Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19

Search results for: Oya Isik

19 Effect of Cr2O3 on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Produced Powder Metallurgy

Authors: Yasin Akgul, Fazil Husem, Memis Isik


In this study, effect of content of chromium (III) oxide on production of Al/Cr203 alloys were investigated. Experimental procedure was started with mixturing of powders in the presence of absolute ethanol, vacuum distillation technique was used for evaporation, by ultrasonic bath and mechanic stirrer. Pressing procedure was achieved by hydrolic press that has 100 tons forcing for production of 25 mm diameter compact green billets. Green bodies were sintered at 600 °C in argon atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis for characterization of microstructure, compression test for determination of strength and Vickers test for measuring of hardness of sintered billets were done. End of the study is concluded that, enhancement of physical and mechanical properties is observed by increasing content of chromium (III) oxide.

Keywords: aluminium, chromium (III) oxide, powder metallurgy, sintering

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18 Decision Making during the Project Management Life Cycle of Infrastructure Projects

Authors: Karrar Raoof Kareem Kamoona, Enas Fathi Taher AlHares, Zeynep Isik


The various disciplines in the construction industry and the co-existence of the people in the various disciplines are what builds well-developed, closely-knit interpersonal skills at various hierarchical levels thus leading to a varied way of leadership. The varied decision making aspects during the lifecycle of a project include: autocratic, participatory and last but not least, free-rein. We can classify some of the decision makers in the construction industry in a hierarchical manner as follows: project executive, project manager, superintendent, office engineer and finally the field engineer. This survey looked at how decisions are made during the construction period by the key stakeholders in the project. From the paper it is evident that the three decision making aspects can be used at different times or at times together in order to bring out the best leadership decision. A blend of different leadership styles should be used to enhance the success rate during the project lifecycle.

Keywords: leadership style, construction, decision-making, built environment

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17 Prevalence of Eimeria spp in Cattle in Anatolia Region, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Onur Ceylan


Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan infection caused by coccidia parasites of the genus Eimeria which develops in the small and the large intestine. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in cattle. This study was conducted between March 2014 and April 2015, involved 624 fecal samples of cattle. Cattle were grouped according to their age as follows: 6-12, 12-24 and >24 months. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of cattle submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. In the laboratory, faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt flotation technique and examined under a microscope for the presence of protozoan oocysts. Eimeria oocysts were found in 4.8% of all the samples. Eimeria infection was detected in 11.8%, 5.3% and 0.4% of the cattle in the age groups, respectively. This study showed that Eimeria infection was commonly seen in 6-24-month-old cattle. Further epidemiological investigation on economic significance and species composition of bovine coccidiosis needs to be pursued.

Keywords: cattle, diarrhea, Eimeria spp, Turkey

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16 Perceived Ethnic Discrimination, Aggression, and School Connectedness among Adolescents in Finland

Authors: Isik Z. Ulubas, Kaj Bjorkqvist


The relationships between perceived ethnic discrimination, peer aggression and school connectedness are being examined among 1,000 adolescents in Ostrobothnia, Finland with an online questionnaire. The study aims at investigating perceived ethnic discrimination in school environment by peers and teachers, and within society in general. Six types of aggressive behavior are measured: physical, verbal, indirect, and cyber aggression, in addition to both verbal and physical sexual harassment. High perceived ethnic discrimination is expected to be related with high aggression and low school connectedness. Adolescents who have special diet and clothing because of their cultural or religious background are expected to score higher on perceived ethnic discrimination and lower school connectedness. Adolescents who have lower domestic language skills (Finnish/Swedish) are expected to show lower school connectedness and higher perceived ethnic discrimination.

Keywords: adolescents, aggression, ethnic discrimination, school connectedness

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15 Experimental and Numerical Processes of Open Die Forging of Multimetallic Materials with the Usage of Different Lubricants

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can, Damla Gunel


This work investigates experimental and numerical analysis of open die forging of multimetallic materials. Multimetallic material production has recently become an interesting research field. The mechanical properties of the materials to be used for the formation of multimetallic materials and the mechanical properties of the multimetallic materials produced will be compared and the material flows of the use of different lubricants will be examined. Furthermore, in this work, the mechanical properties of multimetallic metallic materials produced using different materials will be examined by using different lubricants. The advantages and disadvantages of different lubricants will be approached with the bi-metallic material to be produced. Cylindrical specimens consisting of two different materials were used in the experiments. Specimens were prepared as aluminum sleeve and copper core and upset at different reduction. This metal combination present a material model of which chemical composition is different. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. Simulation and experimental results have also shown reasonable agreement.

Keywords: multimetallic, forging, experimental, numerical

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14 Engoglaze Development for the Production of Glazed Porcelain Tiles

Authors: Sezgi Isik, Yasin Urersoy, Gizem Ustunel, Ilkyaz Yalcin


Improvement of the digital tile application, lots of process revolutions have occurred in the tile production. In order to create unique and inimitable designs, all the competitors start to try different applications. Both Europian and domestic ceramic producers focus on the deep and realistic surfaces. In this study, the trend of engoglaze, which is becoming widespread in glaze porcelain tile designs to create the most intensive colours, were investigated. The aim of the study is to develop engoglaze formulation that supports digital ink activation. Thermal expansion coefficient values were determined by a dilatometer. Chemical analyses and sintering behaviors of engoglazes were made by X-ray diffraction and heat microscopy analysis. According to these glaze formulation studies, it has been reported that using engoglaze could easily reduce the digital ink consumption of the design. On the other hand, the advantage of the production cost is gained, and deepness of the design is provided.

Keywords: ceramic, engoglaze, digital ink activation, glazed porcelain tile

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13 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Free-Living Wild Birds by Using Carbol Fuchsin Staining Methods in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik


Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common parasitic infection in domesticated, caged, wild birds. Cryptosporidium sp. has been reported in over 30 avian species worldwide. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium galli are recognised avian species of Cryptosporidium. This study was carried out to determine the prevalance of Cryptosporidium sp. in wild birds in Konya province, Turkey. Faecal samples were collected from 65 wild birds including 52 Podicipedidae (Podiceps cristatus), 11 Rallidae (Fulicia Atra), 2 Anitadia (Aytha ferina). Faecal samples were stained with Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technigue, they were examined under light microscope for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyts. Among the 65 faecal samples, 11 (16.9%) were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results of this study indicate that wild birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, Cryptosporidiosis has suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, biological and genetic studies are required to provide more information on Cryptosporidiosis.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium sp, wild birds, Konya, Turkey

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12 Determination of Some Etiologic Agents in Calves with Diarrhea

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici, Oguzhan Avci


The aim of this study was to determination of role infection in neonatal calves in Central Anatolian, Turkey. A total 300 fecal samples were collected from diarrheic neonatal calves, aged between 0–90 days from Konya, Karaman, and Aksaray from January to April 2014. Fecal specimens from calves with clinically diarrheic symptoms were examined for the presence of Bovine Coronavirus, Bovine Rotavirus, Cryptosporidium sp., and E. coli by commercially available capture direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit and Modified Ziehl Neelsen method (MZN). Calves were grouped according to their age as follows: 1-14, 15-29, and 30-90 days. Cryptosporidium sp. infection was detected in 52.8%, 58.8%, and 39.2% by ELISA and 33.9%, 47%, 26.7% by MZN in the respective age groups. The seroprevalance of Rotavirus (12.5 %, 40 %, 12.5 %), Coronavirus (2.5%, 0%, 3.5%) and E. coli (5%, 4.7%, 8.9%) infections were determined according to the age groups respectively. Cryptosporidium sp. was the most detected enteropathogen (52 %) of calves and coronavirus was the least detected (2 %). The detection rate of the mixed enfection was 12.3%. In conclusion, it must be evaluated by mix infections in calves with diarrhea. These results will provide an important contribution against the factors that cause diarrhea

Keywords: cryptosporidium sp., bovine coronavirus, bovine rotavirus, E.coli, calve, ELISA

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11 Visualization of Energy Waves via Airy Functions in Time-Domain

Authors: E. Sener, O. Isik, E. Eroglu, U. Sahin


The main idea is to solve the system of Maxwell’s equations in accordance with the causality principle to get the energy quantities via Airy functions in a hollow rectangular waveguide. We used the evolutionary approach to electromagnetics that is an analytical time-domain method. The boundary-value problem for the system of Maxwell’s equations is reformulated in transverse and longitudinal coordinates. A self-adjoint operator is obtained and the complete set of Eigen vectors of the operator initiates an orthonormal basis of the solution space. Hence, the sought electromagnetic field can be presented in terms of this basis. Within the presentation, the scalar coefficients are governed by Klein-Gordon equation. Ultimately, in this study, time-domain waveguide problem is solved analytically in accordance with the causality principle. Moreover, the graphical results are visualized for the case when the energy and surplus of the energy for the time-domain waveguide modes are represented via airy functions.

Keywords: airy functions, Klein-Gordon Equation, Maxwell’s equations, Surplus of energy, wave boundary operators

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10 De Novo Assembly and Characterization of the Transcriptome during Seed Development, and Generation of Genic-SSR Markers in Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.)

Authors: Ozhan Simsek, Dicle Donmez, Burhanettin Imrak, Ahsen Isik Ozguven, Yildiz Aka Kacar


Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is known to be one of the oldest edible fruit tree species, with a wide geographical global distribution. Fruits from the two defined varieties (Hicaznar and 33N26) were taken at intervals after pollination and fertilization at different sizes. Seed samples were used for transcriptome sequencing. Primary sequencing was produced by Illumina Hi-Seq™ 2000. Firstly, we had raw reads, and it was subjected to quality control (QC). Raw reads were filtered into clean reads and aligned to the reference sequences. De novo analysis was performed to detect genes expressed in seeds of pomegranate varieties. We performed downstream analysis to determine differentially expressed genes. We generated about 27.09 gb bases in total after Illumina Hi-Seq sequencing. All samples were assembled together, we got 59,264 Unigenes, the total length, average length, N50, and GC content of Unigenes are 84.547.276 bp, 1.426 bp, 2,137 bp, and 46.20 %, respectively. Unigenes were annotated with 7 functional databases, finally, 42.681(NR: 72.02%), 39.660 (NT: 66.92%), 30.790 (Swissprot: 51.95%), 20.212 (COG: 34.11%), 27.689 (KEGG: 46.72%), 12.328 (GO: 20.80%), and 33,833 (Interpro: 57.09%) Unigenes were annotated. With functional annotation results, we detected 42.376 CDS, and 4.999 SSR distribute on 16.143 Unigenes.

Keywords: next generation sequencing, SSR, RNA-Seq, Illumina

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9 One-Way Electric Vehicle Carsharing in an Urban Area with Vehicle-To-Grid Option

Authors: Cem Isik Dogru, Salih Tekin, Kursad Derinkuyu


Electric vehicle (EV) carsharing is an alternative method to tackle urban transportation problems. This method can be applied by several options. One of the options is the one-way carsharing, which allow an EV to be taken at a designated location and leaving it on another specified location customer desires. Although it may increase users’ satisfaction, the issues, namely, demand dissatisfaction, relocation of EVs and charging schedules, must be dealt with. Also, excessive electricity has to be stored in batteries of EVs. To cope with aforementioned issues, two-step mixed integer programming (MIP) model is proposed. In first step, the integer programming model is used to determine amount of electricity to be sold to the grid in terms of time periods for extra profit. Determined amounts are provided from the batteries of EVs. Also, this step works in day-ahead electricity markets with forecast of periodical electricity prices. In second step, other MIP model optimizes daily operations of one-way carsharing: charging-discharging schedules, relocation of EVs to serve more demand and renting to maximize the profit of EV fleet owner. Due to complexity of the models, heuristic methods are introduced to attain a feasible solution and different price information scenarios are compared.

Keywords: electric vehicles, forecasting, mixed integer programming, one-way carsharing

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8 Eimeria spp. in Naturally Infected Calves

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici


Bovine coccidiosis is a protozoan disease caused by various species of Eimeria and most signs of disease are chronic or subclinical. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of Eimeria spp. in calves in Konya, in Turkey. The study, conducted from January- February 2015, involved 240 faecal samples of calves in the age groups of <1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months in Konya city centre, in Turkey. In a retrospective study from these faecal samples of calves submitted to the University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Laboratory of Parasitology were evaluated regarding the prevalence of Eimeria spp. Faecal samples were examined by Fulleborn saturated salt floatation technique. Eimeria oocysts were found in 8.33% of all samples. The positivity rates in each of the age groups were different. According to the age groups (<1 month, 1-3 months and >3 months), the Eimeria spp. were determined as 0.83, 22.73 and 7.41%, respectively. After examination of stool, detected oocysts were sporulated in 2.5% potassium dichromate at 22º C and species were identified as E. cylindrica, E. zuernii, E. ellipsoidalis, E. subspherica, E. bovis, E. auburnensis, E. canadensis, E. illinoisensis and E. brasiliensis in infected calves. In conclusion, the highest prevalence was observed in the age group of 1-3 months. The presence of Eimeria species in calves demonstrated for the first time in the Konya region in Turkey. Other etiologic agents should also be investigated in calves more seriously. Further molecular epidemiological studies should be performed in this community.

Keywords: Eimeria spp., calves, diarrhea, bovine coccidiosis

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7 Upsetting of Tri-Metallic St-Cu-Al and St-Cu60Zn-Al Cylindrical Billets

Authors: Isik Cetintav, Cenk Misirli, Yilmaz Can


This work investigates upsetting of the tri-metallic cylindrical billets both experimentally and analytically with a reduction ratio 30%. Steel, brass, and copper are used for the outer and outmost rings and aluminum for the inner core. Two different models have been designed to show material flow and the cavity took place over the two interfaces during forming after this reduction ratio. Each model has an outmost ring material as steel. Model 1 has an outer ring between the outmost ring and the solid core material as copper and Model 2 has a material as brass. Solid core is aluminum for each model. Billets were upset in press machine by using parallel flat dies. Upsetting load was recorded and compared for models and single billets. To extend the tests and compare with experimental procedure to a wider range of inner core and outer ring geometries, finite element model was performed. ABAQUS software was used for the simulations. The aim is to show how contact between outmost ring, outer ring and the inner core are carried on throughout the upsetting process. Results have shown that, with changing in height, between outmost ring, outer ring and inner core, the Model 1 and Model 2 had very good interaction, and the contact surfaces of models had various interface behaviour. It is also observed that tri-metallic materials have lower weight but better mechanical properties than single materials. This can give an idea for using and producing these new materials for different purposes.

Keywords: tri-metallic, upsetting, copper, brass, steel, aluminum

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6 Intestinal Parasites Detected by Fecal Examination in Cats in the Konya Province, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik, Ozlem Derinbay Ekici


The cat is one of the potential hosts for parasitic zoonoses, such as Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma braziliense, A. tubaeforme, Uncinaria stenocephala, Cryptosporidium sp, Giardia sp. This study was performed to determine the prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasites in household cats in Konya, Turkey. In this study, a total of 100 stool samples with different ages and sex were used as a material. They were examined for infections with endoparasites by the use of native, Fulleborn flotation and Benedek sedimentation methods in University of Selcuk, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Department of Parasitology. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 15%. A total of 6 parasite species was recorded: Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%). The most common intestinal parasites in cats were Giardia sp (6%) and Toxocara cati (4%). Younger cats up to 1 year of age were more frequently infected with endoparasites than animals over 1 year of age (p < 0.05). Giardia sp and Toxocara cati were detected significantly more often in younger than 1 year of age (p < 0.05). In fecal examination, Toxocara cati, Ancylostoma sp. Joyeuxiella pasqualei, Dipylidium caninum, Trichuris sp were found in cats in Turkey. In this study, based on microscopic and macroscopic fecal examinations, Giardia sp (6%), Toxocara cati (4%), Isospora sp (3%), Joyeuxiella pasqualei (%2), Taenia sp (1%), Trichuris sp (1%) was detected in cats. In conclusion, zoonotic intestinal parasites in household cats such as Giardia sp and Toxocara cati should be considered more seriously and it is necessary to take precautions against these infections. Cats should be routinely checked by faecal examination for endoparasite infections.

Keywords: cat, intestinal parasites, faecal, Turkey

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5 Slums in Casablanca: A Conceptive Approach for Better Implementation of VSB Program, Case Study: ER-Hamna Slum

Authors: Sakina Boufarsi, Mehmet Emre Aysu, Behiye Isik Aksulu


Morocco appears to be on its way to eradicating all of the country's slums by assuring the resettlement and improvement of all affected households' living circumstances through the VSB “Villes sans Bidonvilles” program established in 2004 to eradicate the slums in Morocco. Although many attempts have been made to curb their growth none have proven to be a permanent accomplishment. In Morocco, resettlement projects through satellite towns are perceived as the answer to the problem of the slums. However, the new satellite towns are the good intention of the program VSB, but they are environmentally unsustainable, socially isolated and culturally inappropriate, such conditions imposed continuous readjustments of the slum upgrading program. Although slum research is ongoing, they primarily concentrated on two constructs: exploring socio-economic and policy problems and analyzing physical characteristics. Considering that the two constructs mentioned are crucial, this study will demonstrate that a more systematic approach is needed to eradicate them efficiently. The slums issues in Casablanca are a solution that the poor devise for themselves due to government bureaucracy and failing housing policies, they reflect governments' incapacity to respond to urban development’s requiring decent housing for the vulnerable population. This issue will be addressed by exploring the previous strategies and analyzing in detail the strengths and shortcomings of the recent VSB Program. In addition to a comprehensive overview of the slums' situations by combining the social and physical characteristics through Erhamna case study in Sidi Moumen district for a deeper understanding, and therefore to direct improved and valuable recommendations to address the slum problem at all levels.

Keywords: Casablanca slums, resettlement projects, eradication of slums, satellite town, VSB program

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4 Selection of Strategic Suppliers for Partnership: A Model with Two Stages Approach

Authors: Safak Isik, Ozalp Vayvay


Strategic partnerships with suppliers play a vital role for the long-term value-based supply chain. This strategic collaboration keeps still being one of the top priority of many business organizations in order to create more additional value; benefiting mainly from supplier’s specialization, capacity and innovative power, securing supply and better managing costs and quality. However, many organizations encounter difficulties in initiating, developing and managing those partnerships and many attempts result in failures. One of the reasons for such failure is the incompatibility of members of this partnership or in other words wrong supplier selection which emphasize the significance of the selection process since it is the beginning stage. An effective selection process of strategic suppliers is critical to the success of the partnership. Although there are several research studies to select the suppliers in literature, only a few of them is related to strategic supplier selection for long-term partnership. The purpose of this study is to propose a conceptual model for the selection of strategic partnership suppliers. A two-stage approach has been used in proposed model incorporating first segmentation and second selection. In the first stage; considering the fact that not all suppliers are strategically equal and instead of a long list of potential suppliers, Kraljic’s purchasing portfolio matrix can be used for segmentation. This supplier segmentation is the process of categorizing suppliers based on a defined set of criteria in order to identify types of suppliers and determine potential suppliers for strategic partnership. In the second stage, from a pool of potential suppliers defined at first phase, a comprehensive evaluation and selection can be performed to finally define strategic suppliers considering various tangible and intangible criteria. Since a long-term relationship with strategic suppliers is anticipated, criteria should consider both current and future status of the supplier. Based on an extensive literature review; strategical, operational and organizational criteria have been determined and elaborated. The result of the selection can also be used to determine suppliers who are not ready for a partnership but to be developed for strategic partnership. Since the model is based on multiple criteria for both stages, it provides a framework for further utilization of Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) techniques. The model may also be applied to a wide range of industries and involve managerial features in business organizations.

Keywords: Kraljic’s matrix, purchasing portfolio, strategic supplier selection, supplier collaboration, supplier partnership, supplier segmentation

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3 Evaluation of the Phenolic Composition of Curcumin from Different Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) Extracts: A Comprehensive Study Based on Chemical Turmeric Extract, Turmeric Tea and Fresh Turmeric Juice

Authors: Beyza Sukran Isik, Gokce Altin, Ipek Yalcinkaya, Evren Demircan, Asli Can Karaca, Beraat Ozcelik


Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.), is used as a food additive (spice), preservative and coloring agent in Asian countries, including China and South East Asia. It is also considered as a medicinal plant. Traditional Indian medicine evaluates turmeric powder for the treatment of biliary disorders, rheumatism, and sinusitis. It has rich polyphenol content. Turmeric has yellow color mainly because of the presence of three major pigments; curcumin 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1, 6-heptadiene-3,5-dione), demethoxy-curcumin and bis demothoxy-curcumin. These curcuminoids are recognized to have high antioxidant activities. Curcumin is the major constituent of Curcuma species. Method: To prepare turmeric tea, 0.5 gram of turmeric powder was brewed with 250 ml of water at 90°C, 10 minutes. 500 grams of fresh turmeric washed and shelled prior to squeezing. Both turmeric tea and turmeric juice pass through 45 lm filters and stored at -20°C in the dark for further analyses. Curcumin was extracted from 20 grams of turmeric powder by 70 ml ethanol solution (95:5 ethanol/water v/v) in a water bath at 80°C, 6 hours. Extraction was contributed for 2 hours at the end of 6 hours by addition of 30 ml ethanol. Ethanol was removed by rotary evaporator. Remained extract stored at -20°C in the dark. Total phenolic content and phenolic profile were determined by spectrophotometric analysis and ultra-fast liquid chromatography (UFLC), respectively. Results: The total phenolic content of ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were determined 50.72, 31.76 and 29.68 ppt, respectively. The ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea have been injected into UFLC and analyzed for curcumin contents. The curcumin content in ethanolic extract of turmeric, turmeric juice, and turmeric tea were 4067.4, 156.7 ppm and 1.1 ppm, respectively. Significance: Turmeric is known as a good source of curcumin. According to the results, it can be stated that its tea is not sufficient way for curcumin consumption. Turmeric juice can be preferred to turmeric tea for higher curcumin content. Ethanolic extract of turmeric showed the highest content of turmeric in both spectrophotometric and chromatographic analyses. Nonpolar solvents and carriers which have polar binding sites have to be considered for curcumin consumption due to its nonpolar nature.

Keywords: phenolic compounds, spectrophotometry, turmeric, UFLC

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2 A Cross-Sectional Study on Evaluation of Studies Conducted on Women in Turkey

Authors: Oya Isik, Filiz Yurtal, Kubilay Vursavus, Muge K. Davran, Metehan Celik, Munire Akgul, Olcay Karacan


In this study, to discuss the causes and problems of women by bringing together different disciplines engaged in women's studies were aimed. Also, to solve these problems, to share information and experiences in different disciplines about women, and to reach the task areas and decision mechanisms in practice were other objectives. For this purpose, proceedings presented at the Second Congress of Women's Studies held in Adana, Turkey, on 28-30 November 2018 was evaluated. The document analysis model, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used in the evaluation of the congress proceedings. A total of 86 papers were presented in the congress and the topic distributions of the papers were determined. At the evaluation stage, the papers were classified according to their subjects and descriptive analyses were made on the papers. According to the analysis results of the papers presented in the congress, 64 % of the total 86 papers presented in the Congress were review-based and 36 % were research-based studies. When the distribution of these reports was examined based on subject, the biggest share with the rate of 34.9% (13 reviews and 17 research-based papers) has been studied on women's issues through sociology, psychology and philosophy. This was followed by the economy, employment, organization, and non-governmental organizations with 20.9% (9 reviews and nine research-based papers), arts and literature with 17.4% (15 reviews based papers) and law with 12.8% (11 reviews based papers). The lowest share of the congress was presented in politics with one review based paper (1.2%), health with two research-based paper (2.3%), history with two reviews based papers (2.3%), religion with two reviews and one research-based papers (3.5%) and media-communication with two compilations and two researches based papers (4.7%). In the papers categorized under main headings, women were examined in terms of gender and gender roles. According to the results, it was determined that discrimination against women continued, changes in-laws were not put into practice sufficiently, education and economic independence levels of women were insufficient, and violence against women continued increasingly. To eliminate all these problems and to make the society conscious, it was decided that scientific studies should be supported. Furthermore, support policies should be realized jointly for women and men to make women visible in public life, tolerance or mitigation should not be put forward for any reason or in any group in cases of harassment and assault against women. However, it has been determined that women in Turkey should be in a better position in the social, cultural, psychological, economic and educational areas, and future studies should be carried out to improve women's rights and to create a positive perspective.

Keywords: gender, gender roles, sociology, psychology and philosophy, women studies

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1 Thermoluminescence Investigations of Tl2Ga2Se3S Layered Single Crystals

Authors: Serdar Delice, Mehmet Isik, Nizami Hasanli, Kadir Goksen


Researchers have donated great interest to ternary and quaternary semiconductor compounds especially with the improvement of the optoelectronic technology. The quaternary compound Tl2Ga2Se3S which was grown by Bridgman method carries the properties of ternary thallium chalcogenides group of semiconductors with layered structure. This compound can be formed from TlGaSe2 crystals replacing the one quarter of selenium atom by sulfur atom. Although Tl2Ga2Se3S crystals are not intentionally doped, some unintended defect types such as point defects, dislocations and stacking faults can occur during growth processes of crystals. These defects can cause undesirable problems in semiconductor materials especially produced for optoelectronic technology. Defects of various types in the semiconductor devices like LEDs and field effect transistor may act as a non-radiative or scattering center in electron transport. Also, quick recombination of holes with electrons without any energy transfer between charge carriers can occur due to the existence of defects. Therefore, the characterization of defects may help the researchers working in this field to produce high quality devices. Thermoluminescence (TL) is an effective experimental method to determine the kinetic parameters of trap centers due to defects in crystals. In this method, the sample is illuminated at low temperature by a light whose energy is bigger than the band gap of studied sample. Thus, charge carriers in the valence band are excited to delocalized band. Then, the charge carriers excited into conduction band are trapped. The trapped charge carriers are released by heating the sample gradually and these carriers then recombine with the opposite carriers at the recombination center. By this way, some luminescence is emitted from the samples. The emitted luminescence is converted to pulses by using an experimental setup controlled by computer program and TL spectrum is obtained. Defect characterization of Tl2Ga2Se3S single crystals has been performed by TL measurements at low temperatures between 10 and 300 K with various heating rate ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 K/s. The TL signal due to the luminescence from trap centers revealed one glow peak having maximum temperature of 36 K. Curve fitting and various heating rate methods were used for the analysis of the glow curve. The activation energy of 13 meV was found by the application of curve fitting method. This practical method established also that the trap center exhibits the characteristics of mixed (general) kinetic order. In addition, various heating rate analysis gave a compatible result (13 meV) with curve fitting as the temperature lag effect was taken into consideration. Since the studied crystals were not intentionally doped, these centers are thought to originate from stacking faults, which are quite possible in Tl2Ga2Se3S due to the weakness of the van der Waals forces between the layers. Distribution of traps was also investigated using an experimental method. A quasi-continuous distribution was attributed to the determined trap centers.

Keywords: chalcogenides, defects, thermoluminescence, trap centers

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