Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: P. N. Guru

24 Hermeneutics: Comparative Study of Shri Guru Granth Sahib's Schools of Interpretation

Authors: Amandeep Kaur

Abstract:

All religions enlighten truth which provides spiritual tranquility. But, the language of these holy books is not easy to understand because these have divine language. That's why hermeneutical Study is necessary to understand these Scriptures. There is a separate theoretical framework to study all the disciplines of language, literature, religion etc. Similarly the discipline of interpretation has its own theoretical framework known as hermeneutics. It is a science of interpretation that put forward the best ways and methods of interpretation. But in this modern world, hermeneutics is considered as a theoretical-cum-philosophical discipline. It is vast study of understanding texts. Hermeneutics is especially related to the study of religious scriptures like the Bible, the Qur'an, the Vedas and the Shri Guru Granth Sahib and many more. It is mainly the Western concept which has a great old tradition because it used the Bible as the foremost holy scripture for definition and interpretation. The Discipline of the Indian hermeneutics was led by Mimamsa School. The reference of the word hermeneutics in works of Ancient Greek philosophers indicates towards the antiquity of this word. Shri Guru Granth Sahib's schools of interpretation like Udasi, Nirmala, Sevapanthi and Gyani came into existence to interpret the discourse of Shri Guru Granth Sahib. These are sects of Sikhism and have great contribution to interpret and preach Guru Granth Sahib's revelation. This research paper will represent the comparative study of these sects methods, tools and styles of interpreting the meaning of this holy book. Interpretation is basically textual based process. So, all these schools have chosen Guru Granth Sahib for textual study. Some of the schools have done a whole interpretation of Guru Granth Sahib. But, some of them have done only interpretation of prominent banies i.e Japuji Sahib, Anand Sahib, Assa-di-war etc. This study will also throw lights on sect's historical background and contribution. At last conclusion of this paper is that all the schools have done gurbani interpretation according to their own philosophical and theological point of view. These schools have many similarities and differences among their way of interpretation. It will be discussed briefly.

Keywords: hermeneutics, Gyani, Mimamsa, Nirmala, Sevapanthi, Udasi

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23 Hindi Cinema in a Post-Colonial India: A Study on Guru Dutt's Self-Expression in 'Pyasa'

Authors: Mrunmayee Das

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This study aims to explore the film 'Pyasa' directed by actor-director Guru Dutt, filmed during the 1950’s golden age of Hindi cinema. 'Pyasa' was filmed after a decade of India being a new nation and narrates the world-view of a poet dressed in western ideals, tasting modernity, uprooted from his familial and social moorings causing friction of being between survival and self- expression. The research is based on literature review to study the attitudes, particularly the post-colonial, informing the film. In terms of the structure, the relational study of the film and the historical background of that time came first. Further explorations deal with the use of image making, dialogue, and poetry in the form of songs facilitating the central theme of the human plight of poverty, not of material but of thought. The literature review establishes Dutt’s style of expressing melodic melodrama through a dance between light and shadow majorly in the form of song sequences signifying the greys of the society. It was found in this research that melodrama is created by the changing contrasts and use of close-ups. The song sequences convey the tensions of being a contemporary liberal educated youth and having to deal with the societal-ills of this world, which highlights the theme of compulsion towards self-destruction. It is concluded that Dutt’s 'Pyasa' is a autobiographical commentary on the state of a nation doing away with a borrowed identity and refashioning its own.

Keywords: cinema, self-expression, Guru Dutt, post-colonial India

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22 Examining the Challenges of Teaching Traditional Dance in Contemporary India

Authors: Aadya Kaktikar

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The role of a traditional dance teacher in India revolves around teaching movements and postures that have been a part of the movement vocabulary of dancers from before the 2nd century BC. These movements inscribe on the mind and body of the dancer a complex web of philosophy, culture history, and religion. However, this repository of tradition sits in a fast globalizing India creating a cultural space which is in a constant flux, where identities and meanings are being constantly challenged. The guru-shishya parampara, the traditional way of learning dance, sits uneasily with a modern education space in India. The traditional dance teacher is caught in the cross-currents of tradition and modernity, of preservation and exploration. This paper explores conflicting views on what dance ought to mean and how it should be taught. The paper explores the tensions of the social, economic and cultural spaces that the traditional dance teacher navigates.

Keywords: pedagogy, Teacher Training, Dance Education, dance curriculum

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21 Green Marketing and Sustainable Development: Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Guru P. S. Rangasamy

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In the cutting edge period of globalization, it has turned into a test to keep the clients and also shoppers in overlay and even keep our regular habitat safe and that is the greatest need of the time. Purchasers are likewise mindful of the ecological issues like a dangerous atmospheric deviation and the effect of natural contamination. Green showcasing is a marvel which has created specific critical in the present day advertise and has risen as an imperative idea in India, as in different parts of the creating and created world and is viewed as an essential procedure of encouraging practical improvement. In this exploration paper, primary accentuation has been made of idea, need, and significance of green promoting. It investigates the principle issues in reception of green showcasing hones. The paper portrays the present situation of Indian market and investigates the difficulties and openings organizations have with green advertising, why organizations are receiving it and eventual fate of green promoting and presumes that green showcasing is something that will consistently develop in both practice and request.

Keywords: Sustainable Development, Environmental Pollution, Global Warming, Globalization, Green Marketing

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20 When Muslims Wear Kanthis: An Analysis of Hindu Reformers and Their Appeal to the Ummah

Authors: Ajay Dave

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While Hinduism and Islam have fundamentally different ethics, cosmologies, and salvific precepts, individual Muslims have historically been attracted to the charisma and philosophies of Hindu reformers and gurus. While orthodox Muslims have often deemed such individuals kafirs, this does not provide a useful explanation for such an attraction. This paper analyzes this phenomenon through three case studies and develops a framework for understanding these interactions in light of contemporary interreligious conflict. These case studies demonstrate that Muslim-Hindu relations can be improved on an ideological level and that such cooperation has a history spanning much of India’s pre and post-colonial history. The first case study details the presence of Khoja Muslims in the entourage of Swaminarayan, a Hindu reformer active in the early 19th century. Swaminarayan explicitly claimed to be Parabrahma, the ultimate ontological entity in Hindu thought, personified. Despite the immediate connotations of shirk, many Muslims became Swaminarayan’s disciples due to his charisma. The author argues this charisma, paired with Swaminarayan’s moral rigor, paralleled that of Sufi shaykhs and was attractive to the Khoja community. The author then analyzes the influence of Ram Manmohan Roy on Muslim reformers who pledged themselves to his ideals and to a rational, scientific Islam. While not a guru in the traditional sense, Roy’s polemics against his perception of Islam inspired Muslims such as Syed Ahmed Khan to embrace the Muʿtazila tradition in their political discourse. Roy’s influence on Indian nationalism provided a cohesive front for both Muslims and Hindus to work for sovereignty against the British regime. Finally, the author explores the relationship between the late Pramukh Swami, a spiritual successor of Swaminarayan and significant proponent of Hindu-Muslim cooperation, and the late Abdul Kalam, former President of India. A Muslim, Kalam explicitly names Pramukh Swami as his guru in his spiritual autobiography. Kalam places Pramukh Swami amongst the larger pantheon of Sufi shaykhs, representative of the mystical tradition that has simultaneously shaped the orthodoxy and innovative aspects of Muslim thought and identity. The author argues that such influences are not an effect of pluralism or secularization, but rather reflects an innate attraction to charisma present in the Islamic tradition, which Muslims categorize through the concepts of allamahs, imams, ayatollahs, and shaykhs, representing the need for a unified leadership of the umma and the larger issue of authority present in all religious traditions. The author compares Muslim and Hindu theologies, especially those found in Sufism, to offer a theological explanation underpinning the aforementioned relationships. By understanding these relationships between Hindus and Muslims, scholars and policy formers can help buffer the extremist factions of the current Hindutva movement and allay conflicts in pluralistic societies in Asia as a whole.

Keywords: charisma in religious experience, Hindu-Muslim relations, polarization in religion and politics, rational theology

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19 Characterization of Aluminium Alloy 6063 Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite by Using Stir Casting Method

Authors: Balwinder Singh

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The present research is a paper on the characterization of aluminum alloy-6063 hybrid metal matrix composites using three different reinforcement materials (SiC, red mud, and fly ash) through stir casting method. The red mud was used in solid form, and particle size range varies between 103-150 µm. During this investigation, fly ash is received from Guru Nanak Dev Thermal Plant (GNDTP), Bathinda. The study has been done by using Taguchi’s L9 orthogonal array by taking fraction wt.% (SiC 5%, 7.5%, and 10% and Red Mud and Fly Ash 2%, 4%, and 6%) as input parameters with their respective levels. The study of the mechanical properties (tensile strength, impact strength, and microhardness) has been done by using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) with the help of MINITAB 17 software. It is revealed that silicon carbide is the most significant parameter followed by red mud and fly ash affecting the mechanical properties, respectively. The fractured surface morphology of the composites using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) shows that there is a good mixing of reinforcement particles in the matrix. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) was performed to know the presence of the phases of the reinforced material.

Keywords: fly ash, Silicon Carbide, reinforcement, red mud

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18 Impact of Marketing towards Behavior Intention

Authors: Sathyamangalam Rangasamy Guru Prasath

Abstract:

Due to the increasing homogeneity in product offerings, the attendant services provided are emerging as a key differentiator in the mind of the consumers. Services marketing are a sub field of marketing which covers the marketing of both goods and services. Service marketing differs from product marketing due to the face that services are intangible and typically require personal interaction with the customer. Relationships are a key factor when it comes to the marketing of services. The role of interpersonal relationships distinguishes service and product marketing in strategic vision and organizational considerations. This paper explores some of the trends in service marketing as they relate to strategic vision, operational and organizational changes, and marketing tactics. The presence of the customer in the service facility means that capacity management becomes an important driver of the firm’s profitability service marketing is a process from the organization’s point of view, but an experience from the customer’s perspective. The quality of the experience is a function of the careful design of customer service processes, adoption of standardized procedures, rigorous management of service quality, high standards of training and automation. Services marketing helps to ensure that these processes are designed from the customer’s perspective. Services marketing includes customer loyalty, managing relationships, complaint handling, improving service quality and productivity of service operations, and how to become a service leader in your industry.

Keywords: Service Marketing, Product Marketing, customer perspective, rigorous management

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17 A Witty Relief Ailment Based on the Integration of IoT and Cloud

Authors: Sai Shruthi Sridhar, A. Madhumidha, Kreethika Guru, Priyanka Sekar, Ananthi Malayappan

Abstract:

Numerous changes in technology and its recent development are structuring long withstanding effect to our world, one among them is the emergence of “Internet of Things” (IoT). Similar to Technology world, one industry stands out in everyday life–healthcare. Attention to “quality of health care” is an increasingly important issue in a global economy and for every individual. As per WHO (World Health Organization) it is estimated to be less than 50% adhere to the medication provided and only about 20% get their medicine on time. Medication adherence is one of the top problems in healthcare which is fixable by use of technology. In recent past, there were minor provisions for elderly and specially-skilled to get motivated and to adhere medicines prescribed. This paper proposes a novel solution that uses IOT based RFID Medication Reminder Solution to provide personal health care services. This employs real time tracking which offer quick counter measures. The proposed solution builds on the recent digital advances in sensor technologies, smart phones and cloud services. This novel solution is easily adoptable and can benefit millions of people with a direct impact on the nation’s health care expenditure with innovative scenarios and pervasive connectivity.

Keywords: Sensors, Cloud Services, RFID, IoT

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16 Ultrasonic Assessment of Corpora lutea and Plasma Progesterone Levels in Early Pregnant and Non Pregnant Cows

Authors: Guru Solmon Raju, Chikara Kubota, Abdurraouf O. Gaja, Salah Y. A. Al-Dahash

Abstract:

Corpus luteum cross sectional (by ultrasonography) and plasma progesterone (by DELFIA) were estimated in early pregnant and non pregnant cows on days 14th and 20th to 23rd post insemination. On day 14th, corpus luteum sectional area was 348.43 mm2 in pregnant and 387.84mm2 in non pregnant cows. Within days 20th to 23rd, corpus luteum sectional area ranged between 342.06 and 367.90 mm2 in pregnant and between 193.85 and 270.69 mm2 in non pregnant cows. Plasma progesterone level was 2.43 ng/ml in pregnant and 2.46 ng/ml in non pregnant cows on day 14th, while during days 20th to 23rd the level ranged between 2.47 and 2,84 ng/ml in pregnant and between 0.53 and 1.17 ng/ml in non pregnant cows. Results of both luteal tissue areas as well as plasma progesterone levels were highly significantly deferent (P<0.01) between pregnant and non pregnant cows during days 20th to 23rd, but there were no significant differences on day 14th. The correlation between CL cross-sectional area and plasma progesterone level was 0.4 in pregnant cows and 0.99 in non pregnant cow. It is clear, from this study, that ultrasonic assessment of corpora lutea is a viable alternative to determine plasma progesterone levels for early pregnancy diagnosis in cows.

Keywords: Ultrasonography, Pregnancy Diagnosis, progesterone, corpus luteum, cow

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15 Fiber Braggs Grating Sensor Based Instrumentation to Evaluate Postural Balance and Stability on an Unstable Platform

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, S. N. Omkar, S. Asokan, H. N. Vikranth, H. Varun

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This paper describes a novel application of Fiber Braggs Grating (FBG) sensors on an unstable platform to assess human postural stability and balance. The FBG sensor based Stability Analyzing Device (FBGSAD) developed demonstrates the applicability of FBG sensors in the measurement of plantar strain to assess the postural stability of subjects on unstable platforms during different stances in eyes open and eyes closed conditions on a rocker board. Comparing the Centre of Gravity (CG) variations measured on the lumbar vertebra of subjects using a commercial accelerometer along with FBGSAD validates the study. The results obtained depict qualitative similarities between the data recorded by both FBGSAD and accelerometer, illustrating the reliability and consistency of FBG sensors in biomechanical applications for both young and geriatric population. The developed FBGSAD simultaneously measures plantar strain distribution and postural stability and can serve as a tool/yardstick to mitigate space motion sickness, identify individuals who are susceptible to falls and to qualify subjects for balance and stability, which are important factors in the selection of certain unique professionals such as aircraft pilots, astronauts, cosmonauts etc.

Keywords: Biomechanics, fiber bragg gratings, plantar strain measurement, postural stability analysis

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14 Automatic Fluid-Structure Interaction Modeling and Analysis of Butterfly Valve Using Python Script

Authors: N. Guru Prasath, Sangjin Ma, Chang-Wan Kim

Abstract:

A butterfly valve is a quarter turn valve which is used to control the flow of a fluid through a section of pipe. Generally, butterfly valve is used in wide range of applications such as water distribution, sewage, oil and gas plants. In particular, butterfly valve with larger diameter finds its immense applications in hydro power plants to control the fluid flow. In-lieu with the constraints in cost and size to run laboratory setup, analysis of large diameter values will be mostly studied by computational method which is the best and inexpensive solution. For fluid and structural analysis, CFD and FEM software is used to perform large scale valve analyses, respectively. In order to perform above analysis in butterfly valve, the CAD model has to recreate and perform mesh in conventional software’s for various dimensions of valve. Therefore, its limitation is time consuming process. In-order to overcome that issue, python code was created to outcome complete pre-processing setup automatically in Salome software. Applying dimensions of the model clearly in the python code makes the running time comparatively lower and easier way to perform analysis of the valve. Hence, in this paper, an attempt was made to study the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of butterfly valves by varying the valve angles and dimensions using python code in pre-processing software, and results are produced.

Keywords: FSI analysis, butterfly valve, flow coefficient, automatic CFD analysis

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13 Climate Change and Global Warming: Effect on Indian Agriculture and Legal Control

Authors: Aman Guru, Chiron Singhi

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The Earth’s climate is being changed at an unrivalled rate since beginning of the evolution of the Earth, 4–5 billion years back, but presently it gained pace due to unintentional anthropogenic disturbances and also increased global warming since the mid-20th century, and these incessant changes in the climatic pattern may bring unpropitious effect on global health and security. Today, however, it is not only the air, or water that are polluted, but the whole atmosphere is prone to pollution and this resulted in other cascading ramification in the form of change in the pattern of rainfall, melting of ice, the rise in the sea level etc. Human activities like production, transport, burning of fuels are adding umpteen dangerous pollutants to the atmosphere which in turn gives rise to global warming. Agriculture plays an imperative part in India's economy. Agriculture, along with fisheries and forestry, is one of the largest contributors to the Gross Domestic Product in India. Research on the effect of climate change and vulnerability of agriculture is a high need in India. A steady increase of CO2 is a primary cause of climate change and global warming and which in turn have a great impact on Indian agriculture. The research focuses on the effect of climate change on Indian agriculture and the proceedings and legal control of legislative measures on such issues and the ways to implement such laws which can help to provide a solution to these problems which can prove beneficial to Indian farmers and their agricultural produce.

Keywords: Climate Change, Agriculture, Global Warming, India laws, legislative measures

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12 New Thromboprophylaxis Regime for Knee Arthroplasties

Authors: H. Noureddine, P. Rao, R. Guru, A. Chandratreya

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The nice guidance for elective total knee replacements states that patients should be given mechanical thrombo-prophylaxis, and if no contraindications chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of Dabigatran etexilate, Rivaroxiban, UFH, LMWH, or Fondaparinux sodium (CG92, 1.5.14, January 2010). In Practice administering oral agents has been the dominant practice as it reduces the nursing needs, and shortens hospital stay and is generally received better by patients. However, there are well documented associated bleeding risks, and their effects are difficult to reverse in case of major bleeding. Our experience with oral factor 10 inhibitors used for thromboprophylaxis was marked with several patients developing complications necessitating return to the theatre for wound washouts. This has led us to try a different protocol for thromboprophylaxis that we applied on our patients undergoing total and unicondylar knee replacements. We applied mechanical thromboprophylaxis in the form of intermittent pneumatic pressure devices, and chemical thromboprophylaxis in the form of a dose of prophylactic LMWH pre-op, then 150 mg of Aspirin to start 24 hours after the surgery and to continue for 6 weeks, alongside GI cover with PPIs or antihistamines. We also administered local anaesthetics intra-operatively in line with the ERAS protocol thus encouraging early mobilization. We have identified a cohort of 133 patients who underwent one of the aforementioned procedures in the same trust, and by the same surgeon, where this protocol was applied and examined their medical notes retrospectively with a mean follow-up period of 14 months, to identify the rate and percentage of patients who had thrombo-embolic events in the post-operative period.

Keywords: Thromboprophylaxis, knee arthroplasty, aspirin, heparin

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11 Design and Development of Optical Sensor Based Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform for GAIT and Geriatric Studies

Authors: K. Chethana, A. S. Guru Prasad, S. N. Omkar, B. Vadiraj, S. Asokan

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This paper describes an ab-initio design, development and calibration results of an Optical Sensor Ground Reaction Force Measurement Platform (OSGRFP) for gait and geriatric studies. The developed system employs an array of FBG sensors to measure the respective ground reaction forces from all three axes (X, Y and Z), which are perpendicular to each other. The novelty of this work is two folded. One is in its uniqueness to resolve the tri axial resultant forces during the stance in to the respective pure axis loads and the other is the applicability of inherently advantageous FBG sensors which are most suitable for biomechanical instrumentation. To validate the response of the FBG sensors installed in OSGRFP and to measure the cross sensitivity of the force applied in other directions, load sensors with indicators are used. Further in this work, relevant mathematical formulations are presented for extracting respective ground reaction forces from wavelength shifts/strain of FBG sensors on the OSGRFP. The result of this device has implications in understanding the foot function, identifying issues in gait cycle and measuring discrepancies between left and right foot. The device also provides a method to quantify and compare relative postural stability of different subjects under test, which has implications in post surgical rehabilitation, geriatrics and optimizing training protocols for sports personnel.

Keywords: Gait Analysis, balance and stability, FBG applications, optical sensor ground reaction force platform

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10 Effects of 8-Week of Yoga Training on Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, Flexibility and Agility of Female Hockey Players

Authors: Tarsem Singh

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The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of yoga training on muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility of female hockey players. For this purpose, a sample of forty (N=40) female hockey players of age ranging from 18 to 25 years were selected from different colleges affiliated to Guru Nanak Dev University Amritsar. Further, the subjects were purposively divided in two groups. First group, designated as experimental group (N1=20) and the second one as control group (N2=20). All the participants were informed about the objectives and methodology of this study and they volunteered to participate in this experimental study. The study was restricted to the variables: muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility and agility. The same were measured by using Flexed Arms Hang Test, Sit-Ups Test, Sit and Reach Test and Shuttle Run Test respectively. Experimental group have undergone yoga training for 8-week by following a sequence of selected yogic asanas i.e. Sarvangasana, Chakra-asana, Utthita Parsvakonasana, Parivrtta Trikonasana, Halasana, Bhujangasana, Dhanurasana, Ustrasana, Gomukasana, Paschimotansana, Ardha-Matsyendrasana and Hanumanasan. Paired sample t-test was applied to study the effects of yoga training on female hockey players. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results revealed significant differences between pre and post-tests of experimental group in respect to Muscular strength (t-6.946*), Muscular endurance (t-9.863*), Flexibility (t-11.052*) and Agility (t-14.068*). However, insignificant differences were observed between pre and post-tests of control group.

Keywords: Yoga, Flexibility, Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, agility

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9 Impact of Minimalism in Dance Education on the Development of Aesthetic Sensibilities

Authors: Meghamala Nugehally

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This paper hypothesises and draws inferences on the impact of minimalism in dance education on the development of artistic and aesthetic sensibilities in individuals in the age group of 5-18 yrs of age. This research and conclusions are within the context of Indian Classical Dance, which is based on Indian theories of aesthetics drawn from the Natyashastra, an ancient treatise on Indian dance and drama. The research employs training methods handed down through a strict one-on-one teacher-student tradition known as the Guru-Shishya Parampara. Aesthetic principles used are defined, and basic theories from the Natyashastra are explained to provide background for the research design. The paper also discusses dance curriculum design and training methodology design within the context of these aesthetic theories. The scope of the research is limited to two genres of Indian classical forms: Bharatanatyam and Odissi. A brief description of these dance forms is given as background and dance aesthetics specific to these forms are described. The research design includes individual case studies of subjects studied, independent predetermined attributes for observations and a qualitative scoring methodology devised for the purpose of the study. The study describes the training techniques used and contrasts minimal solo training techniques with the more elaborate group training techniques. Study groups were divided and the basis for the division are discussed. Study observations are recorded and presented as evidences. The results inform the conclusion and set the stage for further research in this area.

Keywords: Dance Education, Minimalism, dance aesthetics, Indian classical dance

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8 Antihyperglycemic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Miller in Diabetic Mice

Authors: Singh Baljinder, Sharma Navneet

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Foeniculum vulgare Miller is a biennial medicinal and aromatic plant belonging to the family Apiaceae (Umbelliferaceae). It is a hardy, perennial–umbelliferous herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves. The aim is to study the control of blood glucose in alloxan induced diabetic mice.Method used for extraction was continuous hot percolation method in which Soxhlet apparatus was used.95%ethanol was used as solvent. Male albino mice weighing about 20-25 g obtained from Guru Angad Dev University of Veterinary Science, Ludhiana were used for the study. Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of 125 mg/kg of alloxan monohydrate in sterile saline (11). After 48 h, animals with serum glucose level above 200 mg/dl (diabetic) were selected for the study. Blood samples from mice were collected by retro-orbital puncture (ROP) technique. Serum glucose levels were determined by glucose oxidase and peroxidase method. Single administration (single dose) of aqueous extract of fennel (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.) in diabetic Swiss albino mice, showed reduction in serum glucose level after 45 min. Maximum reduction in serum glucose level was seen at doses of 100 mg/kg. Aqueous extract of fennel in all doses except 25 mg/kg did not cause any significant decrease in blood glucose. It may be said that the aqueous extract of fennel decreased the serum glucose level and improved glucose tolerance owing to the presence of aldehyde moiety. The aqueous extract of fennel has antihyperglycemic activity as it lowers serum glucose level in diabetic mice.

Keywords: Foeniculum vulgare Miller, antihyperglycemic, diabetic mice, Umbelliferaceae

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7 Studies on Efficacy of Some Acaricidal Molecules against Mites in Polyhouse Capsicum

Authors: C. S. Patil, P. N. Guru

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The experiment was conducted during Kharif 2016 at Hingoni, Ahmednagar (dist.), Maharashtra (India) to evaluate the novel molecules of acaricides against mites in polyhouse capsicum. The study was planned with randomized block design (RBD) and included nine treatments replicated thrice with 30 m² each plot size. The crop (var. Bachata) was raised according to the standard package of practices except plant protection measures. The molecules viz., spiromesifen 22.9SC (95 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), fenpyroximate 5EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), hexythiazox 5.45EC (15 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), diafenthiuron 50WP (300 gm a.i. ha⁻¹), chlorfenapyr 10SC (75 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) were compared with a standard acaricide, dicofol 18.5EC (500 gm a.i. ha⁻¹) and biopesticides like Verticillium lecanii (2 g/l), Metarhizium anisopliae (2 g/l) and Neem oil 10,000ppm (2ml/l). In total three sprays were given after 30, 50 and 70 days after transplanting (DAT) at an interval of 20 days. The insecticidal solutions were prepared in water by diluting required concentration of chemical and applied using knapsack sprayer with hollow cone nozzle @ 500L of solution per hectare. The mites were counted per 4 cm² in three leaves from randomly selected five plants in each plot at 1 day before treatment (precount) and 1, 3, 5, 7, 10 and 15 days after treatment. The results revealed that fenpyroximate 5EC found best by recording significantly least mite population (2.72/4 cm² leaf area) followed by hexythiazox 5.45EC and spiromesifen 22.9SC (3.78 and 3.82 per 4 cm² leaf area, respectively) and followed by remaining treatments chlorfenapyr 10SC (4.13/4 cm² leaf area), diafenthiuron 50WP (4.32/4 cm² leaf area), and dicofol 18.5EC (4.48/4 cm² leaf area). Among the biopesticides tested Neem oil and Verticillium lecanii were found to be superior to Metarhizium anisopliae. Overall, newer molecules like fenpyroximate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, diafenthiuron, and Chlorfenapyr can be used for the effective management of mites under polyhouse capsicum.

Keywords: mites, Capsicum, acaricides, spiromesifen

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6 Achieving Appropriate Use of Antibiotics through Pharmacists’ Intervention at Practice Point: An Indian Study Report

Authors: Parimalakrishnan Sundararjan, Madheswaran Murugan, Dhanya Dharman, Yatindra Kumar, Sudhir Singh Gangwar, Guru Prasad Mohanta

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Antibiotic resistance AR is a global issue, India started to redress the issues of antibiotic resistance late and it plans to have: active surveillance of microbial resistance and promote appropriate use of antibiotics. The present study attempted to achieve appropriate use of antibiotics through pharmacists’ intervention at practice point. In a quasi-experimental prospective cohort study, the cases with bacteremia from four hospitals were identified during 2015 and 2016 for intervention. The pharmacists centered intervention: active screening of each prescription and comparing with the selection of antibiotics with susceptibility of the bacteria. Wherever irrationality noticed, it was brought to the notice of the treating physician for making changes. There were two groups: intervention group and control group without intervention. The active screening and intervention in 915 patients has reduced therapeutic regimen time in patients with bacteremia. The intervention group showed the decreased duration of hospital stay 3.4 days from 5.1 days. Further, multivariate modeling of patients who were in control group showed that patients in the intervention group had a significant decrease in both duration of hospital stay and infection-related mortality. Unlike developed countries, pharmacists are not active partners in patient care in India. This unique attempt of pharmacist’ invention was planned in consultation with hospital authorities which proved beneficial in terms of reducing the duration of treatment, hospital stay, and infection-related mortality. This establishes the need for a collaborative decision making among the health workforce in patient care at least for promoting rational use of antibiotics, an attempt to combat resistance.

Keywords: Intervention, bacteremia, antibiotics resistance, multivariate modeling

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5 Prevalence of Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei in Shrimp Cultured in Inland Saline Water

Authors: Anuj Tyagi, Naveen Kumar B. T., Shanthanagouda A. H., Sumeet Rai, Prabjeet Singh

Abstract:

Inland saline water resources are gaining the importance in expanding the aquaculture activities to mitigate the nutritional and food security issues of the world. For profitable and sustainable aquaculture practices, scientific farming, biosecurity measure, and best fish health management should be the integral part of developmental activities. Keeping in line with global awareness and trends, the Indian government has taken an innovative step to conduct disease surveillance and awareness programme for aquatic disease through network project. This ‘National Surveillance Programme for Aquatic Animal Diseases (NSPAAD)’ is being implemented in collaboration of national institutes and state agriculture universities with funding support from National Fisheries Development Board (NFDB), Govt. of India. Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (GADVASU), Ludhiana, an NSPAAD collaborator, has been actively engaged in disease surveillance in the Indian state of Punjab. Shrimp farming in inland saline areas of Punjab is expanding at a tremendous pace under the guidance of GADVASU along with the support of State Fisheries Department. Under this national disease surveillance programme, we reported Enterocytozoon hepatopenaei (EHP) infection in the Litopenaeus vannamei cultured in the inland saline waters. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based diagnosis was carried out using the OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health) protocol. It was observed that out of 20 shrimp farms, two farms were 1st step PCR positive and two more farms were nested PCR positive. All the EHP positive ponds had shown the white faeces along with mortalities at very low rate. Therefore, implementation of biosecurity and continuous surveillance and monitoring program for finfish and shellfish aquaculture are in need of the hour to prevent and control the large-scale disease outbreaks and subsequent economic losses.

Keywords: Disease, Shrimp Culture, EHP, inland saline water

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4 The Good Form of a Sustainable Creative Learning City Based on “The Theory of a Good City Form“ by Kevin Lynch

Authors: Fatemeh Moosavi, Tumelo Franck Nkoshwane

Abstract:

Peter Drucker the renowned management guru once said, “The best way to predict the future is to create it.” Mr. Drucker is also the man who placed human capital as the most vital resource of any institution. As such any institution bent on creating a better future, requires a competent human capital, one that is able to execute with efficiency and effectiveness the objective a society aspires to. Technology today is accelerating the rate at which many societies transition to knowledge based societies. In this accelerated paradigm, it is imperative that those in leadership establish a platform capable of sustaining the planned future; intellectual capital. The capitalist economy going into the future will not just be sustained by dollars and cents, but by individuals who possess the creativity to enterprise, innovate and create wealth from ideas. This calls for cities of the future, to have this premise at the heart of their future plan, if the objective of designing sustainable and liveable future cities will be realised. The knowledge economy, now transitioning to the creative economy, requires cities of the future to be ‘gardens’ of inspiration, to be places where knowledge, creativity, and innovation can thrive as these instruments are becoming critical assets for creating wealth in the new economic system. Developing nations must accept that learning is a lifelong process that requires keeping abreast with change and should invest in teaching people how to keep learning. The need to continuously update one’s knowledge, turn these cities into vibrant societies, where new ideas create knowledge and in turn enriches the quality of life of the residents. Cities of the future must have as one of their objectives, the ability to motivate their citizens to learn, share knowledge, evaluate the knowledge and use it to create wealth for a just society. The five functional factors suggested by Kevin Lynch;-vitality, meaning/sense, adaptability, access, control, and monitoring should form the basis on which policy makers and urban designers base their plans for future cities. The authors of this paper believe that developing nations “creative economy clusters”, cities where creative industries drive the need for constant new knowledge creating sustainable learning creative cities. Obviously the form, shape and size of these districts should be cognisant of the environmental, cultural and economic characteristics of each locale. Gaborone city in the republic of Botswana is presented as the case study for this paper.

Keywords: learning city, sustainable creative city, creative industry, good city form

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3 Genetic Analysis of CYP11A1 Gene with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome from North India

Authors: Tajinder Kaur, Ratneev Kaur, Anupam Kaur

Abstract:

Introduction: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogenous disorder of endocrine system among women of reproductive age. PCOS is characterized by hyperandrogenism, anovulation, polycystic ovaries, hirsutism, obesity, and hyperinsulinemia. Several pathways are implicated in its etiology including the metabolic pathway of steroid hormone synthesis regulatory pathways. PCOS is an androgen excess disorder, genes operating in steroidogenesis may alter pathogenesis of PCOS. The cytochrome P450scc is a cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme coded by CYP11A1 gene and catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the initial and rate-limiting step in steroid hormone synthesis. It is postulated that polymorphisms in this gene may play an important role in the regulation of CYP11A1 expression and leading to increased or decreased androgen production. The present study will be the first study from north India to best of our knowledge, to analyse the association of CYP11A1 (rs11632698) polymorphism in women suffering from PCOS. Methodology: The present study was approved by ethical committee of Guru Nanak Dev University in consistent with declaration of Helsinki. A total of 300 samples (150 PCOS cases and 150 controls) were recruited from Hartej hospital, for the present study. Venous blood sample (3ml) was withdrawn from women diagnosed with PCOS by doctor, according to Rotterdam 2003 criteria and from healthy age matched controls only after informed consent and detailed filled proforma. For molecular genetics analysis, blood was stored in EDTA vials. After DNA isolation by organic method, PCR-RFLP approach was used for genotyping and association analysis of rs11632698 polymorphism. Statistical analysis was done to check for significance of selected polymorphism with PCOS. Results: In 150 PCOS cases, the frequency of AA, AG and GG genotype was found to be 48%, 35%, and 13% compared to 62%, 27% and 8% in 150 controls. The major allele (A) and minor allele (G) frequency was 68% and 32% in cases and 78% and 22% in controls. Minor allele frequency was higher in cases as compared to controls, as well as the distribution of genotype was observed to be statistically significant (ᵡ²=6.525, p=0.038). Odds ratio in dominant, co-dominant and recessive models observed was 1.81 (p=0.013), 1.54 (p=0.012) and 1.77 (p=0.132) respectively. Conclusion: The present study showed statistically significant association of rs11632698 with PCOS (p=0.038) in North Indian women.

Keywords: Polycystic ovary syndrome, CYP11A1, rs11632698, hyperandrogenism

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2 The Concept of Dharma under Hindu, Buddhist and Sikh Religions: A Comparative Analysis

Authors: Venkateswarlu Kappara

Abstract:

The term ‘Dharma’ is complex and ubiquitous. It has no equivalent word in English Initially applied to Aryans. In Rig Veda, it appears in a number of places with different meanings. The word Dharma comes from the roots word ‘dhr’ (Dhri-Dharayatetiiti Dharmaha). Principles of Dharma are all pervading. The closest synonyms for Dharma in English is ‘Righteousness.’ In a holy book Mahabharata, it is mentioned that Dharma destroys those who destroy it, Dharma Protects those who protect it. Also, Dharma might be shadowed, now and then by evil forces, but at the end, Dharma always triumphs. This line embodies the eternal victory of good over evil. In Mahabharata, Lord Krishna says Dharma upholds both, this worldly and other worldly affairs. Rig Veda says, ‘O Indra! Lead us on the path of Rta, on the right path over all evils.’ For Buddhists, Dharma most often means the body of teachings expounded by the Buddha. The Dharma is one of the three Jewels (Tri Ratnas) of Buddhism under which the followers take refuge. They are: the ‘Buddha’ meaning the minds perfection or enlightenment, the Dharma, meaning the teachings and the methods of the Buddha, and the Sangha meaning those awakened people who provide guidance and support followers. Buddha denies a separate permanent ‘I.’ Buddha Accepts Suffering (Dukka). Change / impermanence (Anicca) and not– self (Annatta) Dharma in the Buddhist scriptures has a variety of meanings including ‘phenomenon’ and ‘nature’ or ‘characteristic.’ For Sikhs, the word ‘Dharma’ means the ‘path’ of righteousness’ The Sikh scriptures attempt to answer the exposition of Dharma. The main Holy Scripture of the Sikh religion is called the Guru Granth Sahib. The faithful people are fully bound to do whatever the Dharma wants them to do. Such is the name of the Immaculate Lord. Only one who has faith comes to know such a state of mind. The righteous judge of Dharma, by the Hukam of God’s Command, sits and Administers true justice. From Dharma flow wealth and pleasure. The study indicates that in Sikh religion, the Dharma is the path of righteousness; In Buddhism, the mind’s perfection of enlightenment, and in Hinduism, it is non-violence, purity, truth, control of senses, not coveting the property of others. The comparative study implies that all religions dealt with Dharma for welfare of the mankind. The methodology adapted is theoretical, analytical and comparative. The present study indicates how far Indian philosophical systems influenced the present circumstances and how far the present system is not compatible with Ancient philosophical systems. A tentative generalization would be that the present system which is mostly influenced by the British Governance may not totally reflect the ancient norms. However, the mental make-up continues to be influenced by Ancient philosophical systems.

Keywords: Dharma, Dukka (suffering), Rakshati, righteous

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1 Safety Assessment of Traditional Ready-to-Eat Meat Products Vended at Retail Outlets in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria

Authors: M. I. Ribah, M. Jibir, Y. A. Bashar, S. S. Manga

Abstract:

Food safety is a significant and growing public health problem in the world and Nigeria as a developing country, since food-borne diseases are important contributors to the huge burden of sickness and death of humans. In Nigeria, traditional ready-to-eat meat products (RTE-MPs) like balangu, tsire, guru and dried meat products like kilishi, dambun nama, banda, were reported to be highly appreciated because of their eating qualities. The consumption of these products was considered as safe due to the treatments that are usually involved during their production process. However, during processing and handling, the products could be contaminated by pathogens that could cause food poisoning. Therefore, a hazard identification for pathogenic bacteria on some traditional RTE-MPs was conducted in Kebbi and Sokoto States, Nigeria. A total of 116 RTE-MPs (balangu-38, kilishi-39 and tsire-39) samples were obtained from retail outlets and analyzed using standard cultural microbiological procedures in general and selective enrichment media to isolate the target pathogens. A six-fold serial dilution was prepared and using the pour plating method, colonies were counted. Serial dilutions were selected based on the prepared pre-labeled Petri dishes for each sample. A volume of 10-12 ml of molten Nutrient agar cooled to 42-45°C was poured into each Petri dish and 1 ml each from dilutions of 102, 104 and 106 for every sample was respectively poured on a pre-labeled Petri plate after which colonies were counted. The isolated pathogens were identified and confirmed after series of biochemical tests. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe the presence of pathogens. The General Linear Model was used to analyze data on pathogen presence according to RTE-MPs and means were separated using the Tukey test at 0.05 confidence level. Of the 116 RTE-MPs samples collected, 35 (30.17%) samples were found to be contaminated with some tested pathogens. Prevalence results showed that Escherichia coli, salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were present in the samples. Mean total bacterial count was 23.82×106 cfu/g. The frequency of individual pathogens isolated was; Staphylococcus aureus 18 (15.51%), Escherichia coli 12 (10.34%) and Salmonella 5 (4.31%). Also, among the RTE-MPs tested, the total bacterial counts were found to differ significantly (P < 0.05), with 1.81, 2.41 and 2.9×104 cfu/g for tsire, kilishi, and balangu, respectively. The study concluded that the presence of pathogenic bacteria in balangu could pose grave health risks to consumers, and hence, recommended good manufacturing practices in the production of balangu to improve the products’ safety.

Keywords: Public Health, Safety Assessment, ready-to-eat meat products, retail outlets

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