Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1039

Search results for: Null hypothesis

1039 Relationship between Interest, Attitude and Academic Performance among N.C.E Primary Education Studies of College of Education, Azare Bauchi State

Authors: Fatima Ibrahim

Abstract:

The Study assessed the relationship between interest, attitude and academic performance among N.C.E Primary Education Studies of College of Education, Azare Bauchi State. Stratified random sampling was used to select 234 respondents from N.C.E 100, 200 and 300 levels students with the total population of 552. Structured Questionnaire and students academic records were used for data collection. Four scale format was used for the respondents to indicate their degree of satisfaction on a four point scale. Four null hypothesis were formulated from research questions at tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collected from the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics, pearson product moment correlation coefficient and independent test. The result of tested Null hypotheses revealed that: there was significant relationship between student’s interest and their academic performance since calculated p value of 0.000 is less than the 0.05 alpha level of significance at a correlation index level of .986 hence the Null hypothesis was rejected. There was significant relationship between student’s attitude and their academic performance in the study of P.E.S. Findings also revealed that majority of the students were interested in the study of P.E.S which helped them perform well. It was concluded that significant relationship exists between students interest, attitudinal academic performance among P.E.S students in College of Education Azare.

Keywords: Attitude, Academic Performance, College of Education Azare, Interest, Students

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1038 An Empirical Investigation into the Effect of Macroeconomic Policy on Economic Growth in Nigeria

Authors: Rakiya Abba

Abstract:

This paper investigates the effect of the money supply, exchange and interest rate on economic growth in Nigeria through the application of Augmented Dickey-Fuller technique in testing the unit root property of the series and Granger causality test of causation between GDP, money supply, the exchange, and interest rate. The results of unit root suggest that all the variables in the model are stationary at 1, 5 and 10 percent level of significance, and the results of Causality suggest that money supply and exchange granger cause IR, the result further reveals two – way causation existed between M2 and EXR while IR granger cause GDP the null hypothesis is rejected and GDP does not granger cause IR as indicated by their probability values of 0.4805 and confirmed by F-statistics values of 0.75483. The results revealed that M2 and EXR do not granger causes GDP, the null hypothesis is accepted at 75percent 18percent respectively as indicated by their probability values of 0.7472 and 0.1830 respectively; also, GDP does not granger cause M2 and EXR. The Johansen cointegration result indicates that despite GDP does not granger cause M2, IR, and EXR, but there existed 1 cointegrating equation, implying the existence of long-run relationship between GDP, M2 IR, and EXR. A major policy implication of this result is that economic growth is function of and money supply and exchange rate, effective monetary policies should direct on manipulating instruments and importance should be placed on justification for adopting a particular policy be rationalized in order to increase growth in economy

Keywords: economic growth, money supply, interest rate, exchange rate, causality

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1037 Errors and Misconceptions for Students with Mathematical Learning Disabilities: Quest for Suitable Teaching Strategy

Authors: A. K. Tsafe

Abstract:

The study investigates the efficacy of Special Mathematics Teaching Strategy (SMTS) as against Conventional Mathematics Teaching Strategy (CMTS) in teaching students identified with Mathematics Learning Disabilities (MLDs) – dyslexia, Down syndrome, dyscalculia, etc., in some junior secondary schools around Sokoto metropolis. Errors and misconceptions in learning Mathematics displayed by these categories of students were observed. Theory of variation was used to provide a prism for viewing the MLDs from theoretical perspective. Experimental research design was used, involving pretest-posttest non-randomized approach. Pretest was administered to the intact class taught using CMTS before the class was split into experimental and control groups. Experimental group of the students – those identified with MLDs was taught with SMTS and later mean performance of students taught using the two strategies was sought to find if there was any significant difference between the performances of the students. A null hypothesis was tested at α = 0.05 level of significance. T-test was used to establish the difference between the mean performances of the two tests. The null hypothesis was rejected. Hence, the performance of students, identified with MLDs taught using SMTS was found to be better than their earlier performance taught using CMTS. The study, therefore, recommends amongst other things that teachers should be encouraged to use SMTS in teaching mathematics especially when students are found to be suffering from MLDs and exhibiting errors and misconceptions in the process of learning mathematics.

Keywords: disabilities, errors, learning, misconceptions

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1036 The Quality Assessment of Seismic Reflection Survey Data Using Statistical Analysis: A Case Study of Fort Abbas Area, Cholistan Desert, Pakistan

Authors: U. Waqas, M. F. Ahmed, A. Mehmood, M. A. Rashid

Abstract:

In geophysical exploration surveys, the quality of acquired data holds significant importance before executing the data processing and interpretation phases. In this study, 2D seismic reflection survey data of Fort Abbas area, Cholistan Desert, Pakistan was taken as test case in order to assess its quality on statistical bases by using normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), Cronbach’s alpha test (α) and null hypothesis tests (t-test and F-test). The analysis challenged the quality of the acquired data and highlighted the significant errors in the acquired database. It is proven that the study area is plain, tectonically least affected and rich in oil and gas reserves. However, subsurface 3D modeling and contouring by using acquired database revealed high degrees of structural complexities and intense folding. The NRMSE had highest percentage of residuals between the estimated and predicted cases. The outcomes of hypothesis testing also proved the biasness and erraticness of the acquired database. Low estimated value of alpha (α) in Cronbach’s alpha test confirmed poor reliability of acquired database. A very low quality of acquired database needs excessive static correction or in some cases, reacquisition of data is also suggested which is most of the time not feasible on economic grounds. The outcomes of this study could be used to assess the quality of large databases and to further utilize as a guideline to establish database quality assessment models to make much more informed decisions in hydrocarbon exploration field.

Keywords: Data quality, Null hypothesis, Seismic lines, Seismic reflection survey

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1035 Analyzing Impacts of Road Network on Vegetation Using Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Elizabeth Malebogo Mosepele

Abstract:

Road transport has become increasingly common in the world; people rely on road networks for transportation purpose on a daily basis. However, environmental impact of roads on surrounding landscapes extends their potential effects even further. This study investigates the impact of road network on natural vegetation. The study will provide baseline knowledge regarding roadside vegetation and would be helpful in future for conservation of biodiversity along the road verges and improvements of road verges. The general hypothesis of this study is that the amount and condition of road side vegetation could be explained by road network conditions. Remote sensing techniques were used to analyze vegetation conditions. Landsat 8 OLI image was used to assess vegetation cover condition. NDVI image was generated and used as a base from which land cover classes were extracted, comprising four categories viz. healthy vegetation, degraded vegetation, bare surface, and water. The classification of the image was achieved using the supervised classification technique. Road networks were digitized from Google Earth. For observed data, transect based quadrats of 50*50 m were conducted next to road segments for vegetation assessment. Vegetation condition was related to road network, with the multinomial logistic regression confirming a significant relationship between vegetation condition and road network. The null hypothesis formulated was that 'there is no variation in vegetation condition as we move away from the road.' Analysis of vegetation condition revealed degraded vegetation within close proximity of a road segment and healthy vegetation as the distance increase away from the road. The Chi Squared value was compared with critical value of 3.84, at the significance level of 0.05 to determine the significance of relationship. Given that the Chi squared value was 395, 5004, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected; there is significant variation in vegetation the distance increases away from the road. The conclusion is that the road network plays an important role in the condition of vegetation.

Keywords: Chi squared, geographic information system, multinomial logistic regression, remote sensing, road side vegetation

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1034 Students' Statistical Reasoning and Attitudes towards Statistics in Blended Learning, E-Learning and On-Campus Learning

Authors: Petros Roussos

Abstract:

The present study focused on students' statistical reasoning related to Null Hypothesis Statistical Testing and p-values. Its objective was to test the hypothesis that neither the place (classroom, at a distance, online) nor the medium that actually supports the learning (ICT, internet, books) has an effect on understanding of statistical concepts. In addition, it was expected that students' attitudes towards statistics would not predict understanding of statistical concepts. The sample consisted of 385 undergraduate and postgraduate students from six state and private universities (five in Greece and one in Cyprus). Students were administered two questionnaires: a) the Greek version of the Survey of Attitudes Toward Statistics, and b) a short instrument which measures students' understanding of statistical significance and p-values. Results suggest that attitudes towards statistics do not predict students' understanding of statistical concepts, whereas the medium did not have an effect.

Keywords: attitudes towards statistics, blended learning, e-learning, statistical reasoning

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1033 Effect of Common Yoga Protocol on Reaction Time of Football Players

Authors: Vikram Singh

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of common yoga protocol on reaction time (simple visual reaction time-SVRT measured in milliseconds/seconds) of male football players in the age group of 15 to 21 years. The 40 boys were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control and experimental. SVRT for both the groups were measured on day-1 and post intervention (common yoga protocol here) was measured after 45 days of training to the experimental group only. One way ANOVA (Univariate analysis) and Independent t-test using SPSS 23 statistical package was applied to get and analyze the results. There was a significant difference after 45 days of yoga protocol in simple visual reaction time of experimental group (p = .032), t (33.05) = 3.881, p = .000 (two-tailed). Null hypothesis (that there would be no post measurement differences in reaction times of control and experimental groups) was rejected. Where p<.05. Therefore alternate hypothesis was accepted.

Keywords: footballers, t-test, yoga protocol, reaction time

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1032 Use the Null Space to Create Starting Point for Stochastic Programming

Authors: Ghussoun Al-Jeiroudi

Abstract:

Stochastic programming is one of the powerful technique which is used to solve real-life problems. Hence, the data of real-life problems is subject to significant uncertainty. Uncertainty is well studied and modeled by stochastic programming. Each day, problems become bigger and bigger and the need for a tool, which does deal with large scale problems, increase. Interior point method is a perfect tool to solve such problems. Interior point method is widely employed to solve the programs, which arise from stochastic programming. It is an iterative technique, so it is required a starting point. Well design starting point plays an important role in improving the convergence speed. In this paper, we propose a starting point for interior point method for multistage stochastic programming. Usually, the optimal solution of stage k+1 is used as starting point for the stage k. This point has the advantage of being close to the solution of the current program. However, it has a disadvantage; it is not in the feasible region of the current program. So, we suggest to take this point and modifying it. That is by adding to it a vector in the null space of the matrix of the unchanged constraints because the solution will change only in the null space of this matrix.

Keywords: interior point methods, stochastic programming, null space, starting points

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1031 Students' Perception of Their Reliable Alliance through Participation in Intramural Sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria

Authors: Waziri Habsatu Dahiru

Abstract:

This research investigated students’ perception of their reliable alliance through participation in intramural sports in Colleges of Education in Nigeria. One research question and one null hypothesis were set to achieve this objective. Nine hundred (900) copies of structured questionnaire were distributed to 15 Colleges of Education based on stratified random sampling. One sample t test was used to determine positive perception of significant reliable alliance benefits. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to either retain or reject the hypothesis postulated. It was found that, students in Colleges of Education in Nigeria do not have significant positive perception of the reliable alliance benefits through their participation in intramural sport. However, the students perceived that participation in intramural sports help in increases trust and respect for peer groups and encouraging strong attachment with team members. The researcher recommended among others that awareness programs such as workshops and seminars on students' perception of the benefits of participation in intramural sport should be regularly organized in order to boost intellectual growth, personality development, social responsibility, and appreciation of diversity.

Keywords: benefits, intramural sports, reliable alliance, colleges of education

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1030 Linear Array Geometry Synthesis with Minimum Sidelobe Level and Null Control Using Taguchi Method

Authors: Amara Prakasa Rao, N. V. S. N. Sarma

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This paper describes the synthesis of linear array geometry with minimum sidelobe level and null control using the Taguchi method. Based on the concept of the orthogonal array, Taguchi method effectively reduces the number of tests required in an optimization process. Taguchi method has been successfully applied in many fields such as mechanical, chemical engineering, power electronics, etc. Compared to other evolutionary methods such as genetic algorithms, simulated annealing and particle swarm optimization, the Taguchi method is much easier to understand and implement. It requires less computational/iteration processing to optimize the problem. Different cases are considered to illustrate the performance of this technique. Simulation results show that this method outperforms the other evolution algorithms (like GA, PSO) for smart antenna systems design.

Keywords: array factor, beamforming, null placement, optimization method, orthogonal array, Taguchi method, smart antenna system

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1029 Self-Efficacy and Self-Worth of Elderly in Geriatric Institutions

Authors: Melasurej C. Francisco, Sophia D. Rusit

Abstract:

Old age is a record of one’s own life; this is the crucial phase for most. However, there are individuals who believe that old people retain self-efficacy and self-worth throughout their existence. Geriatric institutions focus on the health of elderly, in which they have been supported with medicines and therapies by clinician thus, indicating that these may suffice physical, emotional, and mental health of the elderly. This study focuses on (1) Describing the level or degree of self-efficacy; (2) Recognizing the extent of self-worth; (3) Determining the significant relationship between self-efficacy and self-worth. It is a mixed method design. A combination of correlational research and in-depth interview. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants, considering that this assay focused on elderly in geriatric institutions, it follows that respondents and participants are at least sixty years of age and must be living inside the institution. 121 senior citizens took part in this study. Scores from both General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE) and Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) showed varying levels of self-efficacy and self-worth. SE had μ=28.099, σ=6.6262, σ²=43.9067 while; SW had μ=14.9669, σ=5.3789, σ²28.9322 which denotes that rₒbₜ (121)=0.3164 is higher than rcᵢₜ which is 0.150. Although this exhibits the positive moderate correlation between SE and SW, the relationship between variables is weak. Likewise, the pᵥₐₗᵤₑ (pᵥₐₗᵤₑ=0.000406) is lower than the significance level alpha=0.01, thus, rejecting the null hypothesis, and accepting the alternative hypothesis.

Keywords: elderly, geriatric, self-efficacy, self-worth

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1028 Acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint in L2 Turkish by Adult Korean Speakers

Authors: Oktay Cinar

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to investigate the acquisition of Overt Pronoun Constraint (OPC) by adult Korean L2 Turkish speakers in order to find out how constraints regulating the syntax of null and overt subjects are acquired. OPC is claimed to be a universal feature of all null subject languages restricting the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun and quantified or wh-question antecedents. However, there is no such restriction when the embedded subject is null or the antecedent is a referential subject. Considered as a principle of Universal Grammar (UG), OPC knowledge of L2 speakers has been widely tested with different language pairs. In the light of previous studies on OPC, it can be argued that L2 learners display early sensitivity to OPC constraints during their interlanguage grammar development. Concerning this, the co-indexation between overt embedded pronoun o (third person pronoun) and referential matrix subject is claimed to be controversial in Turkish, which poses problems with the universality of OPC. However, the current study argues against this claim by providing evidence from advanced Korean speakers that OPC is universal to all null subject languages and OPC knowledge can be accessed with direct access to UG. In other words, the performances of adult Korean speakers on the syntax of null and overt subjects are tested to support this claim. In order to test this, OPC task is used. 15 advanced speakers and a control group of adult native Turkish participants are instructed to determine the co-reference relationship between the subject of embedded clause, either overt pronominal o or null, and the subject of the matrix clause, either quantified pronoun and wh-question or referential antecedent. They are asked to select the interpretation of the embedded subject, either as the same person as in the matrix subject or another person who is not the same person in the matrix subject. These relations are represented with four conditions, and each condition has four questions (16 questions in total). The results claim that both control group and Korean L2 Turkish speakers display sensitivity to all constraints that OPC has, which suggests that OPC works in Turkish as well.

Keywords: adult Korean speakers, binding theory, generative second language acquisition, overt pronoun constraint

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1027 A Study of Effect of Yoga on Choice Visual Reaction Time of Soccer Players

Authors: Vikram Singh, Parmod Kumar Sethi

Abstract:

The objective of the study was to study the effectiveness of common yoga protocol on reaction time (choice visual reaction time, measured in milliseconds/seconds) of male football players in the age group of 16 to 21 years. The 40 boys were measured initially on parameters of years of experience, level of participation. They were randomly assigned into two groups i.e. control and experimental. CVRT for both the groups was measured on day-1 and post intervention (common yoga protocol here) was measured after 45 days of training to the experimental group after they had finished with their regular fitness and soccer skill training. One way ANOVA (Univariate analysis) and Independent t-test using SPSS 23 statistical package were applied to get and analyze the results. The experimental yoga protocol group showed a significant reduction in CVRT, whereas the insignificant difference in reaction times was observed for control group after 45 days. The effect size was more than 52% for CVRT indicating that the effect of treatment was large. Power of the study was also found to be high (> .80). There was a significant difference after 45 days of yoga protocol in choice visual reaction time of experimental group (p = .000), t (21.93) = 6.410, p = .000 (two-tailed). The null hypothesis (that there would be no difference in reaction times of control and experimental groups) was rejected. Where p< .05. Therefore alternate hypothesis was accepted.

Keywords: reaction time, yoga protocol, t-test, soccer players

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1026 The Feasibility and Usability of Antennas Silence Zone for Localization and Path Finding

Authors: S. Malebary, W. Xu

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Antennas are important components that enable transmitting and receiving signals in mid-air (wireless). The radiation pattern of omni-directional (i.e., dipole) antennas, reflects the variation of power radiated by an antenna as a function of direction when transmitting. As the performance of the antenna is the same in transmitting and receiving, it also reflects the sensitivity of the antenna in different directions when receiving. The main observation when dealing with omni-directional antennas, regardless the application, is they equally radiate power in all directions in reference to Equivalent Isotropically Radiated Power (EIRP). Disseminating radio frequency signals in an omni-directional manner form a doughnut-shape-field with a cone in the middle of the elevation plane (when mounted vertically). In this paper, we investigate the existence of this physical phenomena namely silence cone zone (the zone where radiated power is nulled). First, we overview antenna types and properties that have the major impact on the shape of the electromagnetic field. Then we model various off the shelf dipoles in Matlab based on antennas’ features (dimensions, gain, operating frequency, … etc.) and compare the resulting radiation patterns. After that, we validate the existence of the null zone in Omni-directional antennas by conducting experiments and generating waveforms (using USRP1 and USRP2) at various frequencies using different types of antennas and gains in indoor/outdoor. We capture the generated waveforms around antennas' null zone in the reactive, near, and far field with a spectrum analyzer mounted on a drone, using various off the shelf antennas. We analyze the captured signals in RF-Explorer and plot the impact on received power and signal amplitude inside and around the null zone. Finally, it is concluded from evaluation and measurements the existence of null zones in Omni-directional antennas which we plan on extending this work in the near future to investigate the usability of the null zone for various applications such as localization and path finding.

Keywords: antennas, amplitude, field regions, frequency, FSPL, omni-directional, radiation pattern, RSSI, silence zone cone

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1025 Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Allometric Variation in the Hand Morphology of Adults

Authors: Aleksandr S. Ermolenko

Abstract:

Allometry is an important factor of morphological integration, contributing to the organization of the phenotype and its variability. The allometric change in the shape of the hand is particularly important in primate evolution, as the hand has important taxonomic features. Some of these features are known to parts with the shape, especially the ratio of the lengths of the index and ring fingers (2d: 4d ratio). The hand is a fairly well-studied system in the context of the evolutionary development of complex morphological structures since it consists of various departments (basipodium, metapodium, acropodium) that form a single structure –autopodium. In the present study, we examined the allometric variability of acropodium. We tested the null hypothesis that there would be no difference in allometric variation between the two components. Geometric morphometry based on a procrustation of 16 two-dimensional (2D) landmarks was analyzed using multivariate shape-by-size regressions in samples from 100 people (50 men and 50 women). The results obtained show that men have significantly greater allometric variability for the ring finger (variability in the transverse axis prevails), while women have significantly greater allometric variability for the index finger (variability in the longitudinal axis prevails). The influence of the middle finger on the shape of the hand is typical for both men and women. The influence of the little finger on the shape of the hand, regardless of gender, was not revealed. The results of this study support the hypothesis that allometry contributes to the organization of variation in the human hand.

Keywords: human hand, size and shape, 2d:4d ratio, geometric morphometry

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1024 Relationship between Electricity Consumption and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria (1971-2012)

Authors: N. E Okoligwe, Okezie A. Ihugba

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Few scholars disagrees that electricity consumption is an important supporting factor for economy growth. However, the relationship between electricity consumption and economy growth has different manifestation in different countries according to previous studies. This paper examines the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth for Nigeria. In an attempt to do this, the paper tests the validity of the modernization or depending hypothesis by employing various econometric tools such as Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Johansen Co-integration test, the Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) and Granger Causality test on time series data from 1971-2012. The Granger causality is found not to run from electricity consumption to real GDP and from GDP to electricity consumption during the year of study. The null hypothesis is accepted at the 5 per cent level of significance where the probability value (0.2251 and 0.8251) is greater than five per cent level of significance because both of them are probably determined by some other factors like; increase in urban population, unemployment rate and the number of Nigerians that benefit from the increase in GDP and increase in electricity demand is not determined by the increase in GDP (income) over the period of study because electricity demand has always been greater than consumption. Consequently; the policy makers in Nigeria should place priority in early stages of reconstruction on building capacity additions and infrastructure development of the electric power sector as this would force the sustainable economic growth in Nigeria.

Keywords: economic growth, electricity consumption, error correction mechanism, granger causality test

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1023 Using Cyclic Structure to Improve Inference on Network Community Structure

Authors: Behnaz Moradijamei, Michael Higgins

Abstract:

Identifying community structure is a critical task in analyzing social media data sets often modeled by networks. Statistical models such as the stochastic block model have proven to explain the structure of communities in real-world network data. In this work, we develop a goodness-of-fit test to examine community structure's existence by using a distinguishing property in networks: cyclic structures are more prevalent within communities than across them. To better understand how communities are shaped by the cyclic structure of the network rather than just the number of edges, we introduce a novel method for deciding on the existence of communities. We utilize these structures by using renewal non-backtracking random walk (RNBRW) to the existing goodness-of-fit test. RNBRW is an important variant of random walk in which the walk is prohibited from returning back to a node in exactly two steps and terminates and restarts once it completes a cycle. We investigate the use of RNBRW to improve the performance of existing goodness-of-fit tests for community detection algorithms based on the spectral properties of the adjacency matrix. Our proposed test on community structure is based on the probability distribution of eigenvalues of the normalized retracing probability matrix derived by RNBRW. We attempt to make the best use of asymptotic results on such a distribution when there is no community structure, i.e., asymptotic distribution under the null hypothesis. Moreover, we provide a theoretical foundation for our statistic by obtaining the true mean and a tight lower bound for RNBRW edge weights variance.

Keywords: hypothesis testing, RNBRW, network inference, community structure

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1022 Websites for Hypothesis Testing

Authors: Frantisek Mosna

Abstract:

E-learning has become an efficient and widespread means in process of education at all branches of human activities. Statistics is not an exception. Unfortunately the main focus in the statistics teaching is usually paid to the substitution to formulas. Suitable web-sites can simplify and automate calculation and provide more attention and time to the basic principles of statistics, mathematization of real-life situations and following interpretation of results. We introduce our own web-sites for hypothesis testing. Their didactic aspects, technical possibilities of individual tools for their creating, experience and advantages or disadvantages of them are discussed in this paper. These web-sites do not substitute common statistical software but significantly improve the teaching of the statistics at universities.

Keywords: e-learning, hypothesis testing, PHP, web-sites

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1021 Rethinking Risk Management in Times of Crisis: A Primary Causal-Comparative Research on the Effect of Covid-19 on Small and Medium Enterprises in Scotland and Their Response

Authors: Ralitsa Arnaudova

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The Scottish economy was experiencing a steady growth prior to the hit of the Covid-19 in early 2020, with the fast-spreading pandemic causing the Government to announce extreme lockdown measures with unprecedented impact on small and medium-sized enterprises. While some industry sectors in Scotland took a lighter hit, a large part of the organizations had to either adapt or completely disrupt the way they did business. As an essential aspect of their survival, risk management implementation was considered to be among the areas requiring the most significant acceleration. With 343,535 SMEs operating in Scotland prior to the national lockdown, employing over 60% of the Scottish population, the impact on the Scottish small and medium-sized businesses and their recovery is of massive importance with both business and academic implications, but also for future law enforcement and policy making. Based on the official statistics reports by the UK and Scottish Governments, and a review of the available literature on how SMEs around the world have handled crisis events in terms of their risk management practices within the past 20 years, the author developed the hypothesis that Crisis Events Significantly Accelerate the Risk Management Within SMEs. The hypothesis was then tested via primary, primarily quantitative (with elements of qualitative) causal-comparative research, with an online survey distributed to 230+ SMEs in Scotland. The research tested and compared the SMEs risk management attitudes, behavior, and practices prior to and after the Covid-19 outbreak and also looked at their practices in relation to the industry sector they operate within. While the study proved that there has been a positive change in a number of aspects and activities within the risk management practices of the SMEs, the performed statistical significance tests did not show enough evidence to prove the developed hypothesis, most likely due to the research being conducted too close to the time of the crisis event. Despite failing to reject the Null Hypothesis that Crisis Events Do Not Accelerate the Risk Management Implementation Within SMEs, the research provides insightful information on the current state of risk management practices implemented by Scottish SMEs, highlights the lack of confidence instilled within the SMEs that they can handle another crisis of similar significance, and provides directions for further research and improvements with the aim of helping the SMEs prepare better in order to mitigate the consequences of future crisis events.

Keywords: covid-19 impact, crisis management, Risk management practice acceleration, scottish SMEs

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1020 An Analysis of Laboratory Management Practices and Laid down Standard in Some Colleges of Education in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Abiodun Ayo

Abstract:

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the science laboratory management practices employed in some colleges of education in Kano State, Nigeria. Four specific objectives were stated to guide the study, four research questions were investigated, four null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey design was used and science laboratory management questionnaires which solicit responses that was used in answering the research questions and testing of hypotheses. These questionnaires were distributed to the respective respondents in the sampled colleges. The respondents for the study comprised biology chemistry, physics, integrated science teacher trainers and the paraprofessionals. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the questions. Chi-square statistical technique was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that all procedures on control of laboratory activities were rarely observed. Safety procedures were occasionally practiced. On provision and procurement of laboratory equipment and materials it was observed that both academic and the paraprofessional were not fully involved. While maintenance measures were occasionally observed, furthermore science laboratory management procedures are not frequently practiced. Hence making the acquisition of science process skills by students becoming difficult. To arrest these anomalies, it is recommended that direct labor in the maintenance of laboratory equipment and other apparatus by paraprofessional is crucial. Training of academic and paraprofessional through workshops to acquire technical skills in maintenance of science laboratory equipment be instituted to increase professionalism. Periodic supervision of activities in the science laboratories should be done promptly.

Keywords: laboratory, management, standard, facility

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1019 Solution to Riemann Hypothesis Critical Strip Zone Using Non-Linear Complex Variable Functions

Authors: Manojkumar Sabanayagam

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The Riemann hypothesis is an unsolved millennium problem and the search for a solution to the Riemann hypothesis is to study the pattern of prime number distribution. The scope of this paper is to identify the solution for the critical strip and the critical line axis, which has the non-trivial zero solutions using complex plane functions. The Riemann graphical plot is constructed using a linear complex variable function (X+iY) and is applicable only when X>1. But the investigation shows that complex variable behavior has two zones. The first zone is the transformation zone, where the definition of the complex plane should be a non-linear variable which is the critical strip zone in the graph (X=0 to 1). The second zone is the transformed zone (X>1) defined using linear variables conventionally. This paper deals with the Non-linear function in the transformation zone derived using cosine and sinusoidal time lag w.r.t imaginary number ‘i’. The alternate complex variable (Cosθ+i Sinθ) is used to understand the variables in the critical strip zone. It is concluded that the non-trivial zeros present in the Real part 0.5 are because the linear function is not the correct approach in the critical strip. This paper provides the solution to Reimann's hypothesis.

Keywords: Reimann hypothesis, critical strip, complex plane, transformation zone

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1018 Nonparametric Specification Testing for the Drift of the Short Rate Diffusion Process Using a Panel of Yields

Authors: John Knight, Fuchun Li, Yan Xu

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Based on a new method of the nonparametric estimator of the drift function, we propose a consistent test for the parametric specification of the drift function in the short rate diffusion process using observations from a panel of yields. The test statistic is shown to follow an asymptotic normal distribution under the null hypothesis that the parametric drift function is correctly specified, and converges to infinity under the alternative. Taking the daily 7-day European rates as a proxy of the short rate, we use our test to examine whether the drift of the short rate diffusion process is linear or nonlinear, which is an unresolved important issue in the short rate modeling literature. The testing results indicate that none of the drift functions in this literature adequately captures the dynamics of the drift, but nonlinear specification performs better than the linear specification.

Keywords: diffusion process, nonparametric estimation, derivative security price, drift function and volatility function

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1017 Anthropomorphism in the Primate Mind-Reading Debate: A Critique of Sober's Justification Argument

Authors: Boyun Lee

Abstract:

This study aims to discuss whether anthropomorphism some scientists tend to use in cross-species comparison can be justified epistemologically, especially in the primate mind-reading debate. Concretely, this study critically analyzes Elliott Sober’s argument about mind-reading hypothesis (MRH), an anthropomorphic hypothesis which states that nonhuman primates (e.g., chimpanzee) are mind-readers like humans. Although many scientists consider anthropomorphism as an error and choosing anthropomorphic hypothesis like MRH without any definite evidence invalid, Sober advocates that anthropomorphism is supported by cladistic parsimony that suggests choosing the simplest hypothesis postulating the minimum number of evolutionary changes, which can be justified epistemologically in the mind-reading debate. However, his argument has several problems. First, Reichenbach’s theorem which Sober uses in process of showing that MRH has the higher likelihood than its competing hypothesis, behavior-reading hypothesis (BRH), does not fit in the context of inferring the evolutionary relationship. Second, the phylogenetic tree Sober supports is one of the possible scenarios of MRH, and even without this problem, it is difficult to prove that the possibility nonhuman primate species and human share mind-reading ability is higher than the possibility of the other case, considering how evolution occurs. Consequently, it seems hard to justify anthropomorphism of MRH under Sober’s argument. Some scientists and philosophers say that anthropomorphism sometimes helps observe interesting phenomena or make hypotheses in comparative biology. Nonetheless, we cannot determine that it provides answers about why and how the interesting phenomena appear or which of the hypotheses is better, at least the mind-reading debate, under the current state.

Keywords: anthropomorphism, cladistic parsimony, comparative biology, mind-reading debate

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1016 The Comparative Effect of Practicing Self-Assessment and Critical Thinking Skills on EFL Learners’ Writing Ability

Authors: Behdokht Mall-Amiri, Sara Farzaminejad

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to discover which of the two writing activities, a self-assessment questioner or a critical thinking skills handout, is more effective on Iranian EFL learners’ writing ability. To fulfill the purpose of the study, a sample of 120 undergraduate students of English SAT for a standardized sample of PET. Eighty-two students whose scores fell one standard deviation above and below the sample mean were selected and randomly divided into two equal groups. One group practiced self-assessment and the other group practiced critical thinking skills while they were learning process writing. A writing posttest was finally administered to the students in both groups and the mean rank scores were compared by t-test. The result led to the rejection of the null hypothesis, indicating that practicing critical thinking skills had a significantly higher effect on the writing ability. The implications of the study for students and teachers as well as course book designers are discussed.

Keywords: writing ability, process writing, critical thinking skills, self-assessment

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1015 Soil and the Gut Microbiome: Supporting the 'Hygiene Hypothesis'

Authors: Chris George, Adam Hamlin, Lily Pereg, Richard Charlesworth, Gal Winter

Abstract:

Background: According to the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ the current rise in allergies and autoimmune diseases stems mainly from reduced microbial exposure due, amongst other factors, to urbanisation and distance from soil. However, this hypothesis is based on epidemiological and not biological data. Useful insights into the underlying mechanisms of this hypothesis can be gained by studying our interaction with soil. Soil microbiota may be directly ingested or inhaled by humans, enter the body through skin-soil contact or using plants as vectors. This study aims to examine the ability of soil microbiota to colonise the gut, study the interaction of soil microbes with the immune system and their potential protective activity. Method: The nutrition of the rats was supplemented daily with fresh or autoclaved soil for 21 days followed by 14 days of no supplementations. Faecal samples were collected throughout and analysed using 16S sequencing. At the end of the experiment rats were sacrificed and tissues and digesta were collected. Results/Conclusion: Results showed significantly higher richness and diversity following soil supplementation even after recovery. Specific soil microbial groups identified as able to colonise the gut. Of particular interest was the mucosal layer which emerged as a receptive host for soil microorganisms. Histological examination revealed innate and adaptive immune activation. Findings of this study reinforce the ‘hygiene hypothesis’ by demonstrating the ability of soil microbes to colonise the gut and activate the immune system. This paves the way for further studies aimed to examine the interaction of soil microorganisms with the immune system.

Keywords: gut microbiota, hygiene hypothesis, microbiome, soil

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1014 An Investigation into Fraud Detection in Financial Reporting Using Sugeno Fuzzy Classification

Authors: Mohammad Sarchami, Mohsen Zeinalkhani

Abstract:

Always, financial reporting system faces some problems to win public ear. The increase in the number of fraud and representation, often combined with the bankruptcy of large companies, has raised concerns about the quality of financial statements. So, investors, legislators, managers, and auditors have focused on significant fraud detection or prevention in financial statements. This article aims to investigate the Sugeno fuzzy classification to consider fraud detection in financial reporting of accepted firms by Tehran stock exchange. The hypothesis is: Sugeno fuzzy classification may detect fraud in financial reporting by financial ratio. Hypothesis was tested using Matlab software. Accuracy average was 81/80 in Sugeno fuzzy classification; so the hypothesis was confirmed.

Keywords: fraud, financial reporting, Sugeno fuzzy classification, firm

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1013 A Linguistic Relativity Appraisal of an African Drama: The Lion and The Jewel

Authors: T. O. Adekunle, R. L. Makhubu, C. N. Ngwane

Abstract:

This research was designed to assess the validity of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis in relation to the linguistic and cultural notions of the Yoruba and Zulu language speakers’ via the evaluation of the culture enriched dramatic text The Lion and The Jewel by Wole Soyinka. The study queried both the hypothesis’ strong version, (language governs thought: linguistic classifications restrain and influence mental classifications); and its weak version, (linguistic classifications and their use influence thought as well as some other classes of non-linguistic activities) and their possible reliability. Participants were purposively selected and their ages ranged from 16-46 years old. The participants amounted to 38 (18 Yoruba and 20 Zulu) students of DUT who all speak both English and Zulu (Zulu participants) and English and Yoruba (Yoruba participants) and the mixed methods approach was used. Thus with the use of questionnaire and interviews the research questions were answered and the findings provided support for validity of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, languages indeed influence thought. The findings also revealed that linguistic influence on cognition is not limited to different language users alone, but also same language speakers per level of exposure to other languages and concepts.

Keywords: culture, cognition, DUT, language, linguistic relativity hypothesis, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, The Lion and The Jewel, thought, Wole Soyinka, Yoruba, Zulu

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1012 The Proportion of Dysthymia Prevailing in Men and Women With Anxiety as Comorbidity

Authors: Yashvi Italiya

Abstract:

Dysthymia (DD) is a much-overlooked soft mood disorder and mostly confused with other forms of chronic depression. This research paper gives a spotlight to the DD prevailing in men and women. It also focuses on one of the comorbidities of Dysthymia, i.e., Anxiety. The comorbidities, hurdles in diagnosis, the ubiquity of the disorder, and the relation of Anxiety and DD are briefly described. Gender was the main focus here because the researcher of this paper found it as a research gap while doing the literature review. The study was done through secondary data obtained primarily from a questionnaire having Alpha 0.891 reliability. T-test method of data analysis was used to test the hypotheses. The result shows that the researcher failed to accept alternative hypothesis 1 (M1 > M2), while the alternative hypothesis 2 (M1 > M2) was accepted. The ratio of DD in women (M1) is not higher than that of men (M2) (hypothesis 1). But, women are more anxious than men (hypothesis 2). It was found that comorbid Anxiety is more widespread in one gender. It further plays a significant role in mixing up the symptoms. It was concluded that the dividing line between Dysthymia and MDD is still unclear for an accurate diagnosis. There is an essential need for spreading knowledge concerning the differences between the symptoms of DD and MDD so that the actual disorder can be identified, and proper help can be received from/provided by professionals.

Keywords: anxiety, comorbidity, dysthymia, gender, MDD

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1011 Design of Non-uniform Circular Antenna Arrays Using Firefly Algorithm for Side Lobe Level Reduction

Authors: Gopi Ram, Durbadal Mandal, Rajib Kar, Sakti Prasad Ghoshal

Abstract:

A design problem of non-uniform circular antenna arrays for maximum reduction of both the side lobe level (SLL) and first null beam width (FNBW) is dealt with. This problem is modeled as a simple optimization problem. The method of Firefly algorithm (FFA) is used to determine an optimal set of current excitation weights and antenna inter-element separations that provide radiation pattern with maximum SLL reduction and much improvement on FNBW as well. Circular array antenna laid on x-y plane is assumed. FFA is applied on circular arrays of 8-, 10-, and 12- elements. Various simulation results are presented and hence performances of side lobe and FNBW are analyzed. Experimental results show considerable reductions of both the SLL and FNBW with respect to those of the uniform case and some standard algorithms GA, PSO, and SA applied to the same problem.

Keywords: circular arrays, first null beam width, side lobe level, FFA

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1010 The Impact of the Lexical Quality Hypothesis and the Self-Teaching Hypothesis on Reading Ability

Authors: Anastasios Ntousas

Abstract:

The purpose of the following paper is to analyze the relationship between the lexical quality and the self-teaching hypothesis and their impact on the reading ability. The following questions emerged, is there a correlation between the effective reading experience that the lexical quality hypothesis proposes and the self-teaching hypothesis, would the ability to read by analogy facilitate and create stable, synchronized four-word representational, and would word morphological knowledge be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis. The lexical quality hypothesis speculates that words include four representational attributes, phonology, orthography, morpho-syntax, and meaning. Those four-word representations work together to make word reading an effective task. A possible lack of knowledge in one of the representations might disrupt reading comprehension. The degree that the four-word features connect together makes high and low lexical word quality representations. When the four-word representational attributes connect together effectively, readers have a high lexical quality of words; however, when they hardly have a strong connection with each other, readers have a low lexical quality of words. Furthermore, the self-teaching hypothesis proposes that phonological recoding enables printed word learning. Phonological knowledge and reading experience facilitate the acquisition and consolidation of specific-word orthographies. The reading experience is related to strong reading comprehension. The more readers have contact with texts, the better readers they become. Therefore, their phonological knowledge, as the self-teaching hypothesis suggests, might have a facilitative impact on the consolidation of the orthographical, morphological-syntax and meaning representations of unknown words. The phonology of known words might activate effectively the rest of the representational features of words. Readers use their existing phonological knowledge of similarly spelt words to pronounce unknown words; a possible transference of this ability to read by analogy will appear with readers’ morphological knowledge. Morphemes might facilitate readers’ ability to pronounce and spell new unknown words in which they do not have lexical access. Readers will encounter unknown words with similarly phonemes and morphemes but with different meanings. Knowledge of phonology and morphology might support and increase reading comprehension. There was a careful selection, discussion of theoretical material and comparison of the two existing theories. Evidence shows that morphological knowledge improves reading ability and comprehension, so morphological knowledge might be a possible extension of the self-teaching hypothesis, the fundamental skill to read by analogy can be implemented to the consolidation of word – specific orthographies via readers’ morphological knowledge, and there is a positive correlation between effective reading experience and self-teaching hypothesis.

Keywords: morphology, orthography, reading ability, reading comprehension

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