Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13661

Search results for: PV pumping system

13661 Study and Experimental Analysis of a Photovoltaic Pumping System under Three Operating Modes

Authors: Rekioua D., Mohammedi A., Rekioua T., Mehleb Z.

Abstract:

Photovoltaic water pumping systems is considered as one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications, the economy and reliability of solar electric power made it an excellent choice for remote water pumping. Two conventional techniques are currently in use; the first is the directly coupled technique and the second is the battery buffered photovoltaic pumping system. In this paper, we present different performances of a three operation modes of photovoltaic pumping system. The aim of this work is to determine the effect of different parameters influencing the photovoltaic pumping system performances, such as pumping head, System configuration and climatic conditions. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

Keywords: batteries charge mode, photovoltaic pumping system, pumping head, submersible pump

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13660 Technical and Economical Feasibility Analysis of Solar Water Pumping System - Case Study in Iran

Authors: A. Gharib, M. Moradi

Abstract:

The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate. Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with a storage battery, AC solar water pumping with a storage tank, and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical and economic feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, solar water pumping system

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13659 Technical Feasibility Analysis of PV Water Pumping System in Khuzestan Province-Iran

Authors: M.Goodarzi, M.Mohammadi, M. Rezaee

Abstract:

The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate.Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with storage battery, AC solar water pumping with storage tank and DC direct solar water pumping.

Keywords: technical feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic water pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 471
13658 DC/DC Boost Converter Applied to Photovoltaic Pumping System Application

Authors: S. Abdourraziq, M. A. Abdourraziq

Abstract:

One of the most famous and important applications of solar energy systems is water pumping. It is often used for irrigation or to supply water in countryside or private firm. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with a continued variation of solar radiation and temperature throughout the day. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is one of the different solutions to reducing the cost. In this paper, we will present a detailed definition of each element of a PV pumping system, and we will present the different MPPT algorithm used in the literature. Our system consists of a PV panel, a boost converter, a motor-pump set, and a storage tank.

Keywords: PV cell, converter, MPPT, MPP, PV pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
13657 A Variable Incremental Conductance MPPT Algorithm Applied to Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid Elbachtiri

Abstract:

The use of solar energy as a source for pumping water is one of the promising areas in the photovoltaic (PV) application. The energy of photovoltaic pumping systems (PVPS) can be widely improved by employing an MPPT algorithm. This will lead consequently to maximize the electrical motor speed of the system. This paper presents a modified incremental conductance (IncCond) MPPT algorithm with direct control method applied to a standalone PV pumping system. The influence of the algorithm parameters on system behavior is investigated and compared with the traditional (INC) method. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, and a PMDC motor-pump. The simulation of the system by MATLAB-SIMULINK is carried out. Simulation results found are satisfactory.

Keywords: photovoltaic pumping system (PVPS), incremental conductance (INC), MPPT algorithm, boost converter

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
13656 Optimal Operation of a Photovoltaic Induction Motor Drive Water Pumping System

Authors: Nelson K. Lujara

Abstract:

The performance characteristics of a photovoltaic induction motor drive water pumping system with and without maximum power tracker is analyzed and presented. The analysis is done through determination and assessment of critical loss components in the system using computer aided design (CAD) tools for optimal operation of the system. The results can be used to formulate a well-calibrated computer aided design package of photovoltaic water pumping systems based on the induction motor drive. The results allow the design engineer to pre-determine the flow rate and efficiency of the system to suit particular application.

Keywords: photovoltaic, water pumping, losses, induction motor

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
13655 Optimum Design of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, Rachid El Bachtiri

Abstract:

The solar power source for pumping water is one of the most promising areas in photovoltaic applications. The implementation of these systems allows to protect the environment and reduce the CO2 gas emission compared to systems trained by diesel generators. This paper presents a comparative study between the photovoltaic pumping system driven by DC motor, and AC motor to define the optimum design of this application. The studied system consists of PV array, DC-DC Boost Converter, inverter, motor-pump set and storage tank. The comparison was carried out to define the characteristics and the performance of each system. Each subsystem is modeled in order to simulate the whole system in MATLAB/ Simulink. The results show the efficiency of the proposed technique.

Keywords: photovoltaic water pumping system, DC motor-pump, AC motor-pump, DC-DC boost converter

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13654 Design and Implementation of an Efficient Solar-Powered Pumping System

Authors: Mennatallah M. Fouad, Omar Hussein, Lamia A. Shihata

Abstract:

The main problem in many rural areas is the absence of electricity and limited access to water. The novelty of this work lies in implementing a small-scale experimental setup for a solar-powered water pumping system with a battery back-up system. Cooling and cleaning of the PV panel are implemented to enhance its overall efficiency and output. Moreover, a simulation for a large scale solar-powered pumping system is performed using PVSyst software. Results of the experimental setup show that the PV system with a battery backup proved to be a feasible and viable system to operate the water pumping system. Excess water from the pumping system is used to cool and clean the PV panel and achieved an average percentage increase in the PV output by 21.8%. Simulation results have shown that the system provides adequate output to power the solar-powered system and saves 0.3 tons of CO₂ compared to conventional fossil fuels. It is recommended for hot countries to adopt this system, which would help in decreasing the dependence on the depleting fossil fuels, provide access to electricity to areas where there is no electricity supply and also provide a source of water for crop growth as well as decrease the carbon emissions.

Keywords: efficient solar pumping, PV cleaning, PV cooling, PV-operated water pump

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13653 Photovoltaic Water Pumping System Application

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq

Abstract:

Photovoltaic (PV) water pumping system is one of the most used and important applications in the field of solar energy. However, the cost and the efficiency are still a concern, especially with continued change of solar radiation and temperature. Then, the improvement of the efficiency of the system components is a good solution to reducing the cost. The use of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to track the output maximum power point (MPP) of the PV panel is very important to improve the efficiency of the whole system. In this paper, we will present a definition of the functioning of MPPT technique, and a detailed model of each component of PV pumping system with Matlab-Simulink, the results shows the influence of the changing of solar radiation and temperature in the output characteristics of PV panel, which influence in the efficiency of the system. Our system consists of a PV generator, a boost converter, a motor-pump set, and storage tank.

Keywords: PV panel, boost converter, MPPT, MPP, PV pumping system

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13652 Optimal Implementation of Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq

Abstract:

To improve the efficiency of photovoltaic pumping system, more attention has been paid to their setting up. This paper presents an optimal technique to establish an efficient system under different conditions of irradiance and temperature. The state of place should be carefully studied before stage of installation of the over system: local climate, boreholes, soil, crops and water resources. The studied system consists of a PV panel, a DC-DC boost converter, a DC motor-pump, and storage tank. The concepts shown in this paper presents a support for an optimal installation of each solar pump.

Keywords: photovoltaic pumping system, optimal implementation, boost converter, motor-pump

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13651 Renewable Energy in Morocco: Photovoltaic Water Pumping System

Authors: Sarah Abdourraziq, R. El Bachtiri

Abstract:

Renewable energies have a major importance of Morocco's new energy strategy. The geographical location of the Kingdom promotes the development of the use of solar energy. The use of this energy reduces the dependence on imports of primary energy, meets the growing demand for water and electricity in remote areas encourages the deployment of a local industry in the renewable energy sector and Minimize carbon emissions. Indeed, given the importance of the radiation intensity received and the duration of the sunshine, the country can cover some of its solar energy needs. The use of solar energy to pump water is one of the most promising application, this technique represents a solution wherever the grid does not exist. In this paper, we will present a presentation of photovoltaic pumping system components, and the important solar pumping projects installed in Morocco to supply water from remote area.

Keywords: PV pumping system, Morocco, PV panel, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
13650 Using Groundwater Modeling System to Create a 3-D Groundwater Flow and Solute Transport Model for a Semiarid Region: A Case Study of the Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem Aquifer, Central Tunisia

Authors: Emna Bahri Hammami, Zammouri Mounira, Tarhouni Jamila

Abstract:

The Nadhour Saouaf Sisseb El Alem (NSSA) system comprises some of the most intensively exploited aquifers in central Tunisia. Since the 1970s, the growth in economic productivity linked to intensive agriculture in this semiarid region has been sustained by increasing pumping rates of the system’s groundwater. Exploitation of these aquifers has increased rapidly, ultimately causing their depletion. With the aim to better understand the behavior of the aquifer system and to predict its evolution, the paper presents a finite difference model of the groundwater flow and solute transport. The model is based on the Groundwater Modeling System (GMS) and was calibrated using data from 1970 to 2010. Groundwater levels observed in 1970 were used for the steady-state calibration. Groundwater levels observed from 1971 to 2010 served to calibrate the transient state. The impact of pumping discharge on the evolution of groundwater levels was studied through three hypothetical pumping scenarios. The first two scenarios replicated the approximate drawdown in the aquifer heads (about 17 m in scenario 1 and 23 m in scenario 2 in the center of NSSA) following an increase in pumping rates by 30% and 50% from their current values, respectively. In addition, pumping was stopped in the third scenario, which could increase groundwater reserves by about 7 Mm3/year. NSSA groundwater reserves could be improved considerably if the pumping rules were taken seriously.

Keywords: pumping, depletion, groundwater modeling system GMS, Nadhour Saouaf

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13649 Numerical Simulation of the Dynamic Behavior of a LaNi5 Water Pumping System

Authors: Miled Amel, Ben Maad Hatem, Askri Faouzi, Ben Nasrallah Sassi

Abstract:

Metal hydride water pumping system uses hydrogen as working fluid to pump water for low head and high discharge. The principal operation of this pump is based on the desorption of hydrogen at high pressure and its absorption at low pressure by a metal hydride. This work is devoted to study a concept of the dynamic behavior of a metal hydride pump using unsteady model and LaNi5 as hydriding alloy. This study shows that with MHP, it is possible to pump 340l/kg-cycle of water in 15 000s using 1 Kg of LaNi5 at a desorption temperature of 360 K, a pumping head equal to 5 m and a desorption gear ratio equal to 33. This study reveals also that the error given by the steady model, using LaNi5 is about 2%.A dimensional mathematical model and the governing equations of the pump were presented to predict the coupled heat and mass transfer within the MHP. Then, a numerical simulation is carried out to present the time evolution of the specific water discharge and to test the effect of different parameters (desorption temperature, absorption temperature, desorption gear ratio) on the performance of the water pumping system (specific water discharge, pumping efficiency and pumping time). In addition, a comparison between results obtained with steady and unsteady model is performed with different hydride mass. Finally, a geometric configuration of the reactor is simulated to optimize the pumping time.

Keywords: dynamic behavior, LaNi5, performance of water pumping system, unsteady model

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13648 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo

Abstract:

The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

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13647 Study of a Photovoltaic System Using MPPT Buck-Boost Converter

Authors: A. Bouchakour, L. Zaghba, M. Brahami, A. Borni

Abstract:

The work presented in this paper present the design and the simulation of a centrifugal pump coupled to a photovoltaic (PV) generator via a MPPT controller. The PV system operating is just done in sunny period by using water storage instead of electric energy storage. The process concerns the modelling, identification and simulation of a photovoltaic pumping system, the centrifugal pump is driven by an asynchronous three-phase voltage inverter sine triangle PWM motor through. Two configurations were simulated. For the first, it is about the alimentation of the motor pump group from electrical power supply. For the second, the pump unit is connected directly to the photovoltaic panels by integration of a MPPT control. A code of simulation of the solar pumping system was initiated under the Matlab-Simulink environment. Very convivial and flexible graphic interfaces allow an easy use of the code and knowledge of the effects of change of the sunning and temperature on the pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic generator, chopper, electrical motor, centrifugal pump

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13646 Application of the DTC Control in the Photovoltaic Pumping System

Authors: M. N. Amrani, H. Abanou, A. Dib

Abstract:

In this paper, we proposed a strategy for optimizing the performance for a pumping structure constituted by an induction motor coupled to a centrifugal pump and improving existing results in this context. The considered system is supplied by a photovoltaic generator (GPV) through two static converters piloted in an independent manner. We opted for a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control method based on the Neuro - Fuzzy, which is well known for its stability and robustness. To improve the induction motor performance, we use the concept of Direct Torque Control (DTC) and PID controller for motor speed to pilot the working of the induction motor. Simulations of the proposed approach give interesting results compared to the existing control strategies in this field. The model of the proposed system is simulated by MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: solar energy, pumping photovoltaic system, maximum power point tracking, direct torque Control (DTC), PID regulator

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13645 Starting Characteristic Analysis of LSPM for Pumping System Considering Demagnetization

Authors: Subrato Saha, Yun-Hyun Cho

Abstract:

This paper presents the design process of a high performance 3-phase 3.7 kW 2-pole line start permanent magnet synchronous motor for pumping system. A method was proposed to study the starting torque characteristics considering line start with high inertia load. A d-q model including cage was built to study the synchronization capability. Time-stepping finite element method analysis was utilized to accurately predict the dynamic and transient performance, efficiency, starting current, speed curve and, etc. Considering the load torque of pumps during starting stage, the rotor bar was designed with minimum demagnetization of permanent magnet caused by huge starting current.

Keywords: LSPM, starting analysis, demagnetization, FEA, pumping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
13644 An Approach To Flatten The Gain Of Fiber Raman Amplifiers With Multi-Pumping

Authors: Surinder Singh, Adish Bindal

Abstract:

The effects of the pumping wavelength and their power on the gain flattening of a fiber Raman amplifier (FRA) are investigated. The multi-wavelength pumping scheme is utilized to achieve gain flatness in FRA. It is proposed that gain flatness becomes better with increase in number of pumping wavelengths applied. We have achieved flat gain with 0.27 dB fluctuation in a spectral range of 1475-1600 nm for a Raman fiber length of 10 km by using six pumps with wavelengths with in the 1385-1495 nm interval. The effect of multi-wavelength pumping scheme on gain saturation in FRA is also studied. It is proposed that gain saturation condition gets improved by using this scheme and this scheme is more useful for higher spans of Raman fiber length.

Keywords: FRA, WDM, pumping, flat gain

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
13643 Optimizing Groundwater Pumping for a Complex Groundwater/Surface Water System

Authors: Emery A. Coppola Jr., Suna Cinar, Ferenc Szidarovszky

Abstract:

Over-pumping of groundwater resources is a serious problem world-wide. In addition to depleting this valuable resource, hydraulically connected sensitive ecological resources like wetlands and surface water bodies are often impacted and even destroyed by over-pumping. Effectively managing groundwater in a way that satisfy human demand while preserving natural resources is a daunting challenge that will only worsen with growing human populations and climate change. As presented in this paper, a numerical flow model developed for a hypothetical but realistic groundwater/surface water system was combined with formal optimization. Response coefficients were used in an optimization management model to maximize groundwater pumping in a complex, multi-layered aquifer system while protecting against groundwater over-draft, streamflow depletion, and wetland impacts. Pumping optimization was performed for different constraint sets that reflect different resource protection preferences, yielding significantly different optimal pumping solutions. A sensitivity analysis on the optimal solutions was performed on select response coefficients to identify differences between wet and dry periods. Stochastic optimization was also performed, where uncertainty associated with changing irrigation demand due to changing weather conditions are accounted for. One of the strengths of this optimization approach is that it can efficiently and accurately identify superior management strategies that minimize risk and adverse environmental impacts associated with groundwater pumping under different hydrologic conditions.

Keywords: numerical groundwater flow modeling, water management optimization, groundwater overdraft, streamflow depletion

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
13642 A Robust Model Predictive Control for a Photovoltaic Pumping System Subject to Actuator Saturation Nonlinearity and Parameter Uncertainties: A Linear Matrix Inequality Approach

Authors: Sofiane Bououden, Ilyes Boulkaibet

Abstract:

In this paper, a robust model predictive controller (RMPC) for uncertain nonlinear system under actuator saturation is designed to control a DC-DC buck converter in PV pumping application, where this system is subject to actuator saturation and parameter uncertainties. The considered nonlinear system contains a linear constant part perturbed by an additive state-dependent nonlinear term. Based on the saturating actuator property, an appropriate linear feedback control law is constructed and used to minimize an infinite horizon cost function within the framework of linear matrix inequalities. The proposed approach has successfully provided a solution to the optimization problem that can stabilize the nonlinear plants. Furthermore, sufficient conditions for the existence of the proposed controller guarantee the robust stability of the system in the presence of polytypic uncertainties. In addition, the simulation results have demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed control scheme.

Keywords: PV pumping system, DC-DC buck converter, robust model predictive controller, nonlinear system, actuator saturation, linear matrix inequality

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13641 Sliding Mode Speed Controller of Photovoltaic Pumping System

Authors: Kessal Abdelhalim, Zebiri Fouad, Rahmani Lazhar

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis by which the dynamic performances of a permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor is controlled through a hysteresis current loop and an outer speed loop with different controllers. The dynamics of the photovoltaic pumping drive system with sliding mode speed controllers are presented. The proposed structure is constituted of photovoltaic generator associated to DC-DC converter controlled by fuzzy logic to ensure the maximum power point tracking. The PWM signals are generated by the interaction of the motor speed closed-loop system and the current hysteresis. The motor reference current is compared with the motor speed feedback signal. The considered model has been implemented in Matlab/Simpower environment. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method to increase the performance of the water pumping system.

Keywords: photovoltaic, permanent magnet brushless DC (PMBLDC) motor, MPPT, speed control, fuzzy, sliding mode

Procedia PDF Downloads 553
13640 Standardization of Solar Water Pumping System for Remote Areas in Indonesia

Authors: Danar Agus Susanto, Hermawan Febriansyah, Meilinda Ayundyahrini

Abstract:

The availability of spring water to meet people demand is often a problem, especially in tropical areas with very limited surface water sources, or very deep underground water. Although the technology and equipment of pumping system are available and easy to obtain, but in remote areas, the availability of pumping system is difficult, due to the unavailability of fuel or the lack of electricity. Solar Water Pumping System (SWPS) became one of the alternatives that can overcome these obstacles. In the tropical country, sunlight can be obtained throughout the year, even in remote areas. SWPS were already widely built in Indonesia, but many encounter problems during operations, such as decreased of efficiency; pump damaged, damaged of controllers or inverters, and inappropriate photovoltaic performance. In 2011, International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) issued the IEC standard 62253:2011 titled Photovoltaic pumping systems - Design qualification and performance measurements. This standard establishes design qualifications and performance measurements related to the product of a solar water pumping system. National Standardization Agency of Indonesia (BSN) as the national standardization body in Indonesia, has not set the standard related to solar water pumping system. This research to study operational procedures of SWPS by adopting of IEC Standard 62253:2011 to be Indonesia Standard (SNI). This research used literature study and field observation for installed SWPS in Indonesia. Based on the results of research on SWPS already installed in Indonesia, IEC 62253: 2011 standard can improve efficiency and reduce operational failure of SWPS. SWPS installed in Indonesia still has GAP of 51% against parameters in IEC standard 62253: 2011. The biggest factor not being met is related to operating and maintenance handbooks for personnel that included operation and repair procedures. This may result in operator ignorance in installing, operating and maintaining the system. The Photovoltaic (PV) was also the most non-compliance factor of 71%, although there are 22 Indonesia Standard (SNI) for PV (modules, installation, testing, and construction). These research samples (installers, manufacturers/distributors, and experts) agreed on the parameter in the IEC standard 62253: 2011 able to improve the quality of SWPS in Indonesia. Recommendations of this study, that is required the adoption of IEC standard 62253:2011 into SNI to support the development of SWPS for remote areas in Indonesia.

Keywords: efficiency, inappropriate installation, remote areas, solar water pumping system, standard

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13639 Water Irrigation in the Chlef Region Using Photovoltaic Solar Energy

Authors: T. Tahri, H. Zahloul, K. E. Meddah, H. Lazergue

Abstract:

This paper presents a theoretical study that leads to the design of a photovoltaic pumping system to irrigate six hectares of oranges in the valley of Chlef using the software "PVSYST". It was shown that the site of Chlef presents a favorable climate to this type of energy with an irradiation of over 5 kWh/m2/day, and significant resources underground water. Another very important coincidence still promotes the use of this type of energy for pumping water in Chlef is that the demand for water, especially in agriculture, peaked in hot and dry where it is precisely when one has access to the maximum of solar energy.

Keywords: solar energy, irradiation, water pumping, design, Valley of Chlef

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13638 Freshwater Pinch Analysis for Optimal Design of the Photovoltaic Powered-Pumping System

Authors: Iman Janghorban Esfahani

Abstract:

Due to the increased use of irrigation in agriculture, the importance and need for highly reliable water pumping systems have significantly increased. The pumping of the groundwater is essential to provide water for both drip and furrow irrigation to increase the agricultural yield, especially in arid regions that suffer from scarcities of surface water. The most common irrigation pumping systems (IPS) consume conventional energies through the use of electric motors and generators or connecting to the electricity grid. Due to the shortage and transportation difficulties of fossil fuels, and unreliable access to the electricity grid, especially in the rural areas, and the adverse environmental impacts of fossil fuel usage, such as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the need for renewable energy sources such as photovoltaic systems (PVS) as an alternative way of powering irrigation pumping systems is urgent. Integration of the photovoltaic systems with irrigation pumping systems as the Photovoltaic Powered-Irrigation Pumping System (PVP-IPS) can avoid fossil fuel dependency and the subsequent greenhouse gas emissions, as well as ultimately lower energy costs and improve efficiency, which made PVP-IPS systems as an environmentally and economically efficient solution for agriculture irrigation in every region. The greatest problem faced by integration of PVP with IPS systems is matching the intermittence of the energy supply with the dynamic water demand. The best solution to overcome the intermittence is to incorporate a storage system into the PVP-IPS to provide water-on-demand as a highly reliable stand-alone irrigation pumping system. The water storage tank (WST) is the most common storage device for PVP-IPS systems. In the integrated PVP-IPS with a water storage tank (PVP-IPS-WST), a water storage tank stores the water pumped by the IPS in excess of the water demand and then delivers it when demands are high. The Freshwater pinch analysis (FWaPA) as an alternative to mathematical modeling was used by other researchers for retrofitting the off-grid battery less photovoltaic-powered reverse osmosis system. However, the Freshwater pinch analysis has not been used to integrate the photovoltaic systems with irrigation pumping system with water storage tanks. In this study, FWaPA graphical and numerical tools were used for retrofitting an existing PVP-IPS system located in Salahadin, Republic of Iraq. The plant includes a 5 kW submersible water pump and 7.5 kW solar PV system. The Freshwater Composite Curve as the graphical tool and Freashwater Storage Cascade Table as the numerical tool were constructed to determine the minimum required outsourced water during operation, optimal amount of delivered electricity to the water pump, and optimal size of the water storage tank for one-year operation data. The results of implementing the FWaPA on the case study show that the PVP-IPS system with a WST as the reliable system can reduce outsourced water by 95.41% compare to the PVP-IPS system without storage tank.

Keywords: irrigation, photovoltaic, pinch analysis, pumping, solar energy

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13637 River Analysis System Model for Proposed Weirs at Downstream of Large Dam, Thailand

Authors: S. Chuenchooklin

Abstract:

This research was conducted in the Lower Ping River Basin downstream of the Bhumibol Dam and the Lower Wang River Basin in Tak Province, Thailand. Most of the tributary streams of the Ping can be considered as ungauged catchments. There are 10- pumping station installation at both river banks of the Ping in Tak Province. Recently, most of them could not fully operate due to the water amount in the river below the level that would be pumping, even though included water from the natural river and released flow from the Bhumibol Dam. The aim of this research was to increase the performance of those pumping stations using weir projects in the Ping. Therefore, the river analysis system model (HEC-RAS) was applied to study the hydraulic behavior of water surface profiles in the Ping River with both cases of existing conditions and proposed weirs during the violent flood in 2011 and severe drought in 2013. Moreover, the hydrologic modeling system (HMS) was applied to simulate lateral streamflow hydrograph from ungauged catchments of the Ping. The results of HEC-RAS model calibration with existing conditions in 2011 showed best trial roughness coefficient for the main channel of 0.026. The simulated water surface levels fitted to observation data with R2 of 0.8175. The model was applied to 3 proposed cascade weirs with 2.35 m in height and found surcharge water level only 0.27 m higher than the existing condition in 2011. Moreover, those weirs could maintain river water levels and increase of those pumping performances during less river flow in 2013.

Keywords: HEC-RAS, HMS, pumping stations, cascade weirs

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13636 Solar Photovoltaic Pumping and Water Treatment Tools: A Case Study in Ethiopian Village

Authors: Corinna Barraco, Ornella Salimbene

Abstract:

This research involves the Ethiopian locality of Jeldi (North Africa), an area particularly affected by water shortage and in which the pumping and treatment of drinking water are extremely sensitive issues. The study aims to develop and apply low-cost tools for the design of solar water pumping and water purification systems in a not developed country. Consequently, two technical tools have been implemented in Excel i) Solar photovoltaic Pumping (Spv-P) ii) Water treatment (Wt). The Spv-P tool was applied to the existing well (depth 110 [m], dynamic water level 90 [m], static water level 53 [m], well yield 0.1728 [m³h⁻¹]) in the Jeldi area, where estimated water demand is about 50 [m3d-1]. Through the application of the tool, it was designed the water extraction system of the well, obtaining the number of pumps and solar panels necessary for water pumping from the well of Jeldi. Instead, the second tool Wt has been applied in the subsequent phase of extracted water treatment. According to the chemical-physical parameters of the water, Wt returns as output the type of purification treatment(s) necessary to potable the extracted water. In the case of the well of Jeldi, the tool identified a high criticality regarding the turbidity parameter (12 [NTU] vs 5 [NTU]), and a medium criticality regarding the exceeding limits of sodium concentration (234 [mg/L Na⁺] vs 200 [mg/L Na⁺]) and ammonia (0.64 [mg/L NH³-N] vs 0.5 [mg/L NH³-N]). To complete these tools, two specific manuals are provided for the users. The joint use of the two tools would help reduce problems related to access to water resources compared to the current situation and represents a simplified solution for the design of pumping systems and analysis of purification treatments to be performed in undeveloped countries.

Keywords: drinking water, Ethiopia, treatments, water pumping

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13635 Heat Transfer Characteristics of Aluminum Foam Heat Sinks Subject to an Impinging Jet

Authors: So-Ra Jeon, Chan Byon

Abstract:

This study investigates the heat transfer characteristics of aluminum foam heat sink and pin fin heat sink subjected to an impinging air jet under a fixed pumping power condition as well as fixed flow rate condition. The effects of dimensionless pumping power or the Reynolds number and the impinging distance ratio on the Nusselt number are considered. The result shows that the effect of the impinging distance on the Nusselt number is negligible under a fixed pumping power condition, while the Nusselt number increases with decreasing the impinging distance under a fixed pumping power condition. A correlation for the pressure drop is obtained as a function of the flow rate and the impinging distance ratio. And correlations for the stagnation Nusselt number of the impinging jet are developed as a function of the pumping power. The aluminum foam heat sinks did not show higher thermal performance compared to a conventional pin fin heat sink under a fixed pumping power condition.

Keywords: aluminum foam, heat sinks, impinging jet, pumping power

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13634 Rotor Radial Vent Pumping in Large Synchronous Electrical Machines

Authors: Darren Camilleri, Robert Rolston

Abstract:

Rotor radial vents make use of the pumping effect to increase airflow through the active material thus reduce hotspot temperatures. The effect of rotor radial pumping in synchronous machines has been studied previously. This paper presents the findings of previous studies and builds upon their theories using a parametric numerical approach to investigate the rotor radial pumping effect. The pressure head generated by the poles and radial vent flow-rate were identified as important factors in maximizing the benefits of the pumping effect. The use of Minitab and ANSYS Workbench to investigate the key performance characteristics of radial pumping through a Design of Experiments (DOE) was described. CFD results were compared with theoretical calculations. A correlation for each response variable was derived through a statistical analysis. Findings confirmed the strong dependence of radial vent length on vent pressure head, and radial vent cross-sectional area was proved to be significant in maximising radial vent flow rate.

Keywords: CFD, cooling, electrical machines, regression analysis

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13633 Open Circuit MPPT Control Implemented for PV Water Pumping System

Authors: Rabiaa Gammoudi, Najet Rebei, Othman Hasnaoui

Abstract:

Photovoltaic systems use different techniques for tracking the Maximum Power Point (MPPT) to provide the highest possible power to the load regardless of the climatic conditions variation. In this paper, the proposed method is the Open Circuit (OC) method with sudden and random variations of insolation. The simulation results of the water pumping system controlled by OC method are validated by an experimental experience in real-time using a test bench composed by a centrifugal pump powered by a PVG via a boost chopper for the adaptation between the source and the load. The output of the DC/DC converter supplies the motor pump LOWARA type, assembly by means of a DC/AC inverter. The control part is provided by a computer incorporating a card DS1104 running environment Matlab/Simulink for visualization and data acquisition. These results show clearly the effectiveness of our control with a very good performance. The results obtained show the usefulness of the developed algorithm in solving the problem of degradation of PVG performance depending on the variation of climatic factors with a very good yield.

Keywords: PVWPS (PV Water Pumping System), maximum power point tracking (MPPT), open circuit method (OC), boost converter, DC/AC inverter

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13632 3D Numerical Modelling of a Pulsed Pumping Process of a Large Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Pool: In situ Pilot-Scale Case Study of Hexachlorobutadiene in a Keyed Enclosure

Authors: Q. Giraud, J. Gonçalvès, B. Paris

Abstract:

Remediation of dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) represents a challenging issue because of their persistent behaviour in the environment. This pilot-scale study investigates, by means of in situ experiments and numerical modelling, the feasibility of the pulsed pumping process of a large amount of a DNAPL in an alluvial aquifer. The main compound of the DNAPL is hexachlorobutadiene, an emerging organic pollutant. A low-permeability keyed enclosure was built at the location of the DNAPL source zone in order to isolate a finite undisturbed volume of soil, and a 3-month pulsed pumping process was applied inside the enclosure to exclusively extract the DNAPL. The water/DNAPL interface elevation at both the pumping and observation wells and the cumulated pumped volume of DNAPL were also recorded. A total volume of about 20m³ of purely DNAPL was recovered since no water was extracted during the process. The three-dimensional and multiphase flow simulator TMVOC was used, and a conceptual model was elaborated and generated with the pre/post-processing tool mView. Numerical model consisted of 10 layers of variable thickness and 5060 grid cells. Numerical simulations reproduce the pulsed pumping process and show an excellent match between simulated, and field data of DNAPL cumulated pumped volume and a reasonable agreement between modelled and observed data for the evolution of the water/DNAPL interface elevations at the two wells. This study offers a new perspective in remediation since DNAPL pumping system optimisation may be performed where a large amount of DNAPL is encountered.

Keywords: dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), hexachlorobutadiene, in situ pulsed pumping, multiphase flow, numerical modelling, porous media

Procedia PDF Downloads 82