Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: P. Prasanna

19 Cyclostationary Analysis of Polytime Coded Signals for LPI Radars

Authors: Metuku Shyamsunder, Kakarla Subbarao, P. Prasanna


In radars, an electromagnetic waveform is sent, and an echo of the same signal is received by the receiver. From this received signal, by extracting various parameters such as round trip delay, Doppler frequency it is possible to find distance, speed, altitude, etc. However, nowadays as the technology increases, intruders are intercepting transmitted signal as it reaches them, and they will be extracting the characteristics and trying to modify them. So there is a need to develop a system whose signal cannot be identified by no cooperative intercept receivers. That is why LPI radars came into existence. In this paper, a brief discussion on LPI radar and its modulation (polytime code (PT1)), detection (cyclostationary (DFSM & FAM) techniques such as DFSM, FAM are presented and compared with respect to computational complexity.

Keywords: LPI radar, polytime codes, cyclostationary DFSM, FAM

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18 Use of Interpretable Evolved Search Query Classifiers for Sinhala Documents

Authors: Prasanna Haddela


Document analysis is a well matured yet still active research field, partly as a result of the intricate nature of building computational tools but also due to the inherent problems arising from the variety and complexity of human languages. Breaking down language barriers is vital in enabling access to a number of recent technologies. This paper investigates the application of document classification methods to new Sinhalese datasets. This language is geographically isolated and rich with many of its own unique features. We will examine the interpretability of the classification models with a particular focus on the use of evolved Lucene search queries generated using a Genetic Algorithm (GA) as a method of document classification. We will compare the accuracy and interpretability of these search queries with other popular classifiers. The results are promising and are roughly in line with previous work on English language datasets.

Keywords: evolved search queries, Sinhala document classification, Lucene Sinhala analyzer, interpretable text classification, genetic algorithm

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17 Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka, Prasanna Kumar Kukkamalla


Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.

Keywords: nano calcium, astronauts, fortification, supplementation

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16 Optimal Scheduling of Trains in Complex National Scale Railway Networks

Authors: Sanat Ramesh, Tarun Dutt, Abhilasha Aswal, Anushka Chandrababu, G. N. Srinivasa Prasanna


Optimal Schedule Generation for a large national railway network operating thousands of passenger trains with tens of thousands of kilometers of track is a grand computational challenge in itself. We present heuristics based on a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) formulation for local optimization. These methods provide flexibility in scheduling new trains with varying speed and delays and improve utilization of infrastructure. We propose methods that provide a robust solution with hundreds of trains being scheduled over a portion of the railway network without significant increases in delay. We also provide techniques to validate the nominal schedules thus generated over global correlated variations in travel times thereby enabling us to detect conflicts arising due to delays. Our validation results which assume only the support of the arrival and departure time distributions takes an order of few minutes for a portion of the network and is computationally efficient to handle the entire network.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, optimization, railway network, train scheduling

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15 Swarm Optimization of Unmanned Vehicles and Object Localization

Authors: Venkataramana Sovenahalli Badigar, B. M. Suryakanth, Akshar Prasanna, Karthik Veeramalai, Vishwak Ram Vishwak Ram


Technological advances have led to widespread autonomy in vehicles. Empowering these autonomous with the intelligence to cooperate amongst themselves leads to a more efficient use of the resources available to them. This paper proposes a demonstration of a swarm algorithm implemented on a group of autonomous vehicles. The demonstration involves two ground bots and an aerial drone which cooperate amongst them to locate an object of interest. The object of interest is modelled using a high-intensity light source which acts as a beacon. The ground bots are light sensitive and move towards the beacon. The ground bots and the drone traverse in random paths and jointly locate the beacon. This finds application in various scenarios in where human interference is difficult such as search and rescue during natural disasters, delivering crucial packages in perilous situations, etc. Experimental results show that the modified swarm algorithm implemented in this system has better performance compared to fully random based moving algorithm for object localization and tracking.

Keywords: swarm algorithm, object localization, ground bots, drone, beacon

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14 Variability of Metal Composition and Concentrations in Road Dust in the Urban Environment

Authors: Sandya Mummullage, Prasanna Egodawatta, Ashantha Goonetilleke, Godwin A. Ayoko


Urban road dust comprises of a range of potentially toxic metal elements and plays a critical role in degrading urban receiving water quality. Hence, assessing the metal composition and concentration in urban road dust is a high priority. This study investigated the variability of metal composition and concentrations in road dust in four different urban land uses in Gold Coast, Australia. Samples from 16 road sites were collected and tested for selected 12 metal species. The data set was analyzed using both univariate and multivariate techniques. Outcomes of the data analysis revealed that the metal concentrations inroad dust differs considerably within and between different land uses. Iron, aluminum, magnesium and zinc are the most abundant in urban land uses. It was also noted that metal species such as titanium, nickel, copper, and zinc have the highest concentrations in industrial land use. The study outcomes revealed that soil and traffic related sources as key sources of metals deposited on road surfaces.

Keywords: metals build-up, pollutant accumulation, stormwater quality, urban road dust

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13 Variation of Base Width of a Typical Concrete Gravity Dam under Different Seismic Conditions Using Static Seismic Loading

Authors: Prasanna Kumar Khaund, Sukanya Talukdar


A concrete gravity dam is a major hydraulic structure and it is very essential to consider the earthquake forces, to get a proper design base width, so that the entire weight of the dam resists the overturning moment due to earthquake and other forces. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design base width of a dam for different seismic conditions by varying the earthquake coefficients in both vertical and horizontal directions. This shall be done by equating the factor of safety against overturning, factor of safety against sliding and factor of safety against shear friction factor for a dam with their limiting values, under both tail water and no tail water condition. The shape of the Mettur dam in India is considered for the study. The study has been done taking a constant head of water at the reservoir, which is the maximum reservoir water level and a constant height of tail water. Using linear approximation method of Newton Raphson, the obtained equations against different factors of safety under different earthquake conditions are solved using a programme in C++ to get different values of base width of dam for varying earthquake conditions.

Keywords: design base width, horizontal earthquake coefficient, tail water, vertical earthquake coefficient

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12 Predicting Potential Protein Therapeutic Candidates from the Gut Microbiome

Authors: Prasanna Ramachandran, Kareem Graham, Helena Kiefel, Sunit Jain, Todd DeSantis


Microbes that reside inside the mammalian GI tract, commonly referred to as the gut microbiome, have been shown to have therapeutic effects in animal models of disease. We hypothesize that specific proteins produced by these microbes are responsible for this activity and may be used directly as therapeutics. To speed up the discovery of these key proteins from the big-data metagenomics, we have applied machine learning techniques. Using amino acid sequences of known epitopes and their corresponding binding partners, protein interaction descriptors (PID) were calculated, making a positive interaction set. A negative interaction dataset was calculated using sequences of proteins known not to interact with these same binding partners. Using Random Forest and positive and negative PID, a machine learning model was trained and used to predict interacting versus non-interacting proteins. Furthermore, the continuous variable, cosine similarity in the interaction descriptors was used to rank bacterial therapeutic candidates. Laboratory binding assays were conducted to test the candidates for their potential as therapeutics. Results from binding assays reveal the accuracy of the machine learning prediction and are subsequently used to further improve the model.

Keywords: protein-interactions, machine-learning, metagenomics, microbiome

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11 Investigation of Chord Protocol in Peer to Peer Wireless Mesh Network with Mobility

Authors: P. Prasanna Murali Krishna, M. V. Subramanyam, K. Satya Prasad


File sharing in networks are generally achieved using Peer-to-Peer (P2P) applications. Structured P2P approaches are widely used in adhoc networks due to its distributed and scalability features. Efficient mechanisms are required to handle the huge amount of data distributed to all peers. The intrinsic characteristics of P2P system makes for easier content distribution when compared to client-server architecture. All the nodes in a P2P network act as both client and server, thus, distributing data takes lesser time when compared to the client-server method. CHORD protocol is a resource routing based where nodes and data items are structured into a 1- dimensional ring. The structured lookup algorithm of Chord is advantageous for distributed P2P networking applications. Though, structured approach improves lookup performance in a high bandwidth wired network it could contribute to unnecessary overhead in overlay networks leading to degradation of network performance. In this paper, the performance of existing CHORD protocol on Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) when nodes are static and dynamic is investigated.

Keywords: wireless mesh network (WMN), structured P2P networks, peer to peer resource sharing, CHORD Protocol, DHT

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10 Effect of Particle Size and Concentration of Pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) Peel Powder on Suppression of Oxidation of Edible Plant Oils

Authors: D. G. D. C. L. Munasinghe, M. S. Gunawardana, P. H. P. Prasanna, C. S. Ranadheera, T. Madhujith


Lipid oxidation is an important process that affects the shelf life of edible oils. Oxidation produces off flavors, off odors and chemical compounds that lead to adverse health effects. Chemical mechanisms such as autoxidation, photo-oxidation and thermal oxidation are responsible for lipid oxidation. Refined, Bleached and Deodorized (RBD) coconut oil, Virgin Coconut Oil (VCO) and corn oil are widely used plant oils. Pomegranate fruit is known to possess high antioxidative efficacy. Peel of pomegranate contains high antioxidant activity than aril and pulp membrane. The study attempted to study the effect of particle size and concentration of pomegranate peel powder on suppression of oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. Pomegranate peel powder was incorporated into each oil sample as micro (< 250 µm) and nano particles (280 - 300 nm) at 100 ppm and 200 ppm concentrations. The control sample of each oil was prepared, devoid of pomegranate peel powder. The stability of oils against autoxidation was evaluated by storing oil samples at 60 °C for 28 days. The level of oxidation was assessed by peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances on 0,1,3,5,7,14 and 28 day, respectively. VCO containing pomegranate particles of 280 - 300 nm at 200 ppm showed the highest oxidative stability followed by RBD coconut oil and corn oil. Results revealed that pomegranate peel powder with 280 - 300 nm particle size at 200 ppm concentration was the best in mitigating oxidation of RBD coconut oil, VCO and corn oil. There is a huge potential of utilizing pomegranate peel powder as an antioxidant agent in reducing oxidation of edible plant oils.

Keywords: antioxidant, autoxidation, micro particles, nano particles, pomegranate peel powder

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9 Effect of Solvents in the Extraction and Stability of Anthocyanin from the Petals of Caesalpinia pulcherrima for Natural Dye-Sensitized Solar Cell

Authors: N. Prabavathy, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Shalini, Dhayalan Velauthapillai, S. Prasanna, N. Muthukumarasamy


Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) has become a significant research area due to their fundamental and scientific importance in the area of energy conversion. Synthetic dyes as sensitizer in DSSC are efficient and durable but they are costlier, toxic and have the tendency to degrade. Natural sensitizers contain plant pigments such as anthocyanin, carotenoid, flavonoid, and chlorophyll which promote light absorption as well as injection of charges to the conduction band of TiO2 through the sensitizer. But, the efficiency of natural dyes is not up to the mark mainly due to instability of the pigment such as anthocyanin. The stability issues in vitro are mainly due to the effect of solvents on extraction of anthocyanins and their respective pH. Taking this factor into consideration, in the present work, the anthocyanins were extracted from the flower Caesalpinia pulcherrima (C. pulcherrimma) with various solvents and their respective stability and pH values are discussed. The usage of citric acid as solvent to extract anthocyanin has shown good stability than other solvents. It also helps in enhancing the sensitization properties of anthocyanins with Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorods. The IPCE spectra show higher photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized TiO2nanorods using citric acid as solvent. The natural DSSC using citric acid as solvent shows a higher efficiency compared to other solvents. Hence citric acid performs to be a safe solvent for natural DSSC in boosting the photovoltaic performance and maintaining the stability of anthocyanins.

Keywords: Caesalpinia pulcherrima, citric acid, dye sensitized solar cells, TiO₂ nanorods

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8 Shared Heart with a Common Atrial Complex and Persistent Right Dorsal Aorta in Conjoined Twins

Authors: L. C. Prasanna, Antony Sylvan D’Souza, Kumar M. R. Bhat


Although life as a conjoined twin would seem intolerable, there has recently been an increased interest in this subject because of the increasing number of cases where attempts have been made to separate them surgically. We have reviewed articles on cardiovascular anomalies in conjoined twins and presenting rarest anomaly in dicephalus parapagus fetus having two heads attached to one body from the neck or upper chest downwards, with a pair of limbs and a set of reproductive organs. Both the twins shared a common thoracic cavity with a single sternum. When the thoracic cavity was opened, a common anterior mediastinum was found. On opening the pericardium, two separate, closely apposed hearts were exposed. The two cardia are placed side by side. The left heart was slightly larger than the right and were joined at the atrial levels. Four atrial appendages were present, two for each twin. The atrial complex was a common chamber posterior to the ventricles. A single large tributary which could be taken as inferior vena cava drains into the common atrial chamber. In this case, the heart could not be assigned to either twin and therefore, it is referred to as the shared heart within a common pericardial sac. The right and left descending thoracic aorta have joined with each other just above the diaphragm to form a common descending thoracic aorta which has an opening in the diaphragm to be continued as common abdominal aorta which has a normal branching pattern. Upon an interior dissection, it is observed that the two atria have a wide communication which could be a wide patent foramen ovale and this common atrial cavity has a communication with a remnant of a possible common sinus venosus.

Keywords: atrium, congenital anomaly, conjoined twin, sinus venosus

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7 Effectiveness of Impairment Specified Muscle Strengthening Programme in a Group of Disabled Athletes

Authors: A. L. I. Prasanna, E. Liyanage, S. A. Rajaratne, K. P. A. P. Kariyawasam, A. A. J. Rajaratne


Maintaining or improving the muscle strength of the injured body part is essential to optimize performance among disabled athletes. General conditioning and strengthening exercises might be ineffective if not sufficiently intense enough or targeted for each participant’s specific impairment. Specific strengthening programme, targeted to the affected body part, are essential to improve the strength of impaired muscles and increase in strength will help reducing the impact of disability. Methods: The muscle strength of hip, knee and ankle joints was assessed in a group of randomly selected disabled athletes, using the Medical Research Council (MRC) grading. Those having muscle strength of grade 4 or less were selected for this study (24 in number) and were given and a custom made exercise program designed to strengthen their hip, knee or ankle joint musculature, according to the muscle or group of muscles affected. Effectiveness of the strengthening program was assessed after a period of 3 months. Results: Statistical analysis was done using the Minitab 16 statistical software. A Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the strength of muscle group before and after exercise programme. A significant difference was observed after the three month strengthening program for knee flexors (Left and Right) (P =0.0889, 0.0312) hip flexors (left and right) (P=0.0312, 0.0466), hip extensors (Left and Right) (P=0.0478, 0.0513), ankle plantar flexors (Left and Right) (P=0.0466, 0.0423) and right ankle dorsiflexors (P= 0.0337). No significant difference of strength was observed after the strengthening program in the knee extensors (left and right), hip abductors (left and right) and left ankle dorsiflexors. Conclusion: Impairment specific exercise programme appear to be beneficial for disabled athletes to significantly improve the muscle strength of the affected joints.

Keywords: muscle strengthening programme, disabled athletes, physiotherapy, rehabilitation sciences

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6 Studies on Radio Frequency Sputtered Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide Absorber Layers for Thin Film Solar Cells

Authors: G. Balaji, R. Balasundaraprabhu, S. Prasanna, M. D. Kannan, K. Sivakumaran, David Mcilroy


Copper Zin tin sulphide (Cu2ZnSnS4 or CZTS) is found to be better alternative to Copper Indium gallium diselenide as absorber layers in thin film based solar cells due to the utilisation of earth-abundant materials in the midst of lower toxicity. In the present study, Cu2ZnSnS4 thin films were prepared on soda lime glass using (CuS, ZnS, SnS) targets and were deposited by three different stacking orders, using RF Magnetron sputtering. The substrate temperature was fixed at 300 °C during the depositions. CZTS thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and UV-Vis-NIR spectroscopy. All the samples exhibited X-ray peaks pertaining to (112) kesterite phase of CZTS, along with the presence of a predominant wurtzite CZTS phase. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of all the elements in all the samples. The change in stacking order clearly shows that it affects the structural and phase properties of the films. Relative atomic concentrations of Zn, Cu, Sn and S, which are determined by high-resolution XPS core level spectra integrated peak areas revealed that the CZTS films exhibit inhomogeneity in both stoichiometry and elemental composition. Raman spectroscopy studies on the film showed the presence of CZTS phase. The energy band gap of the CZTS thin films was found to be in the range of 1.5 eV to 1.6 eV. The films were then annealed at 450 °C for 5 hrs and it was found that the predominant nature of the X-ray peaks has transformed from Wurtzite to Kesterite phase which is highly desirable for absorber layers in thin film solar cells. The optimized CZTS layer was used as an absorber layer in thin film solar cells. ZnS and CdS were used as buffer layers which in turn prepared by Hot wall epitaxy technique. Gallium doped Zinc oxide was used as a transparent conducting oxide. The solar cell structure Glass/Mo/CZTS/CdS or ZnS/GZO has been fabricated, and solar cell parameters were measured.

Keywords: earth-abundant, Kesterite, RF sputtering, thin film solar cells

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5 Candida antartica Lipase Assisted Enrichment of n-3 PUFA in Indian Sardine Oil

Authors: Prasanna Belur, P. R. Ashwini, Sampath Charanyaa, I. Regupathi


Indian oil sardine (Sardinella longiceps) are one of the richest and cheapest sources of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) such as Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The health benefits conferred by n-3 PUFA upon consumption, in the prevention and treatment of coronary, neuromuscular, immunological disorders and allergic conditions are well documented. Natural refined Indian Sardine oil generally contain about 25% (w/w) n-3 PUFA along with various unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in the form of mono, di, and triglycerides. Having high concentration of n-3 PUFA content in the glyceride form is most desirable for human consumption to avail maximum health benefits. Thus, enhancing the n-3 PUFA content while retaining it in the glyceride form with green technology is the need of the hour. In this study, refined Indian Sardine oil was subjected to selective hydrolysis by Candida antartica lipase to enhance n-3 PUFA content. The degree of hydrolysis and enhancement of n-3 PUFA content was estimated by determining acid value, Iodine value, EPA and DHA content (by Gas Chromatographic methods after derivitization) before and after hydrolysis. Various reaction parameters such as pH, temperature, enzyme load, lipid to aqueous phase volume ratio and incubation time were optimized by conducting trials with one parameter at a time approach. Incubating enzyme solution with refined sardine oil with a volume ratio of 1:1, at pH 7.0, for 60 minutes at 50 °C, with an enzyme load of 60 mg/ml was found to be optimum. After enzymatic treatment, the oil was subjected to refining to remove free fatty acids and moisture content using previously optimized refining technology. Enzymatic treatment at the optimal conditions resulted in 12.11 % enhancement in Degree of hydrolysis. Iodine number had increased by 9.7 % and n-3 PUFA content was enhanced by 112 % (w/w). Selective enhancement of n-3 PUFA glycerides, eliminating saturated and unsaturated fatty acids from the oil using enzyme is an interesting preposition as this technique is environment-friendly, cost effective and provide natural source of n-3 PUFA rich oil.

Keywords: Candida antartica, lipase, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, sardine oil

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4 Immiscible Polymer Blends with Controlled Nanoparticle Location for Excellent Microwave Absorption: A Compartmentalized Approach

Authors: Sourav Biswas, Goutam Prasanna Kar, Suryasarathi Bose


In order to obtain better materials, control in the precise location of nanoparticles is indispensable. It was shown here that ordered arrangement of nanoparticles, possessing different characteristics (electrical/magnetic dipoles), in the blend structure can result in excellent microwave absorption. This is manifested from a high reflection loss of ca. -67 dB for the best blend structure designed here. To attenuate electromagnetic radiations, the key parameters i.e. high electrical conductivity and large dielectric/magnetic loss are targeted here using a conducting inclusion [multiwall carbon nanotubes, MWNTs]; ferroelectric nanostructured material with associated relaxations in the GHz frequency [barium titanate, BT]; and a loss ferromagnetic nanoparticles [nickel ferrite, NF]. In this study, bi-continuous structures were designed using 50/50 (by wt) blends of polycarbonate (PC) and polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF). The MWNTs was modified using an electron acceptor molecule; a derivative of perylenediimide, which facilitates π-π stacking with the nanotubes and stimulates efficient charge transport in the blends. The nanoscopic materials have specific affinity towards the PVDF phase. Hence, by introducing surface-active groups, ordered arrangement can be tailored. To accomplish this, both BT and NF was first hydroxylated followed by introducing amine-terminal groups on the surface. The latter facilitated in nucleophilic substitution reaction with PC and resulted in their precise location. In this study, we have shown for the first time that by compartmentalized approach, superior EM attenuation can be achieved. For instance, when the nanoparticles were localized exclusively in the PVDF phase or in both the phases, the minimum reflection loss was ca. -18 dB (for MWNT/BT mixture) and -29 dB (for MWNT/NF mixture), and the shielding was primarily through reflection. Interestingly, by adopting the compartmentalized approach where in, the lossy materials were in the PC phase and the conducting inclusion (MWNT) in PVDF, an outstanding reflection loss of ca. -57 dB (for BT and MWNT combination) and -67 dB (for NF and MWNT combination) was noted and the shielding was primarily through absorption. Thus, the approach demonstrates that nanoscopic structuring in the blends can be achieved under macroscopic processing conditions and this strategy can further be explored to design microwave absorbers.

Keywords: barium titanate, EMI shielding, MWNTs, nickel ferrite

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3 Developing an Online Application for Mental Skills Training and Development

Authors: Arjun Goutham, Chaitanya Sridhar, Sunita Maheshwari, Robin Uthappa, Prasanna Gopinath


In alignment with the growth in the sporting industry, a number of people playing and competing in sports are growing exponentially across the globe. However, the number of sports psychology experts are not growing at a similar rate, especially in the Asian and more so, Indian context. Hence, the access to actionable mental training solutions specific to individual athletes is limited. Also, the time constraint an athlete faces due to their intense training schedule makes one-on-one sessions difficult. One of the means to bridge that gap is through technology. Technology makes individualization possible. It allows for easy access to specific-qualitative content/information and provides a medium to place individualized assessments, analysis, solutions directly into an athlete's hands. This enables mental training awareness, education, and real-time actionable solutions possible for athletes in-spite of the limitation of available sports psychology experts in their region. Furthermore, many athletes are hesitant to seek support due to the stigma of appearing weak. Such individuals would prefer a more discreet way. Athletes who have strong mental performance tend to produce better results. The mobile application helps to equip athletes with assessing and developing their mental strategies directed towards improving performance on an ongoing basis. When an athlete understands their strengths and limitations in their mental application, they can focus specifically on applying the strategies that work and improve on zones of limitation. With reports, coaches get to understand the unique inner workings of an athlete and can utilize the data & analysis to coach them with better precision and use coaching styles & communication that suits better. Systematically capturing data and supporting athletes(with individual-specific solutions) or teams with assessment, planning, instructional content, actionable tools & strategies, reviewing mental performance and the achievement of objectives & goals facilitate for a consistent mental skills development at all levels of sporting stages of an athlete's career. The mobile application will help athletes recognize and align with their stable attributes such as their personalities, learning & execution modalities, challenges & requirements of their sport, etc and help develop dynamic attributes like states, beliefs, motivation levels, focus etc. with practice and training. It will provide measurable analysis on a regular basis and help them stay aligned to their objectives & goals. The solutions are based on researched areas of influence on sporting performance individually or in teams.

Keywords: athletes, mental training, mobile application, performance, sports

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2 A Top-down vs a Bottom-up Approach on Lower Extremity Motor Recovery and Balance Following Acute Stroke: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Authors: Vijaya Kumar, Vidayasagar Pagilla, Abraham Joshua, Rakshith Kedambadi, Prasanna Mithra


Background: Post stroke rehabilitation are aimed to accelerate for optimal sensorimotor recovery, functional gain and to reduce long-term dependency. Intensive physical therapy interventions can enhance this recovery as experience-dependent neural plastic changes either directly act at cortical neural networks or at distal peripheral level (muscular components). Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES), a traditional bottom-up approach, mirror therapy (MT), a relatively new top down approach have found to be an effective adjuvant treatment methods for lower extremity motor and functional recovery in stroke rehabilitation. However there is a scarcity of evidence to compare their therapeutic gain in stroke recovery.Aim: To compare the efficacy of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) and mirror therapy (MT) in very early phase of post stroke rehabilitation addressed to lower extremity motor recovery and balance. Design: observer blinded Randomized Clinical Trial. Setting: Neurorehabilitation Unit, Department of Physical Therapy, Tertiary Care Hospitals. Subjects: 32 acute stroke subjects with first episode of unilateral stroke with hemiparesis, referred for rehabilitation (onset < 3 weeks), Brunnstorm lower extremity recovery stages ≥3 and MMSE score more than 24 were randomized into two group [Group A-NMES and Group B-MT]. Interventions: Both the groups received eclectic approach to remediate lower extremity recovery which includes treatment components of Roods, Bobath and Motor learning approaches for 30 minutes a day for 6 days. Following which Group A (N=16) received 30 minutes of surface NMES training for six major paretic muscle groups (gluteus maximus and medius,quadriceps, hamstrings, tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius). Group B (N=16) was administered with 30 minutes of mirror therapy sessions to facilitate lower extremity motor recovery. Outcome measures: Lower extremity motor recovery, balance and activities of daily life (ADLs) were measured by Fugyl Meyer Assessment (FMA-LE), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), Barthel Index (BI) before and after intervention. Results: Pre Post analysis of either group across the time revealed statistically significant improvement (p < 0.001) for all the outcome variables for the either group. All parameters of NMES had greater change scores compared to MT group as follows: FMA-LE (25.12±3.01 vs. 23.31±2.38), BBS (35.12±4.61 vs. 34.68±5.42) and BI (40.00±10.32 vs. 37.18±7.73). Between the groups comparison of pre post values showed no significance with FMA-LE (p=0.09), BBS (p=0.80) and BI (p=0.39) respectively. Conclusion: Though either groups had significant improvement (pre to post intervention), none of them were superior to other in lower extremity motor recovery and balance among acute stroke subjects. We conclude that eclectic approach is an effective treatment irrespective of NMES or MT as an adjunct.

Keywords: balance, motor recovery, mirror therapy, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, stroke

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1 Use of Socially Assistive Robots in Early Rehabilitation to Promote Mobility for Infants with Motor Delays

Authors: Elena Kokkoni, Prasanna Kannappan, Ashkan Zehfroosh, Effrosyni Mavroudi, Kristina Strother-Garcia, James C. Galloway, Jeffrey Heinz, Rene Vidal, Herbert G. Tanner


Early immobility affects the motor, cognitive, and social development. Current pediatric rehabilitation lacks the technology that will provide the dosage needed to promote mobility for young children at risk. The addition of socially assistive robots in early interventions may help increase the mobility dosage. The aim of this study is to examine the feasibility of an early intervention paradigm where non-walking infants experience independent mobility while socially interacting with robots. A dynamic environment is developed where both the child and the robot interact and learn from each other. The environment involves: 1) a range of physical activities that are goal-oriented, age-appropriate, and ability-matched for the child to perform, 2) the automatic functions that perceive the child’s actions through novel activity recognition algorithms, and decide appropriate actions for the robot, and 3) a networked visual data acquisition system that enables real-time assessment and provides the means to connect child behavior with robot decision-making in real-time. The environment was tested by bringing a two-year old boy with Down syndrome for eight sessions. The child presented delays throughout his motor development with the current being on the acquisition of walking. During the sessions, the child performed physical activities that required complex motor actions (e.g. climbing an inclined platform and/or staircase). During these activities, a (wheeled or humanoid) robot was either performing the action or was at its end point 'signaling' for interaction. From these sessions, information was gathered to develop algorithms to automate the perception of activities which the robot bases its actions on. A Markov Decision Process (MDP) is used to model the intentions of the child. A 'smoothing' technique is used to help identify the model’s parameters which are a critical step when dealing with small data sets such in this paradigm. The child engaged in all activities and socially interacted with the robot across sessions. With time, the child’s mobility was increased, and the frequency and duration of complex and independent motor actions were also increased (e.g. taking independent steps). Simulation results on the combination of the MDP and smoothing support the use of this model in human-robot interaction. Smoothing facilitates learning MDP parameters from small data sets. This paradigm is feasible and provides an insight on how social interaction may elicit mobility actions suggesting a new early intervention paradigm for very young children with motor disabilities. Acknowledgment: This work has been supported by NIH under grant #5R01HD87133.

Keywords: activity recognition, human-robot interaction, machine learning, pediatric rehabilitation

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