Search results for: Nwosa Philip Ifeakachukwu
78 Does Inflation Affect Private Investment in Nigeria?
Authors: Amassoma Ditimi, Nwosa Philip Ifeakachukwu
Abstract:This study examined the impact of inflation on private investment in Nigeria for the period 1980 to 2012. Private investment was measured by foreign direct investment and private domestic investment. The study employed the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique. The empirical regression estimate showed that inflation had a positive but insignificant effect on private investment in Nigeria; implying that although an increase in inflation rate leads to a corresponding increase in private investment but however the effect was found to be insignificant. Thus, the study recommended that government should prevent high inflation rate that can negatively affect private investment in Nigeria and government should also put in place appropriate facilities that are investment enhancing in order to increase the level of both domestic and foreign private investment in Nigeria.
Keywords: inflation rate, private investment, OLS, NigeriaProcedia PDF Downloads 246
77 Multiplicity of Themes in Philip Roth's Fiction: Expressing Contemporariness
Authors: Shivani Sharma
Abstract:Philip Roth is one of the most significant contemporary American novelists and is always engaged in creative activities. He is a recognized and prolific novelist of post-World War II period, an author of over 29 books where his text serves as a picture as well as critiques of contemporary culture from World War II to post 9/11 America. Roth is an honored author who has been awarded with prestigious literary awards. In his works he explains what is important to contemporary American Jews. His fiction is known for its autobiographical character, for blurring the distinction between reality and fiction, also for challenging exploration of Jewish and American identity. In many ways Roth is also considered as postmodern writer as his works can be read in the context of being a postmodern narration. He also stands as one of the most offensive novelist living today and has been read as a misogynist, a liberal defender, a solipsist, an anti-communist, and even an anti-Semite. It is not only the variety of contemporary issues that are discussed in his works but we can also see the strong element of multiplicity of themes in his writings. This paper is an attempt to explore the multiplicity of themes in the fiction of Philip Roth.
Keywords: multiple themes, Jewish-American literature, Philip Roth, expressing contemporarinessProcedia PDF Downloads 381
76 Protecting Human Health under International Investment Law
Authors: Qiang Ren
Abstract:In the past 20 years, under the high standard of international investment protection, there have been numerous cases of investors ignoring the host country's measures to protect human health. Examples include investment disputes triggered by the Argentine government's measures related to human health, quality, and price of drinking water under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Examples also include Philip Morris v. Australia, in which case the Australian government announced the passing of the Plain Packing of Cigarettes Act to address the threat of smoking to public health in 2010. In order to take advantage of the investment treaty protection between Hong Kong and Australia, Philip Morris Asia acquired Philip Morris Australia in February 2011 and initiated investment arbitration under the treaty before the passage of the Act in July 2011. Philip Morris claimed the Act constitutes indirect expropriation and violation of fair and equitable treatment and claimed 4.16 billion US dollars compensation. Fortunately, the case ended at the admissibility decision stage and did not enter the substantive stage. Generally, even if the host country raises a human health defense, most arbitral tribunals will rule that the host country revoke the corresponding policy and make huge compensation in accordance with the clauses in the bilateral investment treaty to protect the rights of investors. The significant imbalance in the rights and obligations of host states and investors in international investment treaties undermines the ability of host states to act in pursuit of human health and social interests beyond economic interests. This squeeze on the nation's public policy space and disregard for the human health costs of investors' activities raises the need to include human health in investment rulemaking. The current international investment law system that emphasizes investor protection fails to fully reflect the requirements of the host country for the healthy development of human beings and even often brings negative impacts to human health. At a critical moment in the reform of the international investment law system, in order to achieve mutual enhancement of investment returns and human health development, human health should play a greater role in influencing and shaping international investment rules. International investment agreements should not be limited to investment protection tools but should also be part of national development strategies to serve sustainable development and human health. In order to meet the requirements of the new sustainable development goals of the United Nations, human health should be emphasized in the formulation of international investment rules, and efforts should be made to shape a new generation of international investment rules that meet the requirements of human health and sustainable development.
Keywords: human health, international investment law, Philip Morris v. Australia, investor protectionProcedia PDF Downloads 32
75 Execution of Joinery in Large Scale Projects: Middle East Region as a Case Study
Authors: Arsany Philip Fawzy
Abstract:This study is going to address the hurdles of project management in the joinery field. It is widely divided into two sections; the first one will shed light on how to execute large-scale projects with a specific focus on the middle east region. It will also raise major obstacles that may face the joinery team from the site clearance and the coordination between the joinery team and the construction team. The second section is going to technically analyze the commercial side of the joinery and how to control the main cost of the project to avoid financial problems. It will also suggest empirical solutions to monitor the cost impact (e.g., Variation of contract quantity and claims).
Keywords: clearance, quality, cost, variation, claimProcedia PDF Downloads 12
74 Homogenization of Culture and Its Effect on Preferred Reading of Media Communications Aimed at Members of Generation Z
Authors: Philip Katz
Abstract:The research examines preferred reading of contemporary ads aimed at Generation Z through digital media. A qualitative analysis of focus groups consisting of members of Generation Z from 13 countries in Europe, the Middle East, South America and Asia has shown that, among this cohort, the influence of national culture does not create a strong impediment to understanding media communications targeting Generation Z. The familiarity of members of Generation Z with other countries’ popular culture through the spread of digital media has allowed a homogenizing effect and allowed a greater understanding of those cultures among this generation that lessens the impact of geographic separation.
Keywords: audience, Generation Z, marketing communication, preferred readingProcedia PDF Downloads 87
73 Architecture of a Preliminary Course on Computational Thinking
Authors: Mintu Philip, Renumol V. G.
Abstract:An introductory programming course is a major challenge faced in Computing Education. Many of the introductory programming courses fail because student concentrate mainly on writing programs using a programming language rather than involving in problem solving. Computational thinking is a general approach to solve problems. This paper proposes a new preliminary course that aims to develop computational thinking skills in students, which may help them to become good programmers. The proposed course is designed based on the four basic components of computational thinking - abstract thinking, logical thinking, modeling thinking and constructive thinking. In this course, students are engaged in hands-on problem solving activities using a new problem solving model proposed in this paper.
Keywords: computational thinking, computing education, abstraction, constructive thinking, modelling thinkingProcedia PDF Downloads 374
72 Integral Abutment Bridge: A Study on Types, Importance, Limitations and Design Guidelines
Authors: Babitha Elizabeth Philip
Abstract:This paper aims to study in general about bridges without expansion joints. Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) fall into this category of bridges. They are having a continuous deck and also the girders are integrated into the abutments. They are most cost effective system in terms of construction, maintenance, and longevity. The main advantage of IAB is that it is corrosion resistant since water is not allowed to pass through the structure. The other attractions of integral bridges are its simple and rapid construction, smooth and uninterrupted deck which provides a safe ride. Also damages to the abutments can be avoided to a great extent due to better load distribution at the bridge ends. Damages due to improper drainage are not seen in IAB because of its properly drained approach slabs thus eliminating the possibility of erosion of the abutment backfill and freeze and thaw damage resulting from saturated backfill.
Keywords: continuous bridge, integral abutment bridge, joint bridge, life cycle cost, soil interactionProcedia PDF Downloads 173
71 Experimental Measurements of Evacuated Enclosure Thermal Insulation Effectiveness for Vacuum Flat Plate Solar Thermal Collectors
Authors: Paul Henshall, Philip Eames, Roger Moss, Stan Shire, Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde
Abstract:Encapsulating the absorber of a flat plate solar thermal collector in vacuum by an enclosure that can be evacuated can result in a significant increase in collector performance and achievable operating temperatures. This is a result of the thermal insulation effectiveness of the vacuum layer surrounding the absorber, as less heat is lost during collector operation. This work describes experimental thermal insulation characterization tests of prototype vacuum flat plate solar thermal collectors that demonstrate the improvement in absorber heat loss coefficients. Furthermore, this work describes the selection and sizing of a getter, suitable for maintaining the vacuum inside the enclosure for the lifetime of the collector, which can be activated at low temperatures.
Keywords: vacuum, thermal, flat-plate solar collector, insulationProcedia PDF Downloads 306
70 Sentiment Analysis: Comparative Analysis of Multilingual Sentiment and Opinion Classification Techniques
Authors: Sannikumar Patel, Brian Nolan, Markus Hofmann, Philip Owende, Kunjan Patel
Abstract:Sentiment analysis and opinion mining have become emerging topics of research in recent years but most of the work is focused on data in the English language. A comprehensive research and analysis are essential which considers multiple languages, machine translation techniques, and different classifiers. This paper presents, a comparative analysis of different approaches for multilingual sentiment analysis. These approaches are divided into two parts: one using classification of text without language translation and second using the translation of testing data to a target language, such as English, before classification. The presented research and results are useful for understanding whether machine translation should be used for multilingual sentiment analysis or building language specific sentiment classification systems is a better approach. The effects of language translation techniques, features, and accuracy of various classifiers for multilingual sentiment analysis is also discussed in this study.
Keywords: cross-language analysis, machine learning, machine translation, sentiment analysisProcedia PDF Downloads 376
69 The Determination of Sodium/Potassium Ion Ratio in Selected Edible Leafy Vegetables in North-Eastern Nigeria
Authors: Raymond D. Uzoh, Philip K. Shallsuku, Christopher S. Vaachia
Abstract:Selected edible leafy vegetables from North-eastern Nigeria were analysed for their sodium and potassium content in mg/100 g and the ratio Na+/K+ worked out. From experimental results, Venonia amydalina (bitter leaf) contained 150 mg (0.15 g) of sodium and 20500 mg (20.5 g) potassium with a ratio of 0.007, Brassica oleracea var capitata (cabbage) contained 300 mg (0.3 g) of sodium and 19000 mg (19 g) of potassium with a ration of 0.012. Others are Telfairia occidentalis (fluted pumpkin) with 400 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 19500 mg (19.5 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020; Hibiscus sabdriffa (sorrel) has 200 mg (0.2 g) of sodium and 600 mg (0.6 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.300; and Amarantus caudatus (spinach) contained 450 mg (0.45 g) of sodium and 23000 mg (23 g) of potassium with a ratio of 0.020. The presence of sodium and potassium in foods has become increasingly important as recent studies and dietary information gathered in this research has shown that sodium intake is not the sole consideration in elevated blood pressure but its considered as a ratio Na+/K+ fixed at 0.6. This ratio has been found to be a more important factor, suggesting that our diet should contain 67 % more potassium than sodium.
Keywords: vegetables, sodium, potassium, blood pressure, diet, foodsProcedia PDF Downloads 387
68 Hominin Niche in the Times of Climate Change
Authors: Emilia Hunt, Sally C. Reynolds, Fiona Coward, Fabio Parracho Silva, Philip Hopley
Abstract:Ecological niche modeling is widely used in conservation studies, but application to the extinct hominin species is a relatively new approach. Being able to understand what ecological niches were occupied by respective hominin species provides a new perspective into influences on evolutionary processes. Niche separation or overlap can tell us more about specific requirements of the species within the given timeframe. Many of the ancestral species lived through enormous climate changes: glacial and interglacial periods, changes in rainfall, leading to desertification or flooding of regions and displayed impressive levels of adaptation necessary for their survival. This paper reviews niche modeling methodologies and their application to hominin studies. Traditional conservation methods might not be directly applicable to extinct species and are not comparable to hominins. Hominin niche also includes aspects of technologies, use of fire and extended communication, which are not traditionally used in building conservation models. Future perspectives on how to improve niche modeling for extinct hominin species will be discussed.
Keywords: hominin niche, climate change, evolution, adaptation, ecological niche modellingProcedia PDF Downloads 121
67 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate
Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson
Abstract:This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.
Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwaterProcedia PDF Downloads 312
66 Numerical Simulation of Wishart Diffusion Processes
Authors: Raphael Naryongo, Philip Ngare, Anthony Waititu
Abstract:This paper deals with numerical simulation of Wishart processes for a single asset risky pricing model whose volatility is described by Wishart affine diffusion processes. The multi-factor specification of volatility will make the model more flexible enough to fit the stock market data for short or long maturities for better returns. The Wishart process is a stochastic process which is a positive semi-definite matrix-valued generalization of the square root process. The aim of the study is to model the log asset stock returns under the double Wishart stochastic volatility model. The solution of the log-asset return dynamics for Bi-Wishart processes will be obtained through Euler-Maruyama discretization schemes. The numerical results on the asset returns are compared to the existing models returns such as Heston stochastic volatility model and double Heston stochastic volatility model
Keywords: euler schemes, log-asset return, infinitesimal generator, wishart diffusion affine processesProcedia PDF Downloads 105
65 Determining the Mode II Intra Ply Energy Release Rate of Composites Made of Prepreg
Authors: Philip Rose, Markus Linke, David Busquets
Abstract:The distinction between interlaminar and intralaminar fracture toughness has already been investigated by several authors. For loading mode I, the double cantilever beam specimens were often used for the interlaminar fracture toughness and the compact tension specimen for the intralaminar fracture toughness. In order to minimize the influence of the different specimen geometries, a method was developed which allows the determination of both the interlaminar and the intralaminar fracture toughness on an almost identical specimen geometry. However, as this method is not applicable to prepreg semi-finished products, a further modification was developed, which is also suitable for prepreg laminates. After the successful application for the investigation of mode I with this method, the application of the method for loading mode II is presented in this paper. In addition to manufacturing differences, due to an additional fiber ply in which the controlled crack growth takes place, the adapted test procedure is also explained. By comparing the test results of standardized end-notched flexure (ENF) specimens with those of the modified ENF specimen, the difference between the interlaminar and intralaminar fracture toughness of the material Hexply 8552/IM7 is shown.
Keywords: ENF, fracture toughness, interlaminar, mode IIProcedia PDF Downloads 20
64 Performance of Neural Networks vs. Radial Basis Functions When Forming a Metamodel for Residential Buildings
Authors: Philip Symonds, Jon Taylor, Zaid Chalabi, Michael Davies
Abstract:With the world climate projected to warm and major cities in developing countries becoming increasingly populated and polluted, governments are tasked with the problem of overheating and air quality in residential buildings. This paper presents the development of an adaptable model of these risks. Simulations are performed using the EnergyPlus building physics software. An accurate metamodel is formed by randomly sampling building input parameters and training on the outputs of EnergyPlus simulations. Metamodels are used to vastly reduce the amount of computation time required when performing optimisation and sensitivity analyses. Neural Networks (NNs) are compared to a Radial Basis Function (RBF) algorithm when forming a metamodel. These techniques were implemented using the PyBrain and scikit-learn python libraries, respectively. NNs are shown to perform around 15% better than RBFs when estimating overheating and air pollution metrics modelled by EnergyPlus.
Keywords: neural networks, radial basis functions, metamodelling, python machine learning librariesProcedia PDF Downloads 377
63 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Beta-Glucosidase of Streptomyces
Authors: Adam Abate, Elham Rasti, Philip Romero
Abstract:Beta-glucosidase is the key enzyme component present in cellulase and completes the final step during cellulose hydrolysis by converting the cellobiose to glucose. The regulatory properties of beta-glucosidases are most commonly found for the retaining and inverting enzymes. Hydrolysis of a glycoside typically occurs with general acid and general base assistance from two amino acid side chains, normally glutamic or aspartic acids. In order to obtain more detailed information on the dynamic events origination from the interaction with enzyme active site, we carried out molecular dynamics simulations of beta-glycosidase in protonated state (Glu-H178) and deprotonated state (Glu178). The theoretical models generated from our molecular dynamics simulations complement and advance the structural information currently available, leading to a more detailed understanding of Beta-glycosidase structure and function. This article presents the important role of Asn307 in enzyme activity of beta-glucosidase
Keywords: Beta-glucosidase, GROMACS, molecular dynamics simulation, structural parametersProcedia PDF Downloads 330
62 The Development of Educational Video Games Aimed at Enhancing Academic Motivation and Learning Among African American Males
Authors: Kenneth Philip Jones
Abstract:This dissertation investigates the potential of developing educational-based video games to motivate and engage African American males. The study employed a qualitative methodological approach by investigating African American males who are avid video game players and are currently enrolled at a college or university. The participants were individually and collectively video and audio recorded during the interviews and observations. Situated Learning theory analyzed how motivation and engagement can transfer from a video game to an educational context. The research aims to address the disparities in our educational systems when it comes to providing a culture, climate, and atmosphere that will enable the academic development of African American males. The primary objective of the findings is based on the participants’ responses and the data collected to provide recommendations to educators and scholars on how to address the issues that have demoralized African American males in education and provide a platform that will allow for equality in educational development and advancement.
Keywords: video games, motivation, behavioral, learning transferProcedia PDF Downloads 28
61 A Novel Technological Approach to Maintaining the Cold Chain during Transportation
Authors: Philip J. Purnell
Abstract:Innovators propose to use the Internet of Things to solve the problem of maintaining the cold chain during the transport of biopharmaceutical products. Sending a data logger with refrigerated goods is only useful to inform the recipient of the goods that they have either breached the cold chain and are therefore potentially spoiled or that they have not breached it and are therefore assumed to be in good condition. Connecting the data logger to the Internet of Things means that the supply chain manager will be informed in real-time of the exact location and the precise temperature of the material at any point on earth. Readable using a simple online interface, the supply chain manager will watch the progress of their material on a Google map together with accurate and crucially real-time temperature readings. The data logger will also send alarms to the supply chain manager if a cold chain breach becomes imminent allowing them time to contact the transporter and restore the cold chain before the material is affected. This development is expected to save billions of dollars in wasted biologics that currently arrive either spoiled or in an unreliable condition.
Keywords: internet of things, cold chain, data logger, transportationProcedia PDF Downloads 374
60 Availability and the Utilization of Recreational Facilities for Prison Inmate Rehabilitation
Authors: Thomas Ejobowah Boye, Philip Oghenetega Ekpon
Abstract:The paper examines the availability and the utilization of recreational facilities for prison inmate’s rehabilitation in Nigeria. In order to carry out the study the researchers visited sampled prisons in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria. Instant assessment of available recreational facilities was carried out. Inmates were asked to tick a self-design questionnaire that was validated by experts in the Departments of Physical and Health Education, Delta State University and the College of Physical Education, Mosogar on available recreational facilities and activities engaged in by them. The data collected was subjected to percentage analysis. The study revealed that there is little or no standard recreational facilities in all the prisons visited. Considering the role physical activities play in the overall development of individuals physically, mentally, emotionally, morally, and socially it was recommended that the authorities of the Nigerian prisons should as a matter of urgency include recreational activities as a means of reforming and rehabilitating prison inmates. To achieve the desire to rehabilitate prison inmates the researchers also recommended that facilities and equipment should be made available in all prisons in Nigeria.
Keywords: facility, prison, recreation, rehabilitationProcedia PDF Downloads 165
59 Urban Ecological Interaction: Air, Water, Light and New Transit at the Human Scale of Barcelona’s Superilles
Authors: Philip Speranza
Abstract:As everyday transit options are shifting from autocentric to pedestrian and bicycle oriented modes for healthy living, downtown streets are becoming more attractive places to live. However, tools and methods to measure the natural environment at the small scale of streets do not exist. Fortunately, a combination of mobile data collection technology and parametric urban design software now allows an interface to relate urban ecological conditions. This paper describes creation of an interactive tool to measure urban phenomena of air, water, and heat/light at the scale of new three-by-three block pedestrianized areas in Barcelona called Superilles. Each Superilla limits transit to the exterior of the blocks and to create more walkable and bikeable interior streets for healthy living. The research will describe the integration of data collection, analysis, and design output via a live interface using parametric software Rhino Grasshopper and the Human User Interface (UI) plugin.
Keywords: transit, urban design, GIS, parametric design, Superilles, Barcelona, urban ecologyProcedia PDF Downloads 179
58 The Incesant Subversion of Judiciary by African Political Leaders
Authors: Joy Olayemi Gbala, Fatai Olatokunbo, Philip Cloud
Abstract:Catastrophic dictatorship has been discovered to be the major leadership challenge that orchestrates stagnated and contrasted economy with dysfunctional democracy in Africa through willful misappropriation of resources and egregious subversion of the rule of law. Almost invariably, most African leaders inexplicably often become power drunk and addicted which usually leads to abuse of state power, abdication of constitutional duties, unjustly withdrawal of business license of operation, human right violation, election malpractices, financial corruption, disruptions of policies of democratic government transition, annulment of free and fair election, and disruptions of legal electoral procedures and unachievable dividends of democracy and many more. Owing to this, most African nations have gone and still go through political unrest and insurgencies leading to loss of lives and property, violent protests, detention of detractors and political activists and massive human displacement. This research work is concerned with, and investigates the causes, menace, consequences and impacts of subverting the rule of law in Africa on the economy and the development of the continent with a suggested practical solution to the plights.
Keywords: corruption, law, leadership, violationProcedia PDF Downloads 71
57 Between Dark and Light: The Construction and the Exclusion of Memory of Prison Heritage in Post-Soviet Period
Authors: Guo Cyuan Deng
Abstract:This study represents how the Soviet-occupied dark memory in Baltic countries were interpreted and represented by examining the way of management of prison heritage. Based on the formulation of a dark-tourism spectrum which Philip Stone proposed, the Patarei prison in Estonia and the Karosta prison in Latvia are compared, and it is thought that both prisons, which had experienced similar colonial history, face different tourism operation in the present. The former is being run by NGO and remain the situation of “empty" by art intervening. However, the Estonia government attempt to get the operation of museum and transform it to anti-Soviet museum in order show national identity. By contrast, the latter is being managed by private company, whom transformed the prison to "dark fun factories" by entertainment activities in order to private capital accumulation. Moreover, it is not only indicated that both prisons exclude the minority's memory, but also the flaws of dark-tourism spectrum which divide the dark and light are discussed. Finally, given the nature and function of dark heritage, the concept "le métro" is used to supplement Stone's spectrum.
Keywords: dark tourism, prison heritage, Post-Soviet, Baltic countries, national identitiesProcedia PDF Downloads 213
56 Investigating the Organizational Capacity of Communities Affecting Water Supply Resilience
Authors: Behrooz Balaei, Suzanne Wilkinson, Regan Potangaroa, Larry Abel, Philip McFarlane
Abstract:Water supply system failure has serious direct and indirect effects on people wellbeing. Post-disaster water system serviceability depends on a variety of factors from technical characteristics to social, economic, and organizational attributes of communities. This paper tests the organizational factors affecting water supply resilience to outline how these factors contributed to previous disasters. To do so, a framework is briefly introduced in this study to provide a clear guide to identify the significant relevant organizational factors. Then the factors affecting water serviceability following a disaster are outlines. Next, these factors are measured in the case of Tropical Cyclone Pam, which hit Vanuatu in March 2015. Reviewing the existing literature has also been carried out to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the background A site visit and a series of interviews have also been undertaken following the cyclone to collect site-specific data and information. In the end, the organizational factors were ranked to enable decision makers to identify significance of each factor compared to the others.
Keywords: water supply, resilience, organizational capacity, Vanuatu, Tropical Cyclone PamProcedia PDF Downloads 68
55 Seasonal Stirred Variations in Chemical Composition and Antifungal Activity of Medicinal Plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata
Authors: Francis Machumi, Ester Innocent, Pius Yanda, Philip C. Stevenson
Abstract:Curative dependence of traditionally used medicinal plants on season of harvest is an alleged claim by traditional health practitioners. This study intended to verify these claims by investigating antifungal activity and chemical composition of traditionally used medicinal plants Turraea holstii and Clausena anisata harvested in rainy season and dry season. The antifungal activities were determined by broth microdilution method whereas chemical profiling of the extracts from the plant materials was done by gas chromatography (GC). Results indicated that extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season showed enhanced antifungal activity as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season. GC chromatograms showed overalls increase in number and amount of chemical species for extracts of plant materials harvested in dry season as compared to extracts of plant materials harvested in rainy season.
Keywords: antifungal activity, chemical composition, medicinal plants, seasonal dependenceProcedia PDF Downloads 316
54 Anthraquinone Labelled DNA for Direct Detection and Discrimination of Closely Related DNA Targets
Authors: Sarah A. Goodchild, Rachel Gao, Philip N. Bartlett
Abstract:A novel detection approach using immobilized DNA probes labeled with Anthraquinone (AQ) as an electrochemically active reporter moiety has been successfully developed as a new, simple, reliable method for the detection of DNA. This method represents a step forward in DNA detection as it can discriminate between multiple nucleotide polymorphisms within target DNA strands without the need for any additional reagents, reporters or processes such as melting of DNA strands. The detection approach utilizes single-stranded DNA probes immobilized on gold surfaces labeled at the distal terminus with AQ. The effective immobilization has been monitored using techniques such as AC impedance and Raman spectroscopy. Simple voltammetry techniques (Differential Pulse Voltammetry, Cyclic Voltammetry) are then used to monitor the reduction potential of the AQ before and after the addition of complementary strand of target DNA. A reliable relationship between the shift in reduction potential and the number of base pair mismatch has been established and can be used to discriminate between DNA from highly related pathogenic organisms of clinical importance. This indicates that this approach may have great potential to be exploited within biosensor kits for detection and diagnosis of pathogenic organisms in Point of Care devices.
Keywords: Anthraquinone, discrimination, DNA detection, electrochemical biosensorProcedia PDF Downloads 324
53 True Religious Piety and Its Social Implications an Analysis of Calvin’s Thought
Authors: Philip Tachin
Abstract:Despite the positive contributions that religion has impacted human society, religious discrimination and violence also have been growing globally with extreme negative effects on human life and social relationships. Believers in religious extremism are motivated by a sense of exhibiting true religious piety in which case they do not only withhold their practical benevolence from those who do not belong to their faith but they even seek the elimination of other adherents from human existence. This phenomenon has a very high magnitude in Nigeria over the years, which deserves more research for the purpose of finding sustainable solutions to the problem. Calvin believed that true religious piety must, among other things, be categorized in personal and corporate positive social actions that esteem human needs irrespective of ethnic, ideological and belief differences. It is therefore appropriate to pose the following questions: Should true religious piety be seen in terms of how the actions of adherents positively impact human society? Could Calvin’s idea on this issue be very significant and helpful in the context of the Nigerian situation? In answering these questions, this research will limit its investigation to Calvin’s Institutes and some of his Commentaries. The goal of this research is to offer an instructive orientation to the readers that will help in building a more tolerable, peaceful, and a free and virtuous society.
Keywords: Calvin, human good, religious piety, virtuous societyProcedia PDF Downloads 222
52 Negativization: A Focus Strategy in Basà Language
Authors: Imoh Philip
Abstract:Basà language is classified as belonging to Kainji family, under the sub-phylum Western-Kainji known as Rubasa (Basa Benue) (Croizier & Blench, 1992:32). Basà is an under-described language spoken in the North-Central Nigeria. The language is characterized by subject-verb-object (henceforth SVO) as its canonical word order. Data for this work is sourced from the researcher’s native intuition of the language corroborated with a careful observation of native speakers. This paper investigates the syntactic derivational strategy of information-structure encoding in Basà language. It emphasizes on a negative operator, as a strategy for focusing a constituent or clause that follows it and negativizes a whole proposition. For items that are not nouns, they have to undergo an obligatory nominalization process, either by affixation, modification or conversion before they are moved to the pre verbal position for these operations. The study discovers and provides evidence of the fact showing that deferent constituents in the sentence such as the subject, direct, indirect object, genitive, verb phrase, prepositional phrase, clause and idiophone, etc. can be focused with the same negativizing operator. The process is characterized by focusing the pre verbal NP constituent alone, whereas the whole proposition is negated. The study can stimulate similar study or be replicated in other languages.
Keywords: negation, focus, Basà, nominalizationProcedia PDF Downloads 533
51 Influence of Parenting Styles on Adolescents Self-Esteem
Authors: Olubukola Ajayi
Abstract:INFLUENCE OF PARANTING STYLES ON ADOLECENST’ SELF-ESTEEM BY AJAYI OLUBUKOLA (PhD) DEPARTMRNT OF PSYCHOLOGY & BEHAVIOURAL STUDIES FACULTY OF THE SOCIAL SCIENCES EKITI STATE UNIVERSITY [email protected] , [email protected] ABSTRACT This study was designed to assess the influence of parenting styles on adolescents’ self-esteem. The study population comprised of adolescents selected from two secondary schools (Bishop Philip Academy and T.L. Oyeshina Model School) in Ibadan, Oyo State. A total number of 300 students whose ages range from 13-19 were used. Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE) developed by Rosenberg (1965) was used to measure Adolescents’ Self-Esteem. While Robinson (2001) Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire was used to measure how adolescents perceive their parents on four sub scales (Authoritative, Authoritarian, Uninvolved, Permissiveness).Three hypotheses were tested using Regression, One way ANOVA and Independent t-test. Result showed that parenting styles do not significantly influence Self-Esteem. Parents Work Status did not have a significant influence on Self-Esteem. The result also revealed no significant difference between Male and Female Self-Esteem. The findings were discussed in line with relevant empirical literatures, while conclusions and recommendations subsequently followed. Key Words: Parenting style, Adolescents, Self- esteem,
Keywords: AUTHORITATIVE, AUTHORITARIAN, UNINVOLVED, PERMISSIVENESSProcedia PDF Downloads 101
50 The Pitfalls of Short-Range Endemism: High Vulnerability to Ecological and Landscape Traps
Authors: Leanda Denise Mason, Philip William Bateman, Grant Wardell-Johnson
Abstract:Ecological traps attract biota to low-quality habitats. Landscape traps are zones caught in a vortex of spiraling degradation. Here, we demonstrate how short-range endemic traits may make such taxa vulnerable to ecological and landscape traps. Three short-range endemic mygalomorph spider species were used in this study. Mygalomorphs can be long-lived ( > 40 years) and select sites for permanent burrows in their early dispersal phase. Spiderlings from two species demonstrated choice for microhabitats that correspond to where adults typically occur. An invasive veldt grass microhabitat was selected almost exclusively by spiderlings of the third species. Habitat dominated by veldt grass has lower prey diversity and abundance than undisturbed habitats and therefore acts as an ecological trap for this species. Furthermore, as a homogenising force, veldt grass can spread to form a landscape trap in naturally heterogeneous ecosystems. Selection of specialised microhabitats of short-range endemics may explain high extinction rates in old, stable landscapes undergoing (human-induced) rapid change.
Keywords: biotic homogenization, invasive species, mygalomorph, short-range endemicProcedia PDF Downloads 169
49 Optimization of a Four-Lobed Swirl Pipe for Clean-In-Place Procedures
Authors: Guozhen Li, Philip Hall, Nick Miles, Tao Wu
Abstract:This paper presents a numerical investigation of two horizontally mounted four-lobed swirl pipes in terms of swirl induction effectiveness into flows passing through them. The swirl flows induced by the two swirl pipes have the potential to improve the efficiency of Clean-In-Place procedures in a closed processing system by local intensification of hydrodynamic impact on the internal pipe surface. Pressure losses, swirl development within the two swirl pipe, swirl induction effectiveness, swirl decay and wall shear stress variation downstream of two swirl pipes are analyzed and compared. It was found that a shorter length of swirl inducing pipe used in joint with transition pipes is more effective in swirl induction than when a longer one is used, in that it has a less constraint to the induced swirl and results in slightly higher swirl intensity just downstream of it with the expense of a smaller pressure loss. The wall shear stress downstream of the shorter swirl pipe is also slightly larger than that downstream of the longer swirl pipe due to the slightly higher swirl intensity induced by the shorter swirl pipe. The advantage of the shorter swirl pipe in terms of swirl induction is more significant in flows with a larger Reynolds Number.
Keywords: swirl pipe, swirl effectiveness, CFD, wall shear stress, swirl intensityProcedia PDF Downloads 532