Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Nodumo N. Zulu

18 Genetic Polymorphisms of the Human Organic Cation Transporter 2 gene, SLC22A2, in the Zulu population

Authors: N. Hoosain, S. Nene, B. Pearce, C. Jacobs, M. Du Plessis, M. Benjeddou


Organic Cation Transporters play a vital role in the absorption, tissue distribution and elimination of various substrates. Numerous studies have suggested that variations in non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of SLC22A2 could influence an individual’s response to various treatments, including clinically important drugs. This study is the first to determine the baseline frequency distribution for twenty SNPs of SLC22A2in the Zulu population. DNA was collected from 101 unrelated “healthy” Zulu participants. Genotypes of all samples were determined using a multiplex PCR and SNaPshot assay followed by the generation of the haplotype structure. This is the first time that the baseline frequency distribution of SNPs is reported for the Zulu population. Data from this study could be used in in vitro and in vivo pharmacogenetic and pharmacokinetic studies to evaluate the potential role the studied SNPs play in the therapeutic efficacy of clinically important drugs.

Keywords: SLC22A2 gene, SNaPshot assay, PCR, Zulu population

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17 Exploring Social Desirability within the Zulu Culture: An Emic Perspective

Authors: Debrah Mtshelwane, Alewyn Nel, Lizelle Brink


Social desirability is an important topic to study. It may be possible that different cultures experience social desirability in different ways. Different cultural groups exist within South Africa, however the focus of this study is specifically in the Zulu culture. This research aims to explore social desirability from an emic perspective within the social constructivist paradigm among individuals within the Zulu culture. The researcher intended to identify those features Zulu individuals deem as socially desirable and undesirable from their cultural viewpoint. The research was conducted using a qualitative research design and the constructivism paradigm was utilised in this study. Combined purposive and quota non-probability sampling was employed for this study. A sample of 30 employees (N = 30) working in various organisations from the provinces of Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal formed part of this study and data were collected through semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The main findings showed that Zulu people regard certain behaviours and actions as socially desirable and others as undesirable. The following are considered socially desirable: Conscientiousness, dominance, subjective expectations and positive relations, these are the themes that were reported on the most. These are positive features in the Zulu culture, and they reflect on behaviour patterns, attitudes and manners that people display, which are also seen as acceptable and good in the Zulu culture. The following are regarded as socially undesirable features that were identified by people who belong to the Zulu culture, the themes that were identified as undesirable are: non-conscientiousness, non-dominance (male), dominance (females), tradition, negative relations and subjective expectations. This study creates awareness on social desirability in the workplace and provides basic tools to management on how to deal with such behaviours relating to this phenomenon in the workplace. This knowledge informs employees on the concept of socially desirable behaviour, and provide more insight into behaviours and/or emotions Zulu individuals. The outcome of this study provided new indigenous, empirical knowledge on the phenomenon of social desirability within the South African context.

Keywords: cultural diversity, emic perspective, social constructivism paradigm, social desirability, Zulu culture

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16 A Linguistic Relativity Appraisal of an African Drama: The Lion and The Jewel

Authors: T. O. Adekunle, R. L. Makhubu, C. N. Ngwane


This research was designed to assess the validity of the Sapir Whorf hypothesis in relation to the linguistic and cultural notions of the Yoruba and Zulu language speakers’ via the evaluation of the culture enriched dramatic text The Lion and The Jewel by Wole Soyinka. The study queried both the hypothesis’ strong version, (language governs thought: linguistic classifications restrain and influence mental classifications); and its weak version, (linguistic classifications and their use influence thought as well as some other classes of non-linguistic activities) and their possible reliability. Participants were purposively selected and their ages ranged from 16-46 years old. The participants amounted to 38 (18 Yoruba and 20 Zulu) students of DUT who all speak both English and Zulu (Zulu participants) and English and Yoruba (Yoruba participants) and the mixed methods approach was used. Thus with the use of questionnaire and interviews the research questions were answered and the findings provided support for validity of the linguistic relativity hypothesis, languages indeed influence thought. The findings also revealed that linguistic influence on cognition is not limited to different language users alone, but also same language speakers per level of exposure to other languages and concepts.

Keywords: culture, cognition, DUT, language, linguistic relativity hypothesis, Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, The Lion and The Jewel, thought, Wole Soyinka, Yoruba, Zulu

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15 A Postcolonial Feminist Exploration of Zulu Girl Child’s Position and Gender Dynamics in Religio-Cultural Context

Authors: G. T. Ntuli


This paper critically examines the gender dynamics of a Zulu girl child in her religio-cultural context from the postcolonial feminist perspective. As one of the former colonized ethnic groups in the South African context, the Zulu tribe used to have particular and contextual religio-cultural ways of a girl’s upbringing. This included traditional and cultural norms that any member of the community could not infringe without serious repercussions from the community members. However, the postcolonial social position of a girl child within this community became ambiguous and unpredictable due to colonial changes that enhanced gender dynamics that propelled tribal communities into deeper patriarchal structures. In the empirical study conducted within the Zulu context, which investigated the retrieval of ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu cultural heritage, identity and sex education as a path to adulthood, it was found that a Zulu girl child’s social position is geared towards double oppression due to gender dynamics that she experiences in her lifetime. It is these gender dynamics that are examined in this paper from the postcolonial feminist perspective. These gender dynamics are at play from the birth of a girl child, developmental stage to puberty and marriage rituals. These rituals and religio-cultural practices are meant to shape and mold a ‘good woman’ in the Zulu cultural context but social gender inequality that elevates males over females propel women social status into life denying peripheral positions. Consequently, in the place of a ‘good woman’ in the communal view, an oppressed and dehumanized woman becomes the outcome of such gender dynamics, more often treated with contempt, despised and violated in many demeaning ways. These do not only leave women economically and socio-politically impoverished, but also having to face violence of all kinds such as domestic, emotional, sexual and gender-based violence that are increasingly becoming a scourge in some of the sub-Saharan African countries including South Africa. It is for this reason that this paper becomes significant, not only within the Zulu context where the research was conducted, but also in all the countries that practice and promote patriarchal tendencies in the name of religio-cultural practices. There is a need for a different outlook as to what it means to be a ‘good woman’ in the cultural context, because if the goodness of a woman is determined by life denying cultural practices, such practices need to be deconstructed and discarded.

Keywords: feminist, gender dynamics, postcolonial, religio-cultural, Zulu girl child

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14 Indigenous Learning of Animal Metaphors: The ‘Big Five’ in King Shaka’s Praise-Poems

Authors: Ntandoni Gloria Biyela


During traditional times, there were no formal institutions of learning as they are today, where children attend classes to acquire or develop knowledge. This does not mean that there was no learning in indigenous African societies. Grandparents used to tell their grandchildren stories or teach them educational games around the fireplace, which this study refers to as a ‘traditional classroom’. A story recreated in symbolic or allegorical way, forms a base for a society’s beliefs, customs, accepted norms and language learning. Through folklore narratives, a society develops its own self awareness and education. So narrative characters, especially animals may be mythical products of the pre-literate folklore world and thus show the closeness that the Zulu society had with the wildlife. Oral cultures strive to create new facets of meaning by the use of animal metaphors to reflect the relationship of humans with the animal realm and to contribute to the language learning or literature in cross-cultural studies. Although animal metaphors are widespread in Zulu language because of the Zulu nation’s traditional closeness to wildlife, little field-research has been conducted on the social behavior of animals on the way in which their characteristics were transferred with precision to depictions of King Shaka’s behavior and activities during the amalgamation of Nguni clans into a Zulu kingdom. This study attempts to fill the gap by using first-hand interviews with local informants in areas traditionally linked to the king in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Departing from the conceptual metaphor theory, the study concentrates on King Shaka’s praise-poems in which the praise-poet describes his physical and dispositional characteristics through bold animal metaphors of the ‘Big Five’; namely, the lion, the leopard, the buffalo, the rhinoceros and the elephant, which are often referred to as Zulu royal favorites. These metaphors are still learnt by young and old in the 21st century because they reflect the responsibilities, status, and integrity of the king and the respect in which he is held by his people. They also project the crescendo growth of the Zulu nation, which, through the fulfillment of his ambitions, grew from a small clan to a mighty kingdom.

Keywords: animal, indigenous, learning, metaphor

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13 Ubuntombi (Virginity) Among the Zulus: An Exploration of a Cultural Identity and Difference from a Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli


The cultural practice of ubuntombi (virginity) among the Zulus is not easily understood from the outside of its cultural context. The empirical study that was conducted through the interviews and focus group discussions about the retrieval of ubuntombi as a cultural practice within the Zulu cultural community indicated that there is a particular cultural identity and difference that can be unearthed from this cultural practice. Being explored from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this cultural identity and difference is discerned in the way in which a Zulu young woman known as intombi (virgin) exercises her power and authority over her own sexuality. Taking full control of her own sexuality from the cultural viewpoint enables her not only to exercise her uniqueness in the midst of multiculturalism and pluralism but also to assert her cultural identity of being intombi. The assertion of the Zulu young woman’s cultural identity does not only empower her to stand on her life principles but also empowers her to lift herself up from the margins of the patriarchal society that otherwise would have kept her on the periphery. She views this as an opportunity for self-development and enhancement through educational opportunities that will enable her to secure a future with financial independence. The underlying belief is that once she has been educationally successful, she would secure a better job opportunity that will enable her to be self-sufficient and not to rely on any male provision for her sustenance. In this, she stands better chances of not being victimized by social patriarchal influences that generally keep women at the bottom of the socio-economic and political ladder. Consequently, ubuntombi (virginity) as a Zulu heritage and cultural identity becomes instrumental in the empowerment of the young women who choose this cultural practice as their adopted lifestyle. In addition, it is the kind of self-empowerment with the intrinsic motivation that works with the innate ability to resist any distraction from an individual’s set goals. It is thus concluded that this kind of motivation is a rare characteristic of the achievers in life. Once these young women adhere to their specified life principles, nothing can stop them from achieving the dreams of their hearts. This includes socio-economic autonomy that will ensure their liberation and emancipation as women in the midst of social and patriarchal challenges that militate against them in the hostile communities of their residence. Another hidden achievement would be to turn around the perception of being viewed as the “other”; instead, they will have to be viewed differently. Their difference lies in the turning around of the archaic kind of cultural practice into a modern tool of self-development and enhancement in contemporary society.

Keywords: cultural, difference, identity, postcolonial, ubuntombi, zulus

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12 Development of a Bioprocess Technology for the Production of Vibrio midae, a Probiotic for Use in Abalone Aquaculture

Authors: Ghaneshree Moonsamy, Nodumo N. Zulu, Rajesh Lalloo, Suren Singh, Santosh O. Ramchuran


The abalone industry of South Africa is under severe pressure due to illegal harvesting and poaching of this seafood delicacy. These abalones are harvested excessively; as a result, these animals do not have a chance to replace themselves in their habitats, ensuing in a drastic decrease in natural stocks of abalone. Abalone has an extremely slow growth rate and takes approximately four years to reach a size that is market acceptable; therefore, it was imperative to investigate methods to boost the overall growth rate and immunity of the animal. The University of Cape Town (UCT) began to research, which resulted in the isolation of two microorganisms, a yeast isolate Debaryomyces hansenii and a bacterial isolate Vibrio midae, from the gut of the abalone and characterised them for their probiotic abilities. This work resulted in an internationally competitive concept technology that was patented. The next stage of research was to develop a suitable bioprocess to enable commercial production. Numerous steps were taken to develop an efficient production process for V. midae, one of the isolates found by UCT. The initial stages of research involved the development of a stable and robust inoculum and the optimization of physiological growth parameters such as temperature and pH. A range of temperature and pH conditions were evaluated, and data obtained revealed an optimum growth temperature of 30ᵒC and a pH of 6.5. Once these critical growth parameters were established further media optimization studies were performed. Corn steep liquor (CSL) and high test molasses (HTM) were selected as suitable alternatives to more expensive, conventionally used growth medium additives. The optimization of CSL (6.4 g.l⁻¹) and HTM (24 g.l⁻¹) concentrations in the growth medium resulted in a 180% increase in cell concentration, a 5716-fold increase in cell productivity and a 97.2% decrease in the material cost of production in comparison to conventional growth conditions and parameters used at the onset of the study. In addition, a stable market-ready liquid probiotic product, encompassing the viable but not culturable (VBNC) state of Vibrio midae cells, was developed during the downstream processing aspect of the study. The demonstration of this technology at a full manufacturing scale has further enhanced the attractiveness and commercial feasibility of this production process.

Keywords: probiotics, abalone aquaculture, bioprocess technology, manufacturing scale technology development

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11 Women from the Margins: An Exploration of the African Women Marginalization in the South African Context from Postcolonial Feminist Perspective

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli


As one of the sub-Saharan African countries, South Africa has a majority of women living at the receiving end of all ferocious atrocities, afflictions and social ills such as utter poverty, unemployment, morbidity, sexual exploitation and abuse, gender-based and domestic violence. The response to these social ills that permeate the South African context like wildfire requires postcolonial feminism as a lens which needs to directly address this particular context. In the empirical study that was conducted among the Zulu people about Zulu young women in the South African context, it was found that a postcolonial young woman has a lot of social challenges that militate against her. In her struggle to liberate herself, there are layers of oppression that she has to deal with before attaining emancipation of any kind. These layers of oppression emanate from postcolonial effects on cultural norms that come with patriarchal issues, racial issues as the woman of colour and socio-economic issues as the poverty-stricken marginalised woman. Such layers also render marginalized women voiceless on many occasions, and hence the kind of feminism that needs to be applied in this context has to give them a voice, worth and human dignity that they deserve. From the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines the condition of women from the margins and seeks the ways in which the layers of oppression could be disengaged. In the process of the severed layers of oppression, these women can be uplifted to becoming the women of worth, restored to life-giving dignity from the inferiority complex of racial discrimination and liberation from all forms of patriarchy and its upshots that keep them bound by gender inequality. This requires, in particular, postcolonial feminism that would find profound ways of reaching into the deep-seated socialization and internalization of every kind of prejudice against women. It is the kind of feminism that questions the status core even among those who consider themselves feminists. With the ruination of all postcolonial layers of oppression, women in the margins could find real emancipation that they have always longed for through feminism that will take into consideration their context. This calls for the rethinking of feminism in different contexts because the conditions of the oppressed woman of the South cannot be the same as the conditions of the woman who considers herself oppressed in the North.

Keywords: exploration, feminism, postcolonial, margins, South African, women

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10 Towards the Use of Innovative Teaching Methodologies in Nursing Education : A South African Study

Authors: R. Bhagwan, M. Subbhan


Nursing is a very challenging field in South Africa and due to the burden of disease it is critical that nursing students are prepared with the adequate knowledge and skills to deliver effective patient care. Despite this very little research has been done on the teaching strategies used by nurse educators to teach nursing students. It is in this context that a survey of all nurse educators at Nursing Colleges and Universities in Kwa-Zulu Natal was undertaken (n=300) to explore what current pedagogical strategies were being used and which more creative methodologies should be implemented in relation to specific nursing content. Findings revealed that most nurse educators still utlize the lecture approach, but although believe other methodologies such as e-learning are important have not done so because of inadequate training. The recommendations made are that more creative pedagogical strategies such as simultation, portfoloios and case studies be adopted.

Keywords: creative, teaching methodologies, dydactic, nursing

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9 Sustainability of Widlife Community Based Natural Resource Management under Benefit Sharing Mechanism in Game Management Areas in Zambia

Authors: Darius Phiri, Moses Chibesa, Donald Zulu, Robby Kasubika


In Zambia, wildlife is co-managed by Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA) and the local communities by sharing management responsibilities and benefits derived from harvesting wildlife resources under a benefit sharing mechanism. Although the benefit sharing mechanism has been formulated under good principles, it is still facing numerous challenges. In response to these challenges, a study on the sustainability of ZAWA benefit sharing mechanism was carried out in order to assess its potential and continuity in line with community empowerment and wildlife resources management. Systematic sampling was used with a sampling intensity of 4% to administer three types of questionnaires to community members in Mumbwa Game Management Area (GMA), ZAWA officers, and to the Ministry of Tourism, Environment and Natural Resources (MTENR) staffs. The collected data was then analysed using SPSS version 16.5. The findings indicated that many people in the GMA do not participate fully because of lacking satisfactory benefits. However, the mechanism contribute to the community well-being and can still remain sustainable especially if measures to address the current challenges are put in place.

Keywords: benefit sharing, concessions, licenses, poaching, local communities, sustainability

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8 The Significance of Community Life in Promoting Unity in the Light of Acts 2:42

Authors: Takesure Mahohoma


Community life is an epitome of the African axiom 'I am because we are, since we are therefore I am.' This culminates in the Ubuntu philosophy which is summarized in the Zulu words, 'umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu' (A person is a person through other people). This relationship gives honour to all people. This is the gist of the paper. This paper seeks to demonstrate the impact of community life in promoting unity from an African perspective. Using the proto-community in Acts 2:42, it is argued that community life is a solution to many social problems that divide African society today. The aim is to encourage all Africans and other people to cultivate a sense of belonging and valuing community life in the light of Acts 2:42. Hence we shall trace this theme from Old Testament, New Testament, and Christian history. The other section touches on the essence of community life and obstacles that hinder it. We shall offer spiritual suggestions and an integrative reflection. The nature of the paper is theology in general but spiritual in particular. As a spiritual paper, it is guided by the foundational approach. Thus, it employs the dialogical and integrative reflection method. The expected result is that freedom from all the miseries experienced is brought by living a community life. This is a life that gives greater assurance of enough food, education, health, peace, employment, and increased responsibility that values human dignity. Thus people are neighbours to each other. There is no stranger among them. The basic presumption is that there can be no development in any society without community life.

Keywords: community, seged, koinonia, neighbor

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7 Neuropsychological Testing in a Multi-Lingual Society: Normative Data for South African Adults in More Than Eight Languages

Authors: Sharon Truter, Ann B. Shuttleworth-Edwards


South Africa is a developing country with significant diversity in languages spoken and quality of education available, creating challenges for fair and accurate neuropsychological assessments when most available neuropsychological tests are obtained from English-speaking developed countries. The aim of this research was to compare normative data on a spectrum of commonly used neuropsychological tests for English- and Afrikaans-speaking South Africans with relatively high quality of education and South Africans with relatively low quality of education who speak Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa or Zulu. The participants were all healthy adults aged 18-60 years, with 8-12 years of education. All the participants were tested in their first language on the following tests: two non-verbal tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Bell Cancellation Test), four verbal fluency tests (category, phonemic, verb and 'any words'), one verbal learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test) and three tests that have a verbal component (Trail Making Test A & B; Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Digit Span). Descriptive comparisons of mean scores and standard deviations across the language groups and between the groups with relatively high versus low quality of education highlight the importance of using normative data that takes into account language and quality of education.

Keywords: cross-cultural, language, multi-lingual, neuropsychological testing, quality of education

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6 Divergences in Interpreters’ Oral Interpretation among Pentecostal Churches: Sermonic Reflections

Authors: Rufus Olufemi Adebayo, Sylvia Phiwani Zulu


Interpreting in the setting of diverse language and multicultural congregants, is often understood as integrating the content of the message. Preaching, similar to any communication, takes seriously people’s multiple contexts. The one who provides the best insight into understanding “the other”, traditionally speaking could be an interpreter in a multilingual context. Nonetheless, there are reflections in the loss of spiritual communication, translation and interpretive dialogue. No matter how eloquent the preacher is, an interpreter can make or mere the sermon (speech). The sermon that the preacher preaches is not always the one the congregation hears from the interpreter. In other occurrences, however, interpreting can lead not only to distort messages but also to dissatisfied audiences and preacher being overshadowed by the pranks of the interpreter. Using qualitative methodology, this paper explores the challenges and the conventional assumptions about preachers’ interpreter as influenced by spirituality, culture, and language in empirical and theoretical perspectives. An emphasis on the bias translation and the basis of reality that suppresses or devalues the spiritual communication is examined. The result indicates that interpretation of the declaration of guilt, history of congregation, spirituality, attitudes, morals, customs, specific practices of a preacher, education, and the environment form an entangled and misinterpretation. The article concludes by re-examining these qualities and rearticulating them into a preliminary theory for practice, as distinguished from theory, which could possibly enhance the development of more sustainable multilingual interpretation in the South African Pentecostal churches.

Keywords: congregants, divergences, interpreting/translation, language & communication, sermon/preaching

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5 The Agency of Black Women Professors in Higher Education: A Critical Consciousness Perspective

Authors: Ncamisile T. Zulu, Nicholas Munro


Black women academics in higher education institutions are predominantly portrayed by literature as individuals who usually lack a sense of belonging, progression, and workload management. The oversaturation of this literature can (overtime) perpetuate a stereotypical idea that Black women academics are incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The current article explores the agency, motivated by critical consciousness that Black women professors have and utilise in higher education institutions. In order to provide an understanding of how Black women academics can progress, manage their workloads and succeed in higher education institutions, the article considers how these women can take responsibility for their self-development, adaptation, and self-renewal in academic endeavours. As a result, the article presents a line of thought which could help in challenging the stereotype about Black women academics. The study was conducted at two higher education institutions involving Black women professors from different disciplines. A combination of purposive and snowballing sampling was used to recruit nine women participants, while data were collected through interviews. A critical consciousness perspective was adopted to formulate an understanding of the agency of Black women professors in higher education institutions, while thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. The results challenge the widely disseminated view that portrays Black women academics as incapable of coping and succeeding in higher education institutions. The findings highlight Black women professors as proactive, flexible, and self-regulating in their academic endeavours. These findings contribute to the literature by adding a more constructive narrative of Black women academics in higher education.

Keywords: agency, Black women academics, critical consciousness, higher education institutions

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4 Antiplasmodial Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpene Isolated from Warburgia salutaris

Authors: Mthokozisi Simelane


Background: Malaria remains a life-threatening disease in tropical regions despite the advances in the treatment of this disease, it still remains a significant burden as some parasites have become resistant to the currently available drugs. This has created a necessity for the development of alternative, more efficient antimalarial drugs. Warburgia salutaris is a traditional medicinal plant used in malaria treatment by Zulu traditional healers. Materials and methods: The W. salutaris stem-bark was extracted with dichloromethane and the compound was isolated through column chromatography. The compound was identified and characterized by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and MS) and the structure was also confirmed by x-ray crystallography. The anti-plasmodial activity (in vitro) was studied on NF54 Plasmodium falciparum strain (CQS). Cytotoxicity was measured using the MTT assay on HEK239 and HEPG2 cell lines. Docking of Mukaadial acetate was conducted in AutoDock Vina. Structural modifications were conducted in UCSF Chimera and molecular interactions examined in LigPlot. Results: The compound, Mukaadial Acetate showed appreciable inhibition (IC50 0.44±0.10 µg/ml) of the parasite growth and cytotoxicity activity of 0.124±0.109 and 0.199±0.083 (µg/ml) on HEK293 and HEPG2 cells respectively. Molecular docking revealed that Mukaadial Acetate binds to the purine, pyrophosphate and ribose binding sites of the PfHGXPRT with an optimum binding conformation and forms hydrogen bond, steric and hydrophobic interactions with the residues inhabiting the respective binding sites. Conclusion: It is apparent that W. salutaris contains components (including Mukaadial Acetate) that exhibit antimalarial activity. This study scientifically validates the use of this plant in folk medicine.

Keywords: plasmodium falciparum, molecular docking, antimalarial activity, PfHGXPRT, Warburgia salutaris, mukaadial acetate

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3 Determining Face-Validity for a Set of Preventable Drug-Related Morbidity Indicators Developed for Primary Healthcare in South Africa

Authors: D. Velayadum, P. Sthandiwe , N. Maharaj, T. Munien, S. Ndamase, G. Zulu, S. Xulu, F. Oosthuizen


Introduction and aims of the study: It is the responsibility of the pharmacist to manage drug-related problems in order to ensure the greatest benefit to the patient. In order to prevent drug-related morbidity, pharmacists should be aware of medicines that may contribute to certain drug-related problems due to their pharmacological action. In an attempt to assist healthcare practitioners to prevent drug-related morbidity (PDRM), indicators for prevention have been designed. There are currently no indicators available for primary health care in developing countries like South Africa, where the majority of the population access primary health care. There is, therefore, a need to develop such indicators, specifically with the aim of assisting healthcare practitioners in primary health care. Methods: A literature study was conducted to compile a comprehensive list of PDRM indicators as developed internationally using the search engines Google Scholar and PubMed. MESH term used to retrieve suitable articles was 'preventable drug-related morbidity indicators'. The comprehensive list of PDRM indicators obtained from the literature study was further evaluated for face validity. Face validity was done in duplicate by 2 sets of independent researchers to ensure 1) no duplication of indicators when compiling a single list, 2) inclusion of only medication available in primary healthcare, and 3) inclusion of medication currently available in South Africa. Results: The list of indicators, compiled from PDRM indicators in the USA, UK, Portugal, Australia, India, and Canada contained 324 PDRM. 184 of these indicators were found to be duplicates, and the duplications were omitted, leaving a final list of 140. The 140 PDRM indicators were evaluated for face-validity, and 97 were accepted as relevant to primary health care in South Africa. 43 indicators did not comply with the criteria and were omitted from the final list. Conclusion: This study is a first step in compiling a list of PDRM indicators for South Africa. It is important to take cognizance to the fact the health systems differ vastly internationally, and it is, therefore, important to develop country-specific indicators.

Keywords: drug-related morbidity, primary healthcare, South Africa, developing countries

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2 Women, Culture and Ambiguity: Postcolonial Feminist Critique of Lobola in African Culture and Society

Authors: Goodness Thandi Ntuli


Some cultural aspects in the African context have a tendency of uplifting women while some thrust them into the worst denigration scenarios; hence African Women Theologians refer to culture as a ‘double edged sword. Through socialization and internalization of social norms, some women become custodians of life, denying aspects of the culture that are against them and hand them down to the next generation. This indirectly contributes to the perpetuation of patriarchal tendencies wherein women themselves uphold and endorse such tendencies to their own detriment. One of the findings of the empirical research study conducted among the Zulu young women in the South African context was that, on the one hand, lobola (the bride-price) is one of the cultural practices that contribute a great deal in the vilification of women. On the other hand, a woman whose lobola has been paid is highly esteemed in the cultural context not only by society at large but also by the implicated woman who takes pride in it. Consequently, lobola becomes an ambiguous cultural practice. Thus from the postcolonial feminist perspective, this paper examines and critiques lobola practice while also disclosing and exposing its deep seated cultural reinforcement that is life denying to women. The paper elucidates the original lobola as a cultural practice before colonization and how it became commercialized during colonial times. With commercialization in the modern world, lobola has completely lost its preliminary meaning and ceased to be a life-giving cultural practice, particularly for women. It turned out to be the worst cultural practice that demeans women to the extent that it becomes suicidal to women dignity because, in marriage, they become objects or property to the men who purchased them. Women objectification in marriage does not only leave them culturally trapped in what was perceived to be a good practice, but it also leads to women abuse and gender based or domestic violence. The research has indicated that this kind of violence is escalating and has become so pervasive in the South African context that the country is rated as one of the capital cities of violence against women in the world. Therefore, this paper demonstrates how cultural practices at times indirectly contribute to this national scourge that needs to be condemned, disparaged and rejected. Women in the African context where such cultural activities are still viewed as a norm are in desperate need for true liberation from such ambiguous cultural practices that leave them in the margins in spite of the earned social status they might have achieved.

Keywords: african, ambiguity, critique, culture, feminist, lobola, postcolonial, society

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1 Building Trust in African American Communities to Reduce Stroke Risk through Community Listening Circles

Authors: Niloufar Niakosari Hadidi, Clarence Jones, Susan Everson-Rose, Emily Gorzycki, Zachary Taylor, Makeda Zulu, James de Sota, Olga Gurvich


Introduction: African Americans (AA) are affected disproportionately by cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke. Despite advances in risk factor identification and management, CVD risk factor disparities continue to persist in AA communities. The purpose of this Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) project called Healthy Engaged Lifestyle to Prevent Stroke (HELPS) was to partner with the AA Communities in the Twin Cities (TC) of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, Minnesota, USA, to build trust and explore strategies to engage communities around stroke risk factor reduction. The aims of the study were to:1) assessstroke knowledge level and perception of stroke risk in AA communities in TC and identify the preferred method of health information delivery, 2) build trust, explore strategies to engage the communities around promoting stroke risk factor reduction and further explore barriers to behavioral change and solutions to overcoming stroke disparities. Methods: We conducted a mixed methods study. Surveys were used to assess knowledge gaps regarding stroke warning signs and risk factors. Further, we asked participants their preferred method of obtaining reliable information about stroke. To address the second aim of the study, we conducted semi-structured focus groups called Community Listening Circles (CLC) to evaluate AAs’ perceptions of stroke risk factors, identify barriers to a healthy lifestyle in the community and brainstorm solutions to overcome these barriers. We facilitated 7 CLC with 54 participants; each CLC included 1-1.5 hours of discussion around stroke, stroke risk factors, and lifestyle behaviors in AA communities. Results: Over half of the participants (65%) correctly identified all four warning signs but also selected some incorrect ones, while 24 % of the sample selected only correct warning signs. Over 74% of the sample correctly identified smoking, high blood sugar, history of stroke, obesity, and high blood pressure as the correct risk factors for stroke, yet there were misconceptions identified. Many participants did not know the difference between heart attack and stroke symptoms. Across all CLCs, most participants knew of a family/friend who had stroke in their 40s - 60s. Group discussion forums, websites, group presentations, and print media formats were reported to be the most helpful for learning new health information. Analysis of CLC discussions revealed sixkey themes: 1) Mistrust in the medical system and health care; 2) Communication difficulty withprimary care providers; 3) Racism/social injustice; 4) Advocating for self/others; 5) Listening to your body; 6) Solutions/resources for overcoming barriers. Younger participants (those in their 30s and 40s) identified racism and unequal access to healthcare, healthy food, safety, and stress more often than older participants. Conclusion: Our qualitative findings providea deeper understanding of AAs’ perceptions about stroke risk factors, local contextual barriers, and solutions for improving modifiable health factors, which will inform future work addressing stroke risk factor disparities among AA communities.

Keywords: African American, community engagement, health disparity, stroke risk

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