Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5172

Search results for: Omani literature

5172 How can Introducing Omani Literature in Foreign Language Classrooms Influence students' Motivation in Learning the Language?

Authors: Ibtisam Mohammed Al-Quraini

Abstract:

This paper examines how introducing Omani literature in foreign language classrooms can influence the students' motivation in learning the language. The data was collected through the questionnaire which was administered to two samples (A and B) of the participants. Sample A was comprised of 30 female students from English department who are specialist in English literature in college of Arts and Social Science. Sample B in contrast was comprised of 10 female students who their major is English from college of Education. Results show that each genre in literature has different influence on the students' motivation in learning the language which proves that literacy texts are powerful. Generally, Omani English teachers tend to avoid teaching literature because they think that it is a difficult method to use in teaching field. However, the advantages and the influences of teaching poetries, short stories, and plays are discussed. Recommendations for current research and further research are also discussed at the end.

Keywords: education, foreign language, English, Omani literature, poetry, story, play

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5171 Influence of Omani Literature in Foreign Language Classrooms on Students' Motivation in Learning English

Authors: Ibtisam Mohammed Salim Al Quraini

Abstract:

This paper examines how introducing Omani literature in foreign language classrooms can influence the students' motivation in learning the language. The data was collected through the questionnaire which was administered to two samples (A and B) of the participants. Sample A was comprised of 30 female students from English department who are specialist in English literature in college of Arts and Social Science. Sample B in contrast was comprised of 10 female students who their major is English from college of Education. Results show that each genre in literature has different influence on the students' motivation in learning the language which proves that literacy texts are powerful. Generally, Omani English teachers tend to avoid teaching literature because they think that it is a difficult method to use in teaching field. However, the advantages and the influences of teaching poetries, short stories, and plays are discussed. Recommendations for current research and further research are also discussed at the end.

Keywords: education, plays, short stories, poems

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5170 The Impact of Breast Cancer Diagnosis on Omani Women

Authors: H. Al-Awaisi, M. H. Al-Azri, S. Al-Rasbi, M. Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Breast cancer is the most common cancer among females worldwide. It is also the most common cancer among females in Oman with 100 new breast cancer cases diagnosed every year. It has been found that breast cancer have a devastating effect on women’s life. Women diagnosed with breast cancer might develop negative attitudes towards the illness and their bodies. They might also suffer from psychological ailments such as depression. Despite the evidence on the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on women, there was no study found to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis among women in Oman. A phenomenological qualitative study was conducted to explore the impact of breast cancer diagnosis on Omani women. Data was collected through semi-structured individual interviews with 11 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and data were analyzed thematically. From the data, there are four main themes identified in relation to the impact of cancer diagnosis on Omani women. These are 'shock and disbelieve', 'a death sentence', “uncertain future” and “social stigma”. At the time of interviews, all participants had advanced breast cancer with some participants having metastatic disease. The impact of the word “cancer” had a profound and catastrophic effect on the women and their close relatives. In conclusion, breast cancer diagnosis was shocking and mainly perceived as a death sentence by Omani women with uncertain future and social stigma. Regardless of age, maternal status and education level, it is evident that Omani women participated in this study lacked awareness about breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

Keywords: breast cancer, coping, diagnosis, Oman, women

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5169 The Art of Contemporary Arabic Calligraphy in Oman: Salman Alhajri as an Example

Authors: Salman Amur Alhajri

Abstract:

Purpose: This paper explores the art of contemporary Arabic calligraphy in Oman. It explains the aesthetic features of Arabic calligraphy as a unique icon of Islamic art. This paper also explores the profile of one Omani artist, Salman Alhajri, as an example of Omani artists who have developed unique styles in this art stream. Methodology and approach: The paper is based on a theoretical study using a descriptive and case-study approach. Omani artists are fascinated by the art forms of Arabic calligraphy, which combine both spiritual meaning and aesthetic beauty. Artist Salman Alhajri is an example of a contemporary Arabic artist who uses Arabic calligraphy as the main theme in his art. Dr. Alhajri is trying to introduce the beauty of Arabic letters from a new aesthetic point of view. He also aims to create unusual visual effects that viewers can easily interact with. Even though words and phrases appear in Alhajri’s artwork, they are not conveying direct meanings: viewers can create their own meaning or expressions from them by appreciating the compositions of the artwork. Results: Arabic writing is directly related to the identity of Omani artists and their cultural background. This paper shows how the beauty of Arabic letters comes from its indefinite possibilities in designing calligraphic expressions, even within a single word, because letters can be stretched and transformed in various ways to create different compositions. Omani artists are interested in employing new media applications in this kind of practice to find new techniques for creating artwork based on Arabic writing. It is really important for all Omani artists to practice this art style because Arabic calligraphy and its flexibility introduce infinite possibilities that involve further exploration and investigation.

Keywords: Islamic art, contemporary Arabic calligraphy, new techniques, Omani artist

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5168 An Analysis of the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Omani Senior American Literature Students at the Tertiary Level: A Case Study at a Public University in Muscat, Oman

Authors: Susanne Shunnaq

Abstract:

During the past decade, an increasing number of higher education institutions in Oman have sought accreditation in an attempt to assure the quality of their programs. Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), the only public university in the country, has also been seeking accreditation. Hence, the university administration has been encouraging departments to evaluate their programs for development purposes. The Department of English, where 100% of the students are learners of English as a foreign language, already produced a self-study report that outlined the strength and weaknesses of the current program. The department came to the realization that due to a changing local and regional job market, transferrable communication skills are high in demand among stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Failure to equip English literature students, for example, with excellent verbal communicative skills in English may have detrimental effects for undergraduate job-seekers who have to compete for jobs in employment sectors with a predominantly English-speaking workforce. Ongoing extensive discussions about restructuring the current literature program by means of partially replacing literature courses with skills courses, hoping to produce higher quality graduates who are equipped with effective communication skills for local and regional markets, have sparked the idea for this research. The researcher, who is an American Literature specialist at SQU, has set out to investigate to what extent senior American literature students have been able to apply transferable communication skills in an advanced literature course. The study also attempts to unearth performance inhibitors and causes for communication breakdown. The primary data source for the study were audio-recordings of 6 in-class peer-group discussions in an advanced contemporary American literature course during the academic year 2016/2017. The significance of this research lies in the rarity of studies focusing on verbal communication skills in Omani higher education literature classrooms at a time when English programs are in the process of being re-visited and revamped both for accreditation purposes and for meeting job-market demands. The results showed a considerable variation in Omani students' verbal communicative abilities and English proficiency levels. The study also raises crucial questions and provides important recommendations for administrators and teachers alike who are in the process of restructuring English programs in the region and in non-English speaking countries worldwide.

Keywords: job-market, literature, Oman, tertiary education, oral communication skills

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5167 Thanking as a Compliment Response at Higher Education Institution: A Comparative Study of Omani and Australian Speakers

Authors: Arfat Bait Jamil

Abstract:

This study investigates how the compliment response of thanking is performed by Omani and Australian, lecturers and students, in higher educational settings. Semi-structured interviews and observation records were used to collect data. Thanking responses were aggregated from interviews with Omani lecturers and students in Oman, and from Australian lecturers and students in Australia, wherein they were asked to imagine themselves being complimented on five different compliment topics. After the interviews, they used observation record to note down real-life examples of compliment exchanges, along with their opinions. The findings show that thanking is not a simple compliment response. Depending on the context in which the compliment is delivered, thanking does not always suggest positive thoughts or feelings and compliment approval.

Keywords: Australia, compliment responses, Oman, thanking

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5166 Omani PE Candidate Self-Reports of Learning Strategies Used to Learn Sport Skills

Authors: Nasser Al-Rawahi

Abstract:

The study aims at determining self-regulated learning strategies used by Omani physical education candidates to learn sport skills. The data were collected by a self-regulated learning theory questionnaire. The sample of the study comprised of 145 undergraduate physical education students enrolled in the department of physical education at the College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University. The findings of the study revealed that the most commonly used strategies for learning sport skills by Omani physical education candidate are ‘the effort learning strategies, planning learning strategies and evaluation learning strategies’. However, the reflection learning strategies, self-monitoring and self-efficacy learning strategies were revealed as the least used strategies by the PE candidates in learning and acquiring sport skills. Based on these findings, suggestions and recommendations for future research were provided.

Keywords: learning strategies, physical education candidates, self-regulated learning theory, Oman

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5165 Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani and Arabian Sea and Their Effect on Marine Environment

Authors: Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani

Abstract:

Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September), recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March). HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts. The effects of HABs on desalination plan were increased in last three years, by blooms of Cochlodinium, noctiluca species, and blooms of jellyfish. Most of these blooms were affected Al Batinah and Muscat coast. These effects include millions of Omani Rials and several shutdowns of desalination plans during these years.

Keywords: red tide, environment, hypoxia, noctiluca

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5164 Radiologic Assessment of Orbital Dimensions Among Omani Subjects: Computed Tomography Imaging-Based Study

Authors: Marwa Al-Subhi, Eiman Al-Ajmi, Mallak Al-Maamari, Humood Al-Dhuhli, Srinivasa Rao

Abstract:

The orbit and its contents are affected by various pathologies and craniofacial anomalies. Sound knowledge of the normal orbital dimensions is clinically essential for successful surgical outcomes and also in the field of forensic anthropology. Racial, ethnic, and regional variations in the orbital dimensions have been reported. This study sought to determine the orbital dimensions of Omani subjects who had been referred for computed tomography (CT) images at a tertiary care hospital. A total of 273 patients’ CT images were evaluated retrospectively by using an electronic medical records database. The orbital dimensions were recorded using both axial and sagittal planes of CT images. The mean orbital index (OI) was found to be 83.25±4.83 and the prevalent orbital type was categorized as mesoseme. The mean orbital index was 83.34±5.05 and 83.16±4.57 in males and females, respectively, with their difference being statistically not significant (p=0.76). A statistically significant association was observed between the right and left orbits with regard to horizontal distance (p<0.05) and vertical distance (p<0.01) of orbit and OI (p<0.05). No significant difference between the OI and age groups was observed in both males and females. The mean interorbital distance and interzygomatic distance were found to be 19.45±1.52 mm and 95.59±4.08 mm, respectively. Both of these parameters were significantly higher in males (p<0.05). Results of the present study provide reference values of orbital dimensions in Omani subjects. The prevalent orbital type of Omani subjects is mesoseme, which is a hallmark of the white race.

Keywords: orbit, orbital index, mesoseme, ethnicity, variation

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5163 The Omani Learner of English Corpus: Source and Tools

Authors: Anood Al-Shibli

Abstract:

Designing a learner corpus is not an easy task to accomplish because dealing with learners’ language has many variables which might affect the results of any study based on learners’ language production (spoken and written). Also, it is very essential to systematically design a learner corpus especially when it is aimed to be a reference to language research. Therefore, designing the Omani Learner Corpus (OLEC) has undergone many explicit and systematic considerations. These criteria can be regarded as the foundation to design any learner corpus to be exploited effectively in language use and language learning studies. Added to that, OLEC is manually error-annotated corpus. Error-annotation in learner corpora is very essential; however, it is time-consuming and prone to errors. Consequently, a navigating tool is designed to help the annotators to insert errors’ codes in order to make the error-annotation process more efficient and consistent. To assure accuracy, error annotation procedure is followed to annotate OLEC and some preliminary findings are noted. One of the main results of this procedure is creating an error-annotation system based on the Omani learners of English language production. Because OLEC is still in the first stages, the primary findings are related to only one level of proficiency and one error type which is verb related errors. It is found that Omani learners in OLEC has the tendency to have more errors in forming the verb and followed by problems in agreement of verb. Comparing the results to other error-based studies indicate that the Omani learners tend to have basic verb errors which can found in lower-level of proficiency. To this end, it is essential to admit that examining learners’ errors can give insights to language acquisition and language learning and most errors do not happen randomly but they occur systematically among language learners.

Keywords: error-annotation system, error-annotation manual, learner corpora, verbs related errors

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5162 Omani Community in Digital Age: A Study of Omani Women Using Back Channel Media to Empower Themselves for Frontline Entrepreneurship

Authors: Sangeeta Tripathi, Muna Al Shahri

Abstract:

This research article presents the changing role and status of women in Oman. Transformation of women’s status started with the regime of His Majesty Sultan Qaboos Bin Said in 1970. It is always desired by the Sultan to enable women in all the ways for the balance growth of the country. Forbidding full face veil for women in public offices is one of the best efforts for their empowerment. Women education is also increasing rapidly. They are getting friendly with new information communication technology and using different social media applications such as WhatsApp, Instagram and Facebook for interaction and economic growth. Though there are some traditional and tribal boundaries, women are infused with courage and enjoying fair treatment and equal opportunities in different career positions. The study will try to explore changing mindset of young Omani women towards these traditional tribal boundaries, cultural heritage, business and career: ‘How are young Omani women making balance between work and social prestige?’, ‘How are they preserving their cultural values, embracing new technologies and approaching social network to enhance their economic power.’ This paper will discover their hurdles while using internet for their new entrepreneur. It will also examine the prospects of online business in Oman. The mixed research methodology is applied to find out the result.

Keywords: advertising, business, entrepreneurship, tribal barrier

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5161 Spirituality and Coping with Breast Cancer among Omani Women

Authors: Huda Al-Awisi, Mohammed Al-Azri, Samira Al-Rasbi, Mansour Al-Moundhri

Abstract:

Cancer diagnosis is invariably a profound and catastrophic life-changing experience for individuals and their families. It has been found that cancer patients and survivors are distressed with the fragility of their life and their mortality. Based on the literature, cancer patients /survivors value their spiritual experience and connecting with unknown power either related to religious belief or not as an important coping mechanism. Health care professionals including nurses are expected to provide spiritual care for cancer patients as holistic care. Yet, nurses face many challenges in providing such care mainly due to lack of clear definition of spirituality. This study aims to explore coping mechanisms of Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer throughout their cancer journey including spirituality using a qualitative approach. A purposive sample of 19 Omani women diagnosed with breast cancer at different stages of cancer treatment modalities were interviewed. Interviews were tape recorded and transcribed verbatim. The framework approach was used to analyze the data. One main theme related to spirituality was identified and called “The power of faith”. For the majority of participants, faith in God (the will of God) was most important in coping with all stages of their breast cancer experience. Some participants thought that the breast cancer is a test from God which they have to accept. Participants also expressed acceptance of death as the eventual end and reward from God. This belief gives them the strength to cope with cancer and seek medical treatment. In conclusion, women participated in this study believed faith in God imposed spiritual power for them to cope with cancer. They connected spirituality with religious beliefs. Therefore, regardless of nurses’ faith in spirituality, the spiritual care needs to be tailored and provided according to each patient individual need.

Keywords: breast cancer, spiritual, religion, coping, diagnosis, oman, women

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5160 Gender Identity: Omani College Students Negotiate Their Cultural Expectations

Authors: Mohammed Alkharusi

Abstract:

This study addresses issues of gender identity faced by female and male Omani students studying at educational higher institutions. The study interviewed 16 male and female students to understand how cultural expectations of gender influence these students’ communication, and as a result how these students negotiate their gender identity to facilitate communication practices (or not) with the opposite sex. The context, focus, and theoretical underpinnings of the study are presented. Given that the researcher is also an Omani Arab, methodological and ethical challenges (e.g., recruiting and engaging with participants, and conducting semi-structured face-to-face interviews) will be discussed reflexively. The analysis found that students continued to following cultural expectations. They kept minimum interaction with the opposite sex that was illustrated by preferring to work with the same sex in group assignments only, avoiding sitting alone with the opposite sex, and not participating in academic activities. In the social context, the students started negotiating their gender identity and adopted communication practices that facilitated their social communication with the opposite sex. For example, they accepted to work with the opposite sex in different social mixed activities. In conclusion, students desired to maintain their cultural expectations but adopted certain communication practices to interact with the opposite sex.

Keywords: communication, cultural expectations, gender, identity, negotiation

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5159 Management of Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Tree in Oman: The Case of Using Meskit (Prosopis juliflora) Pods for Feeding Omani Sheep

Authors: S. Al-Khalasi, O. Mahgoub, H. Yaakub

Abstract:

This study evaluated the use of raw or processed Prosopis juliflora (Meskit) pods as a major ingredient in a formulated ration to provide an alternative non-conventional concentrate for livestock feeding in Oman. Dry Meskit pods were reduced to lengths of 0.5- 1.0 cm to ensure thorough mixing into three diets. Meskit pods were subjected to two types of treatments; roasting and soaking. They were roasted at 150оC for 30 minutes using a locally-made roasting device (40 kg barrel container rotated by electric motor and heated by flame gas cooker). Chopped pods were soaked in tap water for 24 hours and dried for 2 days under the sun with frequent turning. The Meskit-pod-based diets (MPBD) were formulated and pelleted from 500 g/kg ground Meskit pods, 240 g/kg wheat bran, 200 g/kg barley grain, 50 g/kg local dried sardines and 10 g/kg of salt. Twenty four 10 months-old intact Omani male lambs with average body weight of 27.3 kg (± 0.5 kg) were used in a feeding trial for 84 days. They were divided (on body weight basis) and allocated to four diet combination groups. These were: Rhodes grass hay (RGH) plus a general ruminant concentrate (GRC); RGH plus raw Meskit pods (RMP) based concentrate; RGH plus roasted Meskit pods (ROMP) based concentrate; RGH plus soaked Meskit pods (SMP) based concentrate Daily feed intakes and bi-weekly body weights were recorded. MPBD had higher contents of crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) than the GRC. Animals fed various types of MPBD did not show signs of ill health. There was a significant effect of feeding ROMP on the performance of Omani sheep compared to RMP and SMP. The ROMP fed animals had similar performance to those fed the GRC in terms of feed intake, body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR).This study indicated that roasted Meskit pods based diet may be used instead of the commercial concentrate for feeding Omani sheep without adverse effects on performance. It offers a cheap alternative source of protein and energy for feeding Omani sheep. Also, it might help in solving the spread impact of Meskit trees, maintain the ecosystem and helping in preserving the local tree species.

Keywords: growth, Meskit, Omani sheep, Prosopis juliflora

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5158 Potential of Enhancing Oil Recovery in Omani Oil Fields via Biopolymer Injection

Authors: Yahya Al-Wahaibi, Saif Al-Bahry, Abdulkadir Elshafie, Ali Al-Bemani, Sanket Joshi

Abstract:

Microbial enhanced oil recovery is one of the most economical and efficient methods for extending the life of production wells in a declining reservoir. There are a variety of metabolites produced by microorganisms that can be useful for oil recovery, like biopolymers-polysaccharides secreted by microbes, biodegradable thus environmentally friendly. Some fungi like Schizophyllum commune (a type of mushroom), and Aureobasidium pullulans are reported to produce biopolymers-schizophyllan and pullulan. Hence, we have procured a microbial strain (Schizophyllum commune) from American Type Culture Collection, which is reported for producing a biopolymer and also isolated several Omani strains of Aureobasidium pullulans from different samples. Studies were carried out for maintenance of the strains and primary screening of production media and environmental conditions for growth of S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates, for 30 days. The observed optimum growth and production temperature was ≤35 °C for S. commune and Omani A. pullulans isolates. Better growth was observed for both types of fungi under shaking conditions. The initial yield of lyophilized schizophyllan was ≥3.0 g/L, and the yield of pullulan was ≥0.5g/L. Both schizophyllan and pullulan were extracted in crude form and were partially identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), which showed partial similarity in chemical structure with published biopolymers. The produced pullulan and schizophyllan increased the viscosity from 9-20 cp of the control media (without biopolymer) to 20 - 121.4 cp of the cell free broth at 0.1 s-1 shear rate at range of temperatures from 25–45 °C. Enhanced biopolymer production and its physicochemical and rheological properties under different environmental conditions (different temperatures, salt concentrations and wide range of pH), complete characterization and effects on oil recovery enhancement were also investigated in this study.

Keywords: Aureobasidium pullulans, biopolymer, oil recovery enhancement, Schizophyllum commune

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5157 In silico Analysis of a Causative Mutation in Cadherin-23 Gene Identified in an Omani Family with Hearing Loss

Authors: Mohammed N. Al Kindi, Mazin Al Khabouri, Khalsa Al Lamki, Tommasso Pappuci, Giovani Romeo, Nadia Al Wardy

Abstract:

Hereditary hearing loss is a heterogeneous group of complex disorders with an overall incidence of one in every five hundred newborns presented as syndromic and non-syndromic forms. Cadherin-related 23 (CDH23) is one of the listed deafness causative genes. CDH23 is found to be expressed in the stereocilia of hair cells and the retina photoreceptor cells. Defective CDH23 has been associated mostly with prelingual severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in either syndromic (USH1D) or non-syndromic SNHL (DFNB12). An Omani family diagnosed clinically with severe-profound sensorineural hearing loss was genetically analysed by whole exome sequencing technique. A novel homozygous missense variant, c.A7451C (p.D2484A), in exon 53 of CDH23 was detected. One hundred and thirty control samples were analysed where all were negative for the detected variant. The variant was analysed in silico for pathogenicity verification using several mutation prediction software. The variant proved to be a pathogenic mutation and is reported for the first time in Oman and worldwide. It is concluded that in silico mutation prediction analysis might be used as a useful molecular diagnostics tool benefiting both genetic counseling and mutation verification. The aspartic acid 2484 alanine missense substitution might be the main disease-causing mutation that damages CDH23 function and could be used as a genetic hearing loss marker for this particular Omani family.

Keywords: Cdh23, d2484a, in silico, Oman

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5156 Investigating Teachers’ Approaches in Teaching English and Students’ Communicative Ability in a Tertiary College

Authors: Adel Ben Mohamed

Abstract:

The widespread use of the English language around the world has pushed many countries to consider such a language as a top priority in their educational system. One of these countries is the Sultanate of Oman. In this frame, the Omani government has allocated huge budgets as well as resources in order to implement the English language in its education system. The importance of English is prevalent in Oman. This is clearly noticeable through remarkable signs. For instance, most of the official documents in Oman are in both Arabic (the mother tongue) or English. In addition to that, there is a mushroom of English language institutes all over the country. In 2020, there are over fourteen English language institutes and centers in Oman (esl base, 2020). Moreover, these days most of the Omani parents are sending their children for tuition to learn the English language. Hence, it is apparent that the Sultanate of Oman is giving a great value to the importance of English in attaining various goals. However, in the world of work, what is more, important today is fluency rather than accuracy. Therefore, many people go for communication English rather than technical English. For example, Oman Daily Observer newspaper published a job advertisement of a sale assistant on 23rd of November 2020, recommended that speaking very well English is a must to be hired for the position (Oman Observer, 2020). In line with this and because of the great importance of the English language in Oman, the ministry of higher education has placed much emphasis on this official foreign language. Therefore, in the Omani educational system, all post -secondary students must sit for one year in one of the higher education institutions as a General Foundation Programmes (GFP) prior to moving to their respective majors in diploma level. Accordingly, the implementation of any teaching approach is determined by different factors: some are directly linked to teachers while others are related to organizational variables.

Keywords: teaching approaches, communicative, ability, investigating

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5155 A Survey on Erotic Literature, Woman, and Its Sociological Aspect

Authors: Sulmaz Mozaffari, Zahra Mozaffari, Saman Mozaffari

Abstract:

Erotic literature is a branch in modern literature which has the key terms of woman and her sexual desire. It has so many supporters and it is growing to be more important everyday and in such a way that it is criticized on social medias. To create their work in that part of literature, the authors take the woman into consideration to explore the cultural, social, and political theories. In this research, the author gives an analysis of the erotic literature in Asia and the role of woman as the main element in it.

Keywords: erotic literature, social media, woman, attract addressee

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5154 Is There Relationship between Cyberchondria and Emotional Intelligence among Omani University Students? A Descriptive Correlational Study

Authors: Mohammed Qutishat, Khaldoun Aldiabat, Khaled Bader, Mohammad Al Qadire

Abstract:

Cyberchondria refers to the irrational increase of distress about the condition of one's health as a consequence of the World Wide Web quest for medical details. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between emotional intelligence and cyberchondria among Omani university students. A descriptive correlational design was used to collect data from eligible 370 participants using the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, and the short-form version of the Cyberchondria Severity Scale (CSS-12) between January and May 2020 at XX University-Oman. The participants’ age ranged between 18 and 37 years (M = 20.28). The majority of the participants were female, 59.7% (n = 221), single 99.5% (368), in their second academic year, 29.2% (n =108). The mean score of cyberchondria experiences was 32.51, and the mean score of emotional intelligence was 34.91. Linear regression indicated a strong association between cyberchondria and emotional intelligence [F (34.639) = 5.885, P=.000], with a .086 R². In conclusion, the exchange of expertise and peer networking for health-related details utilizing the Internet can benefit students with and without having health problems. Further research and methods should be developed to help students track the online medical tools effectively for the right purposes.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, cyberchondria, smartphone addiction, social media

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5153 Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics and Use of Herbal Medicine among Patients Seeking Consultation for Knee Osteoarthritis at Secondary Healthcare Facilities in Oman

Authors: Thuraya Ahmed Al Shidhani, Yahya Al Farsi, Alya Al Husni, Samir Al Adawi

Abstract:

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (knee OA) represents a major public health burden worldwide, particularly among older adults. However, little has been documented from Arabian Gulf countries, which have left an information gap. Objective: This study describes the socio-demographic, clinical risk factors, and use of herbal medicine among men and women seeking consultation for knee OA at two secondary healthcare facilities in Muscat, Oman. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 213 Omani adults with knee OA attending a referral polyclinic in Muscat, Oman, over 12 months from January to December. Socio-demographic data were collected from the participants who are seeking consultation for knee OA. Results: Among the 213 study participants, 171 were females and 42 males. The females were comparatively older than the males, had lower education and lower-income, and more overweight. The majority of the participants were normal weight or underweight. About one-third of participants reported OA in other joints as well. Most participants recalled that they had knee OA for less than a year. About 12% reported a history of trauma. The majority (63%) concurrently had other chronic illnesses, and 33% reported having at least one complication. About 22% were using herbal medicines. About 77% are using herbal local applications in form of powder and creams. Conclusion: This study, to our knowledge, is the first to explore socio-demographic characteristics, clinical risk factors and use of herbal medicine among sufferers of knee OA in Oman. Knee OA tended to occur among our participants at younger ages than reported elsewhere, while obesity appeared orthogonal to the severity of knee OA. Women were more affected than men. About one quarter of Omani patients are using herbal medicine. More studies are needed to understand the causal factors and development of knee OA in Oman. Targeted health education and rehabilitation programs are needed, particularly among Omani women, to improve their physical quality of life.

Keywords: knee joint, osteoarthritis, herbal medicine, Oman

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5152 Glycemic Control on Self-Efficacy and Self-Care Behaviors among Omani Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

Authors: Melba Sheila D'Souza, Anandhi Amirtharaj, Shreedevi Balachandran

Abstract:

Background: Type 2 diabetes has a significant impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Glycemic control may influence self-efficacy and self-care behaviors, and reduce the risk of complications among adults with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has substantial morbidity and mortality and 60% of adults’ poor self-care. Glycemic control is associated with reported self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Adults with type 2 diabetes with less information were less likely to take diabetes self-care. Aim: To examine the relationship between glycemic control, demographic factors, clinical factors on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors among Omani adults with type 2 diabetes. Methods: A correlational, descriptive study was used. Omani adults with type 2 diabetes (n=140) were recruited from a public hospital in Oman. The data were collected during January-March 2015. Ethical approval was given by the college research and ethics committee, College of Nursing, and the Hospital, Sultan Qaboos University Data was collected on self-efficacy, self-care behaviors and glycemic control. The study was approved by the Institution Ethics and Research Committee. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results: Most adults had a fasting blood glucose >7.2mmol/L (90.7%), with the majority demonstrating ‘uncontrolled or poor HbA1c of > 8%’ (65%). Variance of self-care behavior (20.6%) and 31.3% of the variance of the self-efficacy was explained by the age, duration of diabetes, medication, HbA1c and prevention of activities of living. Adults with type 2 diabetes with poor glycemic control were more likely to have poor self-efficacy and poor self-care behaviors. Conclusion: This study confirms that self-efficacy model on outcome predicts self-efficacy and self-care behavior. Higher understanding of diabetes, prevention of normal daily activities, higher ability to fit diabetes life in a positive manner and high patient-physician communication were significant with self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Hence, glycemic control has a high effect on improving self-care behaviors like diet, exercise, medication, foot care and self-efficacy among type 2 diabetes. Implications: Using these findings to improve self-efficacy, individualized self-care management is recommended for better self-efficacy and self-care behaviors among adults with type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, self-care management, glycemic control, type 2 diabetes, nurse

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5151 Food Intake Patterns in Omani University Students

Authors: Nasiruddin Khan, Saud Iqbal

Abstract:

Arabian Gulf region has undergone enormous development due to oil boom resulting in overwhelming changes in the lifestyle of the population over the past few decades. This study focused on food consumption patterns of Omani university students. Information, on anthropometric measurements, dietary intakes (measured by a food frequency questionnaire) of students was recorded. Anthropometric data revealed 62.5% of the subjects to be of normal weight and approximately 25% being overweight. Female students appeared to be more weight conscious than males. Dietary intakes in terms of servings (Mean ± S.D) per day among normal weight (BMI 18.5 – 24.9) males vs. females were approximately; cereals (7.5 ± 5.9 vs. 4.9 ± 2.9 servings), meat and alternatives (1.9 ± 0.9 vs. 1.5 ± 0.9 servings), dairy foods (0.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.1 ± 0.9 servings) per day, respectively. Overall 55.3% of both males (average 1.9 servings) as well as females (average 1.7 servings) had severely inadequate intakes of vegetables on a daily basis as per the food guide pyramid recommendations. Only the fruit group intakes were adequate in about 70% of the population. Adequate intakes of dairy and meat and alternatives group were found in only 22% and 32% of the subjects, respectively. These results indicate a significant influence of a modern lifestyle on dietary habits and food selection of the target population.

Keywords: dietary pattern, food guide pyramid, lifestyle, Oman

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5150 Instruction and Learning Design Consideration for the Development of Mobile Learning Application

Authors: M. Sarrab, M. Elbasir

Abstract:

Most of mobile learning applications currently available are developed for the formal education and learning environment. Those applications are characterized by the improvement of the interaction process between instructors and learners to provide more collaboration and flexibility in the learning process. Despite the long history and large amount of research on Instruction design model and mobile learning there is no complete and well defined set of steps to follow in designing mobile learning applications. Based on this scenario, this paper focuses on identifying instruction design phases considerations and influencing factors in developing mobile learning application. This set of instruction design steps includes analysis, design, development, implementation, evaluation and continuous has been built from a literature study with focus on standards for learning and mobile application software quality and guidelines. The effort is part of an Omani-funded research project investigating the development, adoption and dissemination of mobile learning in Oman.

Keywords: instruction design, mobile learning, mobile application

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5149 Comparison of Illuminance Levels in Old Omani and Portuguese Forts in Oman

Authors: Maatouk Khoukhi

Abstract:

Nowadays the reduction of the energy consumed by buildings to achieve mainly the thermal comfort for the occupants represent the main concern for architects and building designers. The common and traditional solution to achieve this target is the design of a highly insulated envelope and reduce the opening and the transparent elements such windows. However, this will lead to the artificial lighting system to consume more energy to compensate the lack of natural lighting coming through the glazed parts of the building envelope. Therefore, a good balance between sufficient daylight and control thermal heat through the building envelope should be considered for energy saving purpose. To achieve a better indoor environment the windows size and spacing including the interior finishing and the location of the partition must be assessed accurately. Daylighting is the controlled admission of natural light into space through windows and transparent elements of the building envelope which helps create a visually stimulating and productive environment for building occupants. The main concern is not to provide enough daylight to an occupied space, but how to achieve this without any undesirable side effect. Indeed, the glare is a major problem in glazed façade buildings, and this could be reduced by using tinted windows. The main target of this research is to investigate the daylight adequacy of functional needs in old Omani Forts and how they have been designed and built to avoid glare and overheating with the appropriate window-to-floor ratio. Because more windows do not automatically result in more daylighting but that is natural light has been controlled and distributed properly throughout the space. Spaces from different Omani and Portuguese Forts under the same climate conditions are considered in order to compare the daylight illuminance levels and examine the similarities and differences in visual attributes between them. The result of this study indicates that lighting preference is not universal and people from different geographical locations are adapted to certain illuminance levels. Therefore, the standards could not be generalized for the entire world. This would be useful to practitioners who are designing to effectively address the diversity of user’s lighting levels preferences in our globally connected society.

Keywords: day lighting, energy, forts, thermal comfort

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5148 Effect of Spirulina Supplementation on Growth Performance and Body Conformation of Two Omani Goat Breeds

Authors: Fahad Al Yahyaey, Ihab Shaat, Russell Bush

Abstract:

This study was conducted at the Livestock Research Centre, Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries, Oman, on two local goat breeds (Jabbali and Sahrawi) due to their importance to Omani livestock production and food security. The Jabbali is characterized by increased growth rates and a higher twinning rate, while the Sahrawi has increased milk production. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Spirulina supplementation on live weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG), and body conformation measurements; chest girth (CG), wither height (WH), body length (BL), and body condition score (BCS). Thirty-six males (approximately nine-months-old and 16.44 ± 0.33 kg average of initial body weight) were used across an eleven-week study from November–February 2019-2020. Each breed was divided into three groups (n = 6/group) and fed one of three rations: (1) concentrate mixture (Control) with crude protein 14% and energy 11.97% MJ/kg DM; (2) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 2 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 1) and (3) the same concentrate feed with the addition of 4 gm /capita daily Spirulina platensis (Treatment 2). Analysis of weekly data collections for all traits indicated a significant effect of feeding Spirulina on all the studied traits except WH and BL. Analysis of variance for fixed effects in this study (damage and kid birth type i.e., single, twin or triple) were not significant for all studied traits. However, the breed effect was highly significant (P < 0.001) on BWT, ADG, BCS, and CG traits. On the other hand, when the analysis was done for the treatment effect within breeds for ADG, the Sahrawi breed had a significant effect (P < 0.05) at 56.52, 85.51, and 85.50 g/day for control, treatment 1 and treatment 2, respectively. This is a 51% difference between the control and treatment 1 (2 gm /capita). Whereas for the Jabbali breed, the treatment effect was not significant for ADG (P =0.55), and the actual ADG was 104.59, 118.84, and 114.25 g/day for control, treatment 1, and treatment 2, respectively, providing a 14% difference between the control group and the treated group (4 gm /capita). These findings indicate using Spirulina supplementation in Omani goat diets is recommended at 2 gm per capita as there was no benefit in feeding at 4 gm per capita for either breed. Farmers feeding Spirulina supplementation to kids after weaning at six-months could increase their herd performance and growth rate and facilitate buck selection at an earlier age.

Keywords: body conformation, goats, live weight, spirulina

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5147 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

Abstract:

This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Arabic, literature, peace, development, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5146 Making Sense of Adversity Triggers Using Organisational Resilience, a Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Luke McGowan, David Pickernell, Martini Battisti

Abstract:

In this paper, Adversity Triggers were explored through the lens of Organisational Resilience. Adversity Triggers are contextualized by temporal factors, thus, naturally aligning to Resilience literature. Resilience has been chosen as the theoretical framework as risk management approaches are often not geared towards providing meaningful responses to high-impact, low-probability events. Adversity Triggers and Organisational Resilience both consider temporal factors which enabled investigation of each phase of recovery. A systematic literature was employed to assess previous literature and define further areas of research. The systematic literature review method was chosen to catalogue and identify gaps in current literature.

Keywords: adversity triggers, crisis, extreme events, organisational resilience, resilience

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5145 Obtaining Norms for Arabic Translated Version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Neuropsychological Battery in Normal Elderly Omanis Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Oman

Authors: Ammar Alobaidy, Lamees Alsawafi, Malak Almawali, Balqees Alabri, Hajer Alhamrashdi

Abstract:

Background: There is scarce data in the literature concerning the use of Arabic version neuron psychological cognitive tests in the geriatric age group of the Omani population. Objectives: Our aim is to obtain norms for normal elderly Omanis assessed by The Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD) neuro psychological battery and to compare these norms with other studies in the literature. Methods: 84 attendants and visitors of in-patients at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, elder than 55 years, were interviewed. All participants were assessed by Dementia Rating Scale & Geriatric Depression Scale to ensure the integrity of their activities of daily living and the absence of depression, respectively. The performance of all participants in the CERAD battery was rated by a single rater to optimize the inter-rater reliability. Results: The cut-point for average performance in CERAD battery is dependent on the age, sex, and level of education and cannot be set as a single cut-point for all elderly Omanis. Conclusion: This study has shown the effect of age, sex, and level of education on the cognitive performance of normal elderly Omanis. The normative data obtained from this study can be utilized to differentiate between the cognitive decline of normal aging and the cognitive impairment due to various neuro cognitive disorders in the elderly Omanis, and probably culturally similar Arabic speaking communities.

Keywords: CERAD, neuropsychological battery, normal aging, elderly Omanis

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5144 Social Networking Sites and Employee Engagement

Authors: Sultan Ali Suleiman AlMazrouei

Abstract:

Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of communication through social networking sites (Facebook, Twitter) on employee engagement. Methodology: A quantitative survey was used to collect data from 440 employees from the Ministry of Education in Oman. SPSS software was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results revealed a positive significant relationship between communication via Facebook and employee engagement. However, communication via Twitter does not influence employee engagement significantly. Practical implications: Managers can benefit from the study by understanding the importance of communication via Facebook with employees in order to increase their engagement. They should post their views and thoughts on Facebook and encourage their employees to be members which would be reflected on their psychological side positively. That gives them a feeling of belonging to a network. Originality/value: The study enriches the human resources management literature by examining a theoretical framework about the influence of social networking sites usage on employee engagement. This is one of the few studies that focus on the relationship of social networking sites usage with employees' engagement. It is the first study in an Omani context.

Keywords: employee engagement, social networking sites, Facebook, Twitter

Procedia PDF Downloads 242
5143 To Cloudify or Not to Cloudify

Authors: Laila Yasir Al-Harthy, Ali H. Al-Badi

Abstract:

As an emerging business model, cloud computing has been initiated to satisfy the need of organizations and to push Information Technology as a utility. The shift to the cloud has changed the way Information Technology departments are managed traditionally and has raised many concerns for both, public and private sectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of cloud computing services replacing services provided traditionally by IT departments. Therefore, it aims to 1) explore whether organizations in Oman are ready to move to the cloud; 2) identify the deciding factors leading to the adoption or rejection of cloud computing services in Oman; and 3) provide two case studies, one for a successful Cloud provider and another for a successful adopter. This paper is based on multiple research methods including conducting a set of interviews with cloud service providers and current cloud users in Oman; and collecting data using questionnaires from experts in the field and potential users of cloud services. Despite the limitation of bandwidth capacity and Internet coverage offered in Oman that create a challenge in adopting the cloud, it was found that many information technology professionals are encouraged to move to the cloud while few are resistant to change. The recent launch of a new Omani cloud service provider and the entrance of other international cloud service providers in the Omani market make this research extremely valuable as it aims to provide real-life experience as well as two case studies on the successful provision of cloud services and the successful adoption of these services.

Keywords: cloud computing, cloud deployment models, cloud service models, deciding factors

Procedia PDF Downloads 219