outcomes of the study are able to be used as a criterion for forthcoming research and the obtained data would be pragmatic for radiological mapping of the precise areas.

Keywords: Pollution, Gamma, Gulf of İzmir (Eastern Aegean Sea-Turkey), natural radionuclides

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
34 Electrical and Structural Properties of Solid Electrolyte Systems

Authors: Yasin Polat, Yılmaz Dağdemir, Mehmet Arı

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Samarium (III) oxide and Ytterbium (III) oxide doped Bismuth trioxide solid solutions, the nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y ternary system were obtained with x=5, 20 mol %, and y=5, 20 mol % dopant concentrations have been synthesized in air atmosphere with solid state reaction. Temperature dependent electrical conductivity of the samples have been investigated by 4-point probe technique by heating and cooling process. Doped-Bi2O3 materials of solid electrolyte systems are good oxygen anions O2-conductors which have collected much attention as potential solid ceramic electrolytes for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) because of their relatively high oxygen ionic conductivity at lower temperatures.(Bi2O3)-based electrolytes have also wide other technological applications in devices with high economical interest such as oxygen sensors, ceramic membranes for oxygen separation, oxygen pumps, catalyzing of some heterogeneous reactions, partial oxidation of the hydrocarbons, and additive material in paints. In recent years, many experimental researches have mostly focused on improving of the Bi-based electrolytes which have high oxide ionic conductivity at low temperatures and better performance as alternatives to traditional stabilized zirconia has taken place. Generally, these systems are much better solid electrolytes than well-known stabilized zirconia, because some of the bismuth trioxide phases exhibit higher ion conductivity than other oxide ionic conductors. Crystal structure of the Nano ceramic (Bi2O3)1-x-y(Sm2O3)x(Yb2O3)y has been determined by X-Ray powder diffractions (XRD) measurements before and after electrical conductivity measurements of the samples. Surface and grain structure properties of the samples were determined by SEM analysis. The samples which synthesized in this study can be used in industrial applications such as electrolytes of the solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC).

Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, bismuth trioxide, solid state reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
33 The Analysis of Internet and Social Media Behaviors of the Students in Vocational High School

Authors: Sakir Tasdemir, Mustafa Altin, Ozlem Bozok, Mehmet Balci

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Our globalizing world has become almost a small village and everyone can access any information at any time. Everyone lets each other know who does whatever in which place. We can learn which social events occur in which place in the world. From the perspective of education, the course notes that a lecturer use in lessons in a university in any state of America can be examined by a student studying in a city of Africa or the Far East. This dizzying communication we have mentioned happened thanks to fast developments in computer technologies and in parallel with this, internet technology. While these developments in the world, has a very large young population and a rapidly evolving electronic communications infrastructure Turkey has been affected by this situation. Researches has shown that almost all young people in Turkey has an account in a social network. Especially becoming common of mobile devices causes data traffic in social networks to increase. In this study, has been surveyed on students in the different age groups and at the Selcuk University Vocational School of Technical Sciences Department of Computer Technology. Student’s opinions about the use of internet and social media has been gotten. Using the Internet and social media skills, purposes, operating frequency, access facilities and tools, social life and effects on vocational education etc. have been explored. Both internet and use of social media positive and negative effects on this department students results have been obtained by the obtained findings evaluating from various aspects. Relations and differences have been found out with statistic.

Keywords: Social Network, Computer Technologies, internet use, higher vocational school

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32 Characterization of Some Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Molecular Markers

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yildirim

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Drought is the most important factor that limiting the production and productivity of wheat in the world. The yield of wheat, which is one of the most important crop in the world, reduced depend on drought. Researches to minimize effects of drought are one of the most important about breeding of drought resistant varieties. In recent years, benefiting from the drought resistance wild species and rapid advances in molecular biology studies, researches about drought have been accelerated and number of studies were made on molecular plant breeding which included the molecular mechanisms related to drought resistance. The aim of the present study was characterization of some bread wheat lines for drought tolerance which commonly cultivated in different location of Turkey. In this study, registered 9 bread wheat varieties which on the physiological tests about drought tolerance and 10 bread wheat line has been developed by Transitional Zone Agricultural Research Institute were used. SSR, STS, RAPD and SNP markers that associated with drought tolerance were used. The polymorphisms of the markers were determined by screening of two control varieties. For these purpose 40 molecular markers were used and 12 markers of them were polymorphic among the drought tolerance and the drought sensitive varieties. Control varieties were screened using polymorphic markers. All the DNAs on the genotypes will be searched for the presence of QTLs mapped to different chromosomes. Result of the research, the studied genotypes will be grouped according to drought tolerance and will be detected drought tolerance varieties by molecular markers. In addition, the results will be compared also with physiological tests. The drought tolerant wheat genotypes may be used in breeding studies related to drought stress.

Keywords: Drought, Triticum aestivum, bread wheat, molecular marker

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
31 Intestinal Parasites Detected by Fecal Examination in Cats in the Konya Province, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici

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The cat is one of the potential hosts for parasitic zoonoses, such as Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia sp. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in household cats in Konya, Turkey. In this study, a total of 100 stool samples with different ages and sex were used as a material. They were examined for infections with endoparasites by the use of native, Fulleborn flotation and Benedek sedimentation methods in University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 15%. A total of 6 parasite species was recorded: Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%). The most common intestinal parasites in cats were Giardia sp (6%) and Toxocara cati (4%). Younger cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p < 0.05). Giardia sp and Toxocara cati were detected significantly more often in younger than 1 year of age (p < 0.05). In fecal examination, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma sp. Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris sp were found in cats in Turkey. In this study, based on microscopic and macroscopic fecal examinations, Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (%2), Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%) was detected in cats. In conclusion, zoonotic intestinal parasites in household cats such as Giardia sp and Toxocara cati should be considered more seriously and it is necessary to take precautions against these infections. Cats should be routinely checked by faecal examination for endoparasite infections.

Keywords: Turkey, Cat, intestinal parasites, faecal

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30 Effects of Alpha Lipoic Acid on Limb Lengths in Neonatal Rats Exposed to Maternal Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Ramazan F. Akkoc, D. Özlem Dabak

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Maternal tobacco smoke exposure is known to cause growth retardation in the neonatal skeletal system. Alpha lipoic acid, a natural antioxidant found in some foods, limits the activities of osteoclasts and supports the osteoblast's bone formation mechanism. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on the height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke. The rats were divided into four groups: 1) control group, 2) tobacco smoke group, 3) tobacco smoke + ALA group, and 4) ALA group. Rats in the group 2 (tobacco smoke), group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA). Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group 4. On day 21 postpartum, the height and tail lengths of the pups in all groups were measured, and the length of the extremity long bones was measured after decapitation. All morphometric measurements performed in group 2 (tobacco smoke) showed a significant decrease compared to group 1 (control), while all measurements in group 3 (tobacco smoke + ALA) showed a significant increase compared to group 2 (tobacco smoke). It has been shown that ALA has a protective effect against the regression of height, long bones and tail lengths of pups exposed to maternal tobacco smoke.

Keywords: Bone, rat, morphometry, tobacco smoke, alpha lipoic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
29 High Aspect Ratio Micropillar Array Based Microfluidic Viscometer

Authors: Adil Mustafa, Ahmet Erten, Ayşenur Eser, Özlem Yalçın

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We present a new viscometer based on a microfluidic chip with elastic high aspect ratio micropillar arrays. The displacement of pillar tips in flow direction can be used to analyze viscosity of liquid. In our work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is used to analyze pillar displacement of various micropillar array configurations in flow direction at different viscosities. Following CFD optimization, micro-CNC based rapid prototyping is used to fabricate molds for microfluidic chips. Microfluidic chips are fabricated out of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using soft lithography methods with molds machined out of aluminum. Tip displacements of micropillar array (300 µm in diameter and 1400 µm in height) in flow direction are recorded using a microscope mounted camera, and the displacements are analyzed using image processing with an algorithm written in MATLAB. Experiments are performed with water-glycerol solutions mixed at 4 different ratios to attain 1 cP, 5 cP, 10 cP and 15 cP viscosities at room temperature. The prepared solutions are injected into the microfluidic chips using a syringe pump at flow rates from 10-100 mL / hr and the displacement versus flow rate is plotted for different viscosities. A displacement of around 1.5 µm was observed for 15 cP solution at 60 mL / hr while only a 1 µm displacement was observed for 10 cP solution. The presented viscometer design optimization is still in progress for better sensitivity and accuracy. Our microfluidic viscometer platform has potential for tailor made microfluidic chips to enable real time observation and control of viscosity changes in biological or chemical reactions.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics (CFD), high aspect ratio, micropillar array, viscometer

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28 The Correlation between Body Composition and Spinal Alignment in Healthy Young Adults

Authors: Betul Taspinar, Ismail Saracoglu, Gamze Kurt, Emrah Afsar, Ferruh Taspinar, Eda O. Okur, Gulce K. Seyyar

Abstract:

Although it is thought that abdominal adiposity is one of the risk factor for postural deviation, such as increased lumbar lordosis, the body mass index is not sufficient to indicate effects of abdominal adiposity on spinal alignment and postural changes. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation with detailed body composition and spine alignment in healthy young adults. This cross-sectional study was conducted with sixty seven healthy volunteers (37 men and 30 women) whose ages ranged between 19 and 27 years. All participants’ sagittal spinal curvatures of lumbar and thoracic region were measured via Spinal mouse® (Idiag, Fehraltorf, Switzerland). Also, body composition analysis (whole body fat ratio, whole body muscle ratio, abdominal fat ratio, and trunk muscle ratio) estimation by means of bioelectrical impedance was evaluated via Tanita Bc 418 Ma Segmental Body Composition Analyser (Tanita, Japan). Pearson’s correlation was used to analysis among the variables. The mean lumbar lordosis and thoracic kyphosis angles were 21.02°±9.39, 41.50°±7.97, respectively. Statistically analysis showed a significant positive correlation between whole body fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.28, p=0.02). Similarly, there was a positive correlation between abdominal fat ratio and lumbar lordosis angle (r=0.27, p=0.03). The thoracic kyphosis angle showed also positive correlation with whole body fat ratio (r=0.33, p=0.00) and abdominal fat ratio (r=0.40, p=0.01). The whole body muscle ratio showed negative correlation between lumbar lordosis (r=-0.28, p=0.02) and thoracic kyphosis angles (r=-0.33, p=0.00), although there was no statistically correlation between trunk muscle ratio, lumbar and thoracic curvatures (p>0.05). The study demonstrated that an increase of fat ratio and decrease of muscle ratio in abdominal region or whole body shifts the spinal alignment which may adversely affect the spinal loading. Therefore, whole body composition should be taken into account in spine rehabilitation.

Keywords: Body Composition, lumbar lordosis, spinal alignment, thoracic kyphosis

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27 Evaluation of Synthesis and Structure Elucidation of Some Benzimidazoles as Antimicrobial Agents

Authors: Meryem Tasci, Hakan Goker, Ozlem Temiz Arpaci

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Benzimidazole, a structural isostere of indol and purine nuclei that can interact with biopolymers, can be identified as master key. So that benzimidazole compounds are important fragments in medicinal chemistry because of their wide range of biological activities including antimicrobial activity. We planned to synthesize some benzimidazole compounds for developing new antimicrobial drug candidates. In this study, we put some heterocyclic rings on second position and an amidine group on the fifth position of benzimidazole ring and synthesized them using a multiple step procedure. For the synthesis of the compounds, as the first step, 4-chloro-3-nitrobenzonitrile was reacted with cyclohexylamine in dimethyl formamide. Imidate esters (compound 2) were then prepared with absolute ethanol saturated with dry HCl gas. These imidate esters which were not too stable were converted to compound 3 by passing ammonia gas through ethanol. At the Pd / C catalyst, the nitro group is reduced to the amine group (compound 4). Finally, various aldehyde derivatives were reacted with sodium metabisulfite addition products to give compound 5-20. Melting points were determined on a Buchi B-540 melting point apparatus in open capillary tubes and are uncorrected. Elemental analyses were done a Leco CHNS 932 elemental analyzer. 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectra were recorded on a Varian Mercury 400 MHz spectrometer using DMSO-d6. Mass spectra were acquired on a Waters Micromass ZQ using the ESI(+) method. The structures of them were supported by spectral data. The 1H-NMR, 13C NMR and mass spectra and elemental analysis results agree with those of the proposed structures. Antimicrobial activity studies of the synthesized compounds are under the investigation.

Keywords: Synthesis, Antimicrobial, Structure Elucidation, benzimidazoles

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26 Evaluating the Effectiveness of Methods That Increase the Knowledge of Youths about the Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Authors: Gonul Kurt, Semra Aciksoz

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All types of interventions that increase the knowledge and awareness of youths about Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) are considered to be important for safe sex life and sexual health. The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge levels of nursing students about STD and evaluate the effectiveness of peer education and brochure methods to increase the knowledge and awareness about STD. This interventional study was carried out by participation of nursing students attending the first and second grade in a school of nursing on February–May 2015. The study participants were 200 undergraduate nursing student volunteers. The students were given education by peer trainers and brochure methods. First-grade students were divided into five groups with block randomization method and each group were given education by five peer trainers. Second-grade students were given education with brochure by the researchers. The knowledge level of study groups was evaluated before and after educational intervention. The data were collected using the “Data Collection Form” and “Sexually Transmitted Diseases Information Form”. The questionnaire forms developed by the researchers after the literature review. The SPSS 15.0 package software was used for the evaluation of the data obtained from the study. Data were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U-Test, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test and Mc Nemar Test. A p value of <0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. All of participants in the study were female nursing students. The mean age of students was 18.99±0.32 years old in the peer education group and 20.04±0.37 in the brochure education group. There was no statistically significant difference between knowledge levels of the students in both groups before the education (p>0.05). It was determined that an increase in knowledge levels of the students in both groups after the education. This increase was statistically significant (p<0.05). It was determined that knowledge level of the students about STD in brochure group was higher than the peer education group (p<0.001). The results of this study indicate that brochure education method was more effective than the peer education method in both increasing knowledge and awareness about STD.

Keywords: Knowledge, sexually transmitted diseases, nursing students, education method

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25 Bioproduction of L(+)-Lactic Acid and Purification by Ion Exchange Mechanism

Authors: Zelal Polat, Şebnem Harsa, Semra Ülkü

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Lactic acid exists in nature optically in two forms, L(+), D(-)-lactic acid, and has been used in food, leather, textile, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Moreover, L(+)-lactic acid constitutes the raw material for the production of poly-L-lactic acid which is used in biomedical applications. Microbially produced lactic acid was aimed to be recovered from the fermentation media efficiently and economically. Among the various downstream operations, ion exchange chromatography is highly selective and yields a low cost product recovery within a short period of time. In this project, Lactobacillus casei NRRL B-441 was used for the production of L(+)-lactic acid from whey by fermentation at pH 5.5 and 37°C that took 12 hours. The product concentration was 50 g/l with 100% L(+)-lactic acid content. Next, the suitable resin was selected due to its high sorption capacity with rapid equilibrium behavior. Dowex marathon WBA, weakly basic anion exchanger in OH form reached the equilibrium in 15 minutes. The batch adsorption experiments were done approximately at pH 7.0 and 30°C and sampling was continued for 20 hours. Furthermore, the effect of temperature and pH was investigated and their influence was found to be unimportant. All the adsorption/desorption experiments were applied to both model lactic acid and biomass free fermentation broth. The ion exchange equilibria of lactic acid and L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth on Dowex marathon WBA was explained by Langmuir isotherm. The maximum exchange capacity (qm) for model lactic acid was 0.25 g La/g wet resin and for fermentation broth 0.04 g La/g wet resin. The equilibrium loading and exchange efficiency of L(+)-lactic acid in fermentation broth were reduced as a result of competition by other ionic species. The competing ions inhibit the binding of L(+)-lactic acid to the free sites of ion exchanger. Moreover, column operations were applied to recover adsorbed lactic acid from the ion exchanger. 2.0 M HCl was the suitable eluting agent to recover the bound L(+)-lactic acid with a flowrate of 1 ml/min at ambient temperature. About 95% of bound L(+)-lactic acid was recovered from Dowex marathon WBA. The equilibrium was reached within 15 minutes. The aim of this project was to investigate the purification of L(+)-lactic acid with ion exchange method from fermentation broth. The additional goals were to investigate the end product purity, to obtain new data on the adsorption/desorption behaviours of lactic acid and applicability of the system in industrial usage.

Keywords: Purification, Fermentation, ion exchange, whey, lactic acid

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24 Evaluation of the Relationship between Fluorosis and Stylohyoid Ligament Calcification Detected on Panoramic Radiograph

Authors: Recep Duzsoz, Ozlem Gormez, Umit Memis, Selma Demer, Hikmet Orhan

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Stylohyoid ligament is a connective tissue extending from apex of the styloid process to small horn of the hyoid bone. The normal length of styloid process ranges from 20 to 30 mm and measurements more than 30 mm is named stylohyoid ligament calcification (SLC). Fluorosis is a health problem that arises in individuals who intake large amounts of fluor long periods of time. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorosis on SLC. This study has been conducted on 100 patients who had SLC detected on panoramic radiograph. The study group was consisted of 50 patients with dental fluorosis and control group was consisted of 50 patients without dental fluorosis. Length and thickness of SLC were measured and the type of SLC was determined on panoramic radiographs. There was no statistically significant differences between the study and control group for SLC length, thickness and type. The thickness of left and right SLC of severe dental fluorosis group was statistically significant higher than moderate dental fluorosis group (p < 0,05). Cervicopharyngeal trauma, tonsillectomy, endocrine disease in menopause, persistent mesenchymal tissue, mechanical stress have reported as etiology of SLC in the literature and studies are still ongoing. It was reported that fluorosis as a factor on calcification of some ligaments in body (posterior longitudunal ligament, ligamentum flavum and transverse atlantal ligament) previously but relationship between fluorosis with SLC was not investigated. Our study is unique because it is the first study on SLC thickness measurements on panoramic radiographs and the relationship between fluorosis and SLC to our knowledge. According to the obtained results, it is thought that fluorosis may have an effect on SLC in thickness due to the relationship between dental fluorosis severity with SLC thickness and this study will contribute to the progress of the future studies.

Keywords: calcification, fluorosis, ligament, stylohyoid

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23 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz

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Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: MAS, triticum durum, durum wheat, Gpc-B1, Yr-36

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22 Organic Carbon Pools Fractionation of Lacustrine Sediment with a Stepwise Chemical Procedure

Authors: Xiaoqing Liu, Kurt Friese, Karsten Rinke

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Lacustrine sediment archives rich paleoenvironmental information in lake and surrounding environment. Additionally, modern sediment is used as an effective medium for the monitoring of lake. Organic carbon in sediment is a heterogeneous mixture with varying turnover times and qualities which result from the different biogeochemical processes in the deposition of organic material. Therefore, the isolation of different carbon pools is important for the research of lacustrine condition in the lake. However, the numeric available fractionation procedures can hardly yield homogeneous carbon pools on terms of stability and age. In this work, a multi-step fractionation protocol that treated sediment with hot water, HCl, H2O2 and Na2S2O8 in sequence was adopted, the treated sediment from each step were analyzed for the isotopic and structural compositions with Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer coupled with element analyzer (IRMS-EA) and Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), respectively. The sequential extractions with hot-water, HCl, and H2O2 yielded a more homogeneous and C3 plant-originating OC fraction, which was characterized with an atomic C/N ratio shift from 12.0 to 20.8, and 13C and 15N isotopic signatures were 0.9‰ and 1.9‰ more depleted than the original bulk sediment, respectively. Additionally, the H2O2- resistant residue was dominated with stable components, such as the lignins, waxes, cutans, tannins, steroids and aliphatic proteins and complex carbohydrates. 6M HCl in the acid hydrolysis step was much more effective than 1M HCl to isolate a sedimentary OC fraction with higher degree of homogeneity. Owing to the extremely high removal rate of organic matter, the step of a Na2S2O8 oxidation is only suggested if the isolation of the most refractory OC pool is mandatory. We conclude that this multi-step chemical fractionation procedure is effective to isolate more homogeneous OC pools in terms of stability and functional structure, and it can be used as a promising method for OC pools fractionation of sediment or soil in future lake research.

Keywords: lake sediment, OC fractionation

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21 Inhibitory Activity of Podospermum canum and Its Active Components on Collagenase, Elastase and Hyaluronidase Enzymes

Authors: Ozlem Bahadir Acikara, Mert Ilhan, Ekin Kurtul, Karel Smejkal, Esra Kupeli Akkol

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Present study is aimed to investigate in vitro inhibitory effects of the extracts prepared from the aerial parts of Podospermum canum (Asteraceae) on hyaluronidase, collagenase, and elastase enzymes using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of the extract, sub-extracts, fractions obtained by column chromatography, and isolated compounds on collagenase, elastase, and hyaluronidase were performed by using in vitro enzyme inhibitory assays based on spectrophotometric evaluation. The ethyl acetate and remaining water extracts prepared from the plant displayed significant inhibitory activities on collagenase and elastase, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts did not show any inhibitory activity. Eleven known compounds: arbutin, 6'-O-caffeoylarbutin, cichoriin, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid methyl ester, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside, isoorientin, orientin, vitexin, procatechuic acid, and compound 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid 4-(6-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-β-glucopyranosyl) benzyl ester have been obtained from ethyl acetate sub-extract of the plant through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation. Results of the present study have revealed that among the isolated compounds, apigenin-7-O-β-glucoside, luteolin-7-O-β-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-β-rutinoside and isoorientin showed potent enzyme inhibitory activities. However, methanolic extract of P. canum displayed a greater inhibitory activity than fractions and isolated compounds both on collagenase and elastase.

Keywords: asteraceae, hyaluronidase, elastase, collagenase, Podospermum canum

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20 Determination of the Effective Economic and/or Demographic Indicators in Classification of European Union Member and Candidate Countries Using Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis

Authors: Esra Polat

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Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLSDA) is a statistical method for classification and consists a classical Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) in which the dependent variable is a categorical one expressing the class membership of each observation. PLSDA can be applied in many cases when classical discriminant analysis cannot be applied. For example, when the number of observations is low and when the number of independent variables is high. When there are missing values, PLSDA can be applied on the data that is available. Finally, it is adapted when multicollinearity between independent variables is high. The aim of this study is to determine the economic and/or demographic indicators, which are effective in grouping the 28 European Union (EU) member countries and 7 candidate countries (including potential candidates Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) and Kosova) by using the data set obtained from database of the World Bank for 2014. Leaving the political issues aside, the analysis is only concerned with the economic and demographic variables that have the potential influence on country’s eligibility for EU entrance. Hence, in this study, both the performance of PLSDA method in classifying the countries correctly to their pre-defined groups (candidate or member) and the differences between the EU countries and candidate countries in terms of these indicators are analyzed. As a result of the PLSDA, the value of percentage correctness of 100 % indicates that overall of the 35 countries is classified correctly. Moreover, the most important variables that determine the statuses of member and candidate countries in terms of economic indicators are identified as 'external balance on goods and services (% GDP)', 'gross domestic savings (% GDP)' and 'gross national expenditure (% GDP)' that means for the 2014 economical structure of countries is the most important determinant of EU membership. Subsequently, the model validated to prove the predictive ability by using the data set for 2015. For prediction sample, %97,14 of the countries are correctly classified. An interesting result is obtained for only BiH, which is still a potential candidate for EU, predicted as a member of EU by using the indicators data set for 2015 as a prediction sample. Although BiH has made a significant transformation from a war-torn country to a semi-functional state, ethnic tensions, nationalistic rhetoric and political disagreements are still evident, which inhibit Bosnian progress towards the EU.

Keywords: classification, European Union, economic indicators, demographic indicators, partial least squares discriminant analysis

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19 Role of Family in Child Behavior Problems: A General Overview of Dissertations and Thesis at Turkey

Authors: Ozlem Ulas, Selen Demirtas Zorbaz

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Examining the reasons of child behaviour problems has been one of the focus of psychology and related disciplines for so long. It can be said there is a lot of reasons of child behaviour problems and familial factors might be the leading ones. When taking into account the prevalence of the children having behaviour problems in Turkey, it can be said that it is important to carry out studies putting forward the reasons of behaviour problems. From this point of view, the aim of this study is to examine dissertations and thesis putting forward the relationship between problem behaviour of the children (12-year-old and younger) and teenagers (12-18 years old), and familial factors. For that purpose, 46 dissertations that were chosen according to the study criteria out of 141 dissertations scanned by using the keywords of ‘behaviour problems’ and ‘behaviour disorder’ at Higher Education Thesis Centre between the years of 1989 and 2016 have been taken into the scope of the study. ‘Thesis Examination Draft Form’ has been prepared for the purpose of being used for data collecting tool. For the analysis of the data, percentage, and frequency analysis methods have been used. When the results of these studies are evaluated on the whole, it is seen that all the dissertations and thesis done are descriptive study, and it was not encountered any studies designed as experimental. When looked at the distribution of dissertations by years, it is seen that the first thesis was done in 1989 and the most number of dissertations were done in the years of 2014 and 2016. When looked at the department in which the dissertations were done, it can be said that dissertations and thesis were done in many different fields of disciplines ranging from psychology and special education. In addition to this, when investigated the group taken into the scope of dissertations and thesis research, it is seen that the children mostly worked with are below the age of 12 and types of studies are master’s thesis. When the dissertations and thesis are examined by means of topics, it is seen that mostly-studied topics are demographic variables such as gender, whether the family is fragmented or not, education level of the family and the parents’ attitude. Obtained findings have been examined in the light of literature.

Keywords: Family, dissertations, child behaviour problem, thesis

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18 Discussing the Values of Collective Memory and Cultural / Rural Landscape Based on the Concept of Eco-Village; Case of Turkey, Gölpazarı, Kurşunlu Village

Authors: Parisa GöKer, ÖZlem Candan HergüL, Hilal Kahveci

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Humans are generating culture while being in touch with nature. Along with skills, local knowledge based on experience, and many other subjects developed within this process, 'culture' offers humans a chance to survive. For this reason, culture forms the equipment for humans, which facilitates their survival in all ecosystems. Together with technology, quick consumption of natural sources and overuse culture of humans have brought up the eco-village concept. Ecovillages are ecologically, economically, socio-culturally, and spiritually sustainable settlement models. It is known that the eco-village approach is applying a proper methodology on behalf of integrative and versatile solution generation. Today, the eco-village approach, introducing a radical criticism to the understanding of civilization and consumption culture and deeming urban solutions inadequate as a spatial reflection to civilization and consumption culture, while making a difference about integrative solution offering with multidimensional features, along with the goal of creating self-sufficient communities, is creating solutions on the subject of both reducing the ecological footprint of humans and to provide social order and also to solve the injustice seen in terms of income and life standards. In this study, environmental issues, sustainable development, and environmental sustainability topics are examined within the context of eco-tourism and eco-village. Alongside this, the natural and cultural landscape values of Kurşunlu village which are located in Bilecik province’s Gölpazarı county, and a contextual frame is created for the facilitation of sustainability in the event of dynamizing the Kurşunlu village in terms of tourism-oriented activities.

Keywords: Sustainability, Cultural landscape, rural landscape, eco village

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