Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Narendra M. Kanhe

28 Anaerobic Digestion of Spent Wash through Biomass Development for Obtaining Biogas

Authors: Sachin B. Patil, Narendra M. Kanhe

Abstract:

A typical cane molasses based distillery generates 15 L of waste water per liter of alcohol production. Distillery waste with COD of over 1,00,000 mg/l and BOD of over 30,000 mg/l ranks high amongst the pollutants produced by industries both in magnitude and strength. Treatment and safe disposal of this waste is a challenging task since long. The high strength of waste water renders aerobic treatment very expensive and physico-chemical processes have met with little success. Thermophilic anaerobic treatment of distillery waste may provide high degree of treatment and better recovery of biogas. It may prove more feasible in most part of tropical country like India, where temperature is suitable for thermophilic micro-organisms. Researchers have reviled that, at thermophilic conditions due to increased destruction rate of organic matter and pathogens, higher digestion rate can be achieved. Literature review reveals that the variety of anaerobic reactors including anaerobic lagoon, conventional digester, anaerobic filter, two staged fixed film reactors, sludge bed and granular bed reactors have been studied, but little attempts have been made to evaluate the usefulness of thermophilic anaerobic treatment for treating distillery waste. The present study has been carried out, to study feasibility of thermophilic anaerobic digestion to facilitate the design of full scale reactor. A pilot scale anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AFFFB) of capacity 25m3 was designed, fabricated, installed and commissioned for thermophilic (55-65°C) anaerobic digestion at a constant pH of 6.5-7.5, because these temperature and pH ranges are considered to be optimum for biogas recovery from distillery wastewater. In these conditions, working of the reactor was studied, for different hydraulic retention times (HRT) (0.25days to 12days) and variable organic loading rates (361.46 to 7.96 Kg COD/m3d). The parameters such as flow rate and temperature, various chemical parameters such as pH, chemical oxygen demands (COD), biogas quantity, and biogas composition were regularly monitored. It was observed that, with the increase in OLR, the biogas production was increased, but the specific biogas yield decreased. Similarly, with the increase in HRT, the biogas production got decrease, but the specific biogas yield was increased. This may also be due to the predominant activity of acid producers to methane producers at the higher substrate loading rates. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that for thermophilic conditions the highest COD removal percentage was obtained at an HRT of 08 days, thereafter it tends to decrease from 8 to 12 days HRT. There is a little difference between COD removal efficiency of 8 days HRT (74.03%) and 5 day HRT (78.06%), therefore it would not be feasible to increase the reactor size by 1.5 times for mere 4 percent more efficiency. Hence, 5 days HRT is considered to be optimum, at which the biogas yield was 98 m3/day and specific biogas yield was 0.385 CH4 m3/Kg CODr.

Keywords: spent wash, anaerobic digestion, biomass, biogas

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27 Proposed Terminal Device for End-to-End Secure SMS in Cellular Networks

Authors: Neetesh Saxena, Narendra S. Chaudhari

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Nowadays, SMS is a very popular mobile service and even the poor, illiterate people and those living in rural areas use SMS service very efficiently. Although many mobile operators have already started 3G and 4G services, 2G services are still being used by the people in many countries. In 2G (GSM), only encryption provided is between the MS and the BTS, there is no end-to-end encryption available. Sometimes we all need to send some confidential message to other person containing bank account number, some password, financial details, etc. Normally, a message is sent in plain text only to the recipient and it is not an acceptable standard for transmitting such important and confidential information. Authors propose an end-to-end encryption approach by proposing a terminal for sending/receiving a secure message. An asymmetric key exchange algorithm is used in order to transmit secret shared key securely to the recipient. The proposed approach with terminal device provides authentication, confidentiality, integrity and non-repudiation.

Keywords: AES, DES, Diffie-Hellman, ECDH, A5, SMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
26 AC Voltage Regulators Using Single Phase Matrix Converter

Authors: Nagaraju Jarugu, B. R. Narendra

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This paper focused on boost rectification by Single Phase Matrix Converter with fewer numbers of switches. The conventional matrix converter consists of 4 bidirectional switches, i.e. 8 set of IGBT/MOSFET with anti-parallel diodes. In this proposed matrix converter, only six switches are used. The switch commutation arrangements are also carried out in this work. The SPMC topology has many advantages as a minimal passive device use. It is very flexible and it can be used as a lot of converters. The gate pulses to the switches are provided by the PWM techniques. The duty ratio of the switches based on Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) technique was used to produce the output waveform of the circuit, simply by turning ON and OFF the switches. The simulation results using MATLAB/Simulink were provided to validate the feasibility of this proposed method.

Keywords: single phase matrix converter, reduced switches, AC voltage regulators, boost rectifier operation

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25 Genetic Analysis of Iron, Phosphorus, Potassium and Zinc Concentration in Peanut

Authors: Ajay B. C., Meena H. N., Dagla M. C., Narendra Kumar, Makwana A. D., Bera S. K., Kalariya K. A., Singh A. L.

Abstract:

The high-energy value, protein content and minerals makes peanut a rich source of nutrition at comparatively low cost. Basic information on genetics and inheritance of these mineral elements is very scarce. Hence, in the present study inheritance (using additive-dominance model) and association of mineral elements was studied in two peanut crosses. Dominance variance (H) played an important role in the inheritance of P, K, Fe and Zn in peanut pods. Average degree of dominance for most of the traits was greater than unity indicating over dominance for these traits. Significant associations were also observed among mineral elements both in F2 and F3 generations but pod yield had no associations with mineral elements (with few exceptions). Di-allele/bi-parental mating could be followed to identify high yielding and mineral dense segregates.

Keywords: correlation, dominance variance, mineral elements, peanut

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24 Intelligent Rescheduling Trains for Air Pollution Management

Authors: Kainat Affrin, P. Reshma, G. Narendra Kumar

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Optimization of timetable is the need of the day for the rescheduling and routing of trains in real time. Trains are scheduled in parallel with the road transport vehicles to the same destination. As the number of trains is restricted due to single track, customers usually opt for road transport to use frequently. The air pollution increases as the density of vehicles on road transport is increased. Use of an alternate mode of transport like train helps in reducing air-pollution. This paper mainly aims at attracting the passengers to Train transport by proper rescheduling of trains using hybrid of stop-skip algorithm and iterative convex programming algorithm. Rescheduling of train bi-directionally is achieved on a single track with dynamic dual time and varying stops. Introduction of more trains attract customers to use rail transport frequently, thereby decreasing the pollution. The results are simulated using Network Simulator (NS-2).

Keywords: air pollution, AODV, re-scheduling, WSNs

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23 Deep Neural Network Approach for Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Mayank Raj, V. G. Narendra

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Ever since the DARPA challenge on autonomous vehicles in 2005, there has been a lot of buzz about ‘Autonomous Vehicles’ amongst the major tech giants such as Google, Uber, and Tesla. Numerous approaches have been adopted to solve this problem, which can have a long-lasting impact on mankind. In this paper, we have used Deep Learning techniques and TensorFlow framework with the goal of building a neural network model to predict (speed, acceleration, steering angle, and brake) features needed for navigation of autonomous vehicles. The Deep Neural Network has been trained on images and sensor data obtained from the comma.ai dataset. A heatmap was used to check for correlation among the features, and finally, four important features were selected. This was a multivariate regression problem. The final model had five convolutional layers, followed by five dense layers. Finally, the calculated values were tested against the labeled data, where the mean squared error was used as a performance metric.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deep learning, computer vision, artificial intelligence

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22 A Case Study on Blended Pedagogical Approach by Leveraging on Digital Marketing Concepts towards Inculcating Concepts of Sustainability in Management Education

Authors: Narendra Babu Bommenahalli Veerabhadrappa

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Teaching sustainability concepts along with profit maximizing philosophy of business in management education is a challenge. This paper explores and evaluates various learning models to inculcate sustainability concepts in management education. The paper explains about a new pedagogy that was tested in a business management school (Indus Business Academy, Bangalore, India) to teach sustainability. The pedagogy was designed by intertwining concepts related to sustainability with digital marketing concepts. As part of this experimental method, students (in groups) were assigned with various topics of sustainability and were asked to work with concepts of digital marketing and thus market the concepts of sustainability. The paper explains as a case study as to how sustainability was integrated with digital marketing tools and how learning towards sustainability was facilitated. It also explains the outcomes of this pedagogical method, in terms of inculcating sustainability concepts amongst management students as well as marketing and proliferation of sustainability concepts to bring about the behavioral changes amongst target audience towards sustainability.

Keywords: management-education, pedagogy, sustainability, behavior

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21 The Effect of Double Fortification of Iron and Zinc of Synbiotic Fermented Milk on Growth of Rat

Authors: Endri Yuliati, Siti Helmyati, Narendra Yoga Hendarta, Moh. Darussalam, Maharani Jibbriella, Fauziah Oktavira Hayati Fakhruddin, Faisal Hanin

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Background: Both of iron and zinc has vital role in growth. The prebiotics fermentation by probiotics lower the acidity of intestine thus increase mineral absorption. Objective: To know the effect of double fortification of synbiotic fermented milk on growth. Methods: An Indonesian local isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum Dad-13 and Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) were used in making synbiotic fermented milk. It, then was double fortified with 100 ppm Fe and 50 ppm Zn. A total of 15 Wistar rats were divided into 3 groups and given: synbiotic fermented milk (CO), synbiotic fermented milk with NaFeEDTA and Zn acetate (NZ) and synbiotic fermented milk with Fe gluconate and Zn acetate (FZ) every day for one month. Body weight and body length were measured before, every week and after intervention. Results: Body weight and body length were similar at baseline among three groups (p > 0.05). All groups showed similar growth after intervention, from 62,40 + 6,1 to 109,0 + 9,0; 62,0 + 7,9 to 110,3 + 14,2; and 64,40 + 4,7 to 115,1 + 7,7 g for CO, NZ, and FZ, respectively (p > 0.05). The body length after intervention was also similar (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Fortification of iron and zinc did not modify effect of synbiotic fermented milk on growth.

Keywords: probiotics, prebiotics, iron, zinc, growth

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20 India’s Demonetization and Its Impact on Modi’s “Neighborhood First” Policy

Authors: Umang Prajapati

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Elected prime minister of India Narendra Modi has very largely focused on improving ties with the neighbors since day one of his regime. This was the most significant initiative to focus on major Asian powers also emphasizing on the two decades old look east policy. The “neighborhood first policy” as termed by the media has been a corner stone in improving ties with the immediate neighbors of the country through several bilateral talks with the nations individually. However, the announcement of demonetisation policy in India, ceasing the usage of 500 and 1000 rupee notes has rattled countries like Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka and Myanmar who encourage Indian currency parallel to theirs. According to the ministry of commerce and industry (MCI), India’s total trade with neighboring countries stood at US$21.6 in the fiscal year 2015-16, India has good surplus trade surplus with its neighbors and has a strong interest in ensuring smooth trade flows. India might have this benefit, but yet this policy can create issues between India and neighboring countries. The demonetisation policy might benefit in the long run, but in the short run, this might create border issues. While there would be more countries affected by this policy, this paper will emphasize on the problems faced by the countries and the impact of demonetisation on all other neighboring countries.

Keywords: bilateral trades, demonetization, neighborhood policy, value of rupee

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19 Modeling of Microelectromechanical Systems Diaphragm Based Acoustic Sensor

Authors: Vasudha Hegde, Narendra Chaulagain, H. M. Ravikumar, Sonu Mishra, Siva Yellampalli

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Acoustic sensors are extensively used in recent days not only for sensing and condition monitoring applications but also for small scale energy harvesting applications to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) due to their inherent advantages. The natural frequency of the structure plays a major role in energy harvesting applications since the sensor key element has to operate at resonant frequency. In this paper, circular diaphragm based MEMS acoustic sensor is modelled by Lumped Element Model (LEM) and the natural frequency is compared with the simulated model using Finite Element Method (FEM) tool COMSOL Multiphysics. The sensor has the circular diaphragm of 3000 µm radius and thickness of 30 µm to withstand the high SPL (Sound Pressure Level) and also to withstand the various fabrication steps. A Piezoelectric ZnO layer of thickness of 1 µm sandwiched between two aluminium electrodes of thickness 0.5 µm and is coated on the diaphragm. Further, a channel with radius 3000 µm radius and length 270 µm is connected at the bottom of the diaphragm. The natural frequency of the structure by LEM method is approximately 16.6 kHz which is closely matching with that of simulated structure with suitable approximations.

Keywords: acoustic sensor, diaphragm based, lumped element modeling (LEM), natural frequency, piezoelectric

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18 Rising Prevalence of Diabetes among Elderly People in Kerala: Evidence from NSS Data

Authors: Narendra Kumar

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In developing countries, the majority of people with diabetes are in the age range of 45-64 years and more women than men. As in many areas of the India, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus has become major problems. Now it is spreading among the middle class and poor at an alarming stage in India and Kerala is turning to be the world capital of diabetes. This study uses two round NSS data from the ‘National Sample Survey Organization, India’ to investigate the predictors of diabetes in Kerala. The overall estimates for diabetes prevalence among elderly show that higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics, further respondent working status, caste/tribe have substantial impact on diabetes in Kerala. The disease is more common for people who are mostly physically inactive. This whole picture is very much prominent in the urban areas compared with the rural ones. Not working elderly have significantly higher with diabetes than for those working in elderly. Socioeconomic status was inversely associated with diabetes prevalence. For men and women, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension were significantly higher in the urban population while smoking, smokeless tobacco consumption was more prevalent in the rural population. High alcohol intake increases diabetes risk among elderly. Finally these findings specified that an increase improve health care services and changing life style of elderly which should in turn raise diabetes patient survival and should decrease comorbidities due to diabetes in Kerala.

Keywords: elderly, diabetes, prevalence, Kerala

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17 Thick Disc Molecular Gas Fraction in NGC 6946

Authors: Narendra Nath Patra

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Several recent studies reinforce the existence of a thick molecular disc in galaxies along with the dynamically cold thin disc. Assuming a two-component molecular disc, we model the disc of NGC 6946 as a four-component system consists of stars, HI, thin disc molecular gas, and thick disc molecular gas in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium. Following, we set up the joint Poisson-Boltzmann equation of hydrostatic equilibrium and solve it numerically to obtain a three-dimensional density distribution of different baryonic components. Using the density solutions and the observed rotation curve, we further build a three-dimensional dynamical model of the molecular disc and consecutively produce simulated CO spectral cube and spectral width profile. We find that the simulated spectral width profiles distinguishably differs for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fraction. Several CO spectral width profiles are then produced for different assumed thick disc molecular gas fractions and compared with the observed one to obtain the best fit thick disc molecular gas fraction profile. We find that the thick disc molecular gas fraction in NGC 6946 largely remains constant across its molecular disc with a mean value of 0.70 +/- 0.09. We also estimate the amount of extra-planar molecular gas in NGC 6946. We find 60% of the total molecular gas is extra-planar at the central region, whereas this fraction reduces to ~ 35% at the edge of the molecular disc. With our method, for the first time, we estimate the thick disc molecular gas fraction as a function of radius in an external galaxy with sub-kpc resolution.

Keywords: galaxies: kinematics and dynamic, galaxies: spiral, galaxies: structure , ISM: molecules, molecular data

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16 Infant and Child Mortality among the Low Socio-Economic Households in India

Authors: Narendra Kumar

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This study uses data from the ‘National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) 2005-06’ to investigate the predictors of infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. The cross tabulation, life table survival estimates and Cox proportional hazard model techniques have been used to estimate the predictors of infant and child mortality. The life table survival estimates for infant and child mortality shows that infant mortality in female child is lower in comparison to male child but with child mortality, the rates are higher for female in comparison to male child and the Cox proportional hazard model also give highly significant in female in comparison to male child. The infant and child mortality rates among poor households highest in the Central region followed by North and Northeast region and the lowest in South region in comparison to all regions of India. Education of respondent has been found a significant characteristics in both analyzes, further birth interval, respondent occupation, caste/tribe and place of delivery has substantial impact on infant and child mortality among low economic households in East and Northeast region. Finally these findings specified that an increase in parents’ education, improve health care services and improve socioeconomic conditions of low economic households which should in turn raise infant and child survival and should decrease child mortality among low economic households in India.

Keywords: infant, child, mortality, socio-economic, India

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15 Efficient Microspore Isolation Methods for High Yield Embryoids and Regeneration in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

Authors: S. M. Shahinul Islam, Israt Ara, Narendra Tuteja, Sreeramanan Subramaniam

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Through anther and microspore culture methods, complete homozygous plants can be produced within a year as compared to the long inbreeding method. Isolated microspore culture is one of the most important techniques for rapid development of haploid plants. The efficiency of this method is influenced by several factors such as cultural conditions, growth regulators, plant media, pretreatments, physical and growth conditions of the donor plants, pollen isolation procedure, etc. The main purpose of this study was to improve the isolated microspore culture protocol in order to increase the efficiency of embryoids, its regeneration and reducing albinisms. Under this study we have tested mainly three different microspore isolation procedures by glass rod, homozeniger and by blending and found the efficiency on gametic embryogenesis. There are three types of media viz. washing, pre-culture and induction was used. The induction medium as AMC (modified MS) supplemented by 2, 4-D (2.5 mg/l), kinetin (0.5 mg/l) and higher amount of D-Manitol (90 g/l) instead of sucrose and two types of amino acids (L-glutamine and L-serine) were used. Out of three main microspore isolation procedure by homogenizer isolation (P4) showed best performance on ELS induction (177%) and green plantlets (104%) compared with other techniques. For all cases albinisims occurred but microspore isolation from excised anthers by glass rod and homogenizer showed lesser numbers of albino plants that was also one of the important findings in this study.

Keywords: androgenesis, pretreatment, microspore culture, regeneration, albino plants, Oryza sativa

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14 Hydrological Modeling and Climate Change Impact Assessment Using HBV Model, A Case Study of Karnali River Basin of Nepal

Authors: Sagar Shiwakoti, Narendra Man Shakya

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The lumped conceptual hydrological model HBV is applied to the Karnali River Basin to estimate runoff at several gauging stations and to analyze the changes in catchment hydrology and future flood magnitude due to climate change. The performance of the model is analyzed to assess its suitability to simulate streamflow in snow fed mountainous catchments. Due to the structural complexity, the model shows difficulties in modeling low and high flows accurately at the same time. It is observed that the low flows were generally underestimated and the peaks were correctly estimated except for some sharp peaks due to isolated precipitation events. In this study, attempt has been made to evaluate the importance of snow melt discharge in the runoff regime of the basin. Quantification of contribution of snowmelt to annual, summer and winter runoff has been done. The contribution is highest at the beginning of the hot months as the accumulated snow begins to melt. Examination of this contribution under conditions of increased temperatures indicate that global warming leading to increase in average basin temperature will significantly lead to higher contributions to runoff from snowmelt. Forcing the model with the output of HadCM3 GCM and the A1B scenario downscaled to the station level show significant changes to catchment hydrology in the 2040s. It is observed that the increase in runoff is most extreme in June - July. A shift in the hydrological regime is also observed.

Keywords: hydrological modeling, HBV light, rainfall runoff modeling, snow melt, climate change

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13 Role of Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Study from North India

Authors: Alka Yadav, Mayank Jain, Rajan Saxena, Niraj Kumari, Narendra Krishnani, Ashok Kumar

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Purpose: To study the mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression and its clinicopathological correlation in colorectal cancer patients in North India. Methods: A prospective study was conducted on histologically proven 52 (38 males and 14 females) patients with adenocarcinoma of colorectum. MMR protein loss was determined by using immunohistochemistry for MLH1, MSH2, PMS2 and MSH6. Results: 52 patients (38 males and 14 females) underwent resection for colorectal cancer with the median age of 52 years (16-81 years). 35% of the patients (n=18) were younger than 50 years of the age. 3 patients had associated history of malignancy in the family. 29 (56%) patients had right colon cancer, 9 (17%) left colon cancer and 14 (27%) rectal cancer. 2 patients each had synchronous and metachronous cancer. Histology revealed well-differentiated tumour in 16, moderately differentiated in 10 and poorly differentiated tumour in 26 patients. MMR protein loss was seen in 15 (29%) patients. Seven (46%) of these patients were less than 50 years of age. Combined loss of MSH2 and MSH6 was seen most commonly and it was found in 6 patients. 12 (80%) patients with MMR protein loss had tumour located proximal to the splenic flexure compared to 3 (20%) located distal to the splenic flexure. There was no difference in MMR protein loss based on patients' age, gender, degree of tumour differentiation, stage of the disease and tumour histological characteristics. Conclusions: This study revealed that there was less than 30% MMR protein loss in colorectal cancer patients. The loss was most commonly seen in right sided colon cancer than left. A larger study is further required to validate these findings.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, mismatch repair protein, immunohitochemistry, clinicopathological correlation

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12 Evaluating Accuracy of Foetal Weight Estimation by Clinicians in Christian Medical College Hospital, India and Its Correlation to Actual Birth Weight: A Clinical Audit

Authors: Aarati Susan Mathew, Radhika Narendra Patel, Jiji Mathew

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A retrospective study conducted at Christian Medical College (CMC) Teaching Hospital, Vellore, India on 14th August 2014 to assess the accuracy of clinically estimated foetal weight upon labour admission. Estimating foetal weight is a crucial factor in assessing maternal and foetal complications during and after labour. Medical notes of ninety-eight postnatal women who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were studied to evaluate the correlation between their recorded Estimated Foetal Weight (EFW) on admission and actual birth weight (ABW) of the newborn after delivery. Data concerning maternal and foetal demographics was also noted. Accuracy was determined by absolute percentage error and proportion of estimates within 10% of ABW. Actual birth weights ranged from 950-4080g. A strong positive correlation between EFW and ABW (r=0.904) was noted. Term deliveries (≥40 weeks) in the normal weight range (2500-4000g) had a 59.5% estimation accuracy (n=74) compared to pre-term (<40 weeks) with an estimation accuracy of 0% (n=2). Out of the term deliveries, macrosomic babies (>4000g) were underestimated by 25% (n=3) and low birthweight (LBW) babies were overestimated by 12.7% (n=9). Registrars who estimated foetal weight were accurate in babies within normal weight ranges. However, there needs to be an improvement in predicting weight of macrosomic and LBW foetuses. We have suggested the use of an amended version of the Johnson’s formula for the Indian population for improvement and a need to re-audit once implemented.

Keywords: clinical palpation, estimated foetal weight, pregnancy, India, Johnson’s formula

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11 Magnetoresistance Transition from Negative to Positive in Functionalization of Carbon Nanotube and Composite with Polyaniline

Authors: Krishna Prasad Maity, Narendra Tanty, Ananya Patra, V. Prasad

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Carbon nanotube (CNT) is a well-known material for very good electrical, thermal conductivity and high tensile strength. Because of that, it’s widely used in many fields like nanotechnology, electronics, optics, etc. In last two decades, polyaniline (PANI) with CNT and functionalized CNT (fCNT) have been promising materials in application of gas sensing, electromagnetic shielding, electrode of capacitor etc. So, the study of electrical conductivity of PANI/CNT and PANI/fCNT is important to understand the charge transport and interaction between PANI and CNT in the composite. It is observed that a transition in magnetoresistance (MR) with lowering temperature, increasing magnetic field and decreasing CNT percentage in CNT/PANI composite. Functionalization of CNT prevent the nanotube aggregation, improves interfacial interaction, dispersion and stabilized in polymer matrix. However, it shortens the length, breaks C-C sp² bonds and enhances the disorder creating defects on the side walls. We have studied electrical resistivity and MR in PANI with CNT and fCNT composites for different weight percentages down to the temperature 4.2K and up to magnetic field 5T. Resistivity increases significantly in composite at low temperature due to functionalization of CNT compared to only CNT. Interestingly a transition from negative to positive magnetoresistance has been observed when the filler is changed from pure CNT to functionalized CNT after a certain percentage (10wt%) as the effect of more disorder in fCNT/PANI composite. The transition of MR has been explained on the basis of polaron-bipolaron model. The long-range Coulomb interaction between two polarons screened by disorder in the composite of fCNT/PANI, increases the effective on-site Coulomb repulsion energy to form bipolaron which leads to change the sign of MR from negative to positive.

Keywords: coulomb interaction, magnetoresistance transition, polyaniline composite, polaron-bipolaron

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10 Comparison of Health Related Quality of Life in End Stage Renal Diseases Undergoing Twice and Thrice Hemodialysis

Authors: Anamika A. Sharma, Arezou Ahmadi R. A., Narendra B. Parihar, Manjusha Sajith

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Introduction: Hemodialysis is the most effective therapeutic technique for patient with ESRD second to renal transplantation. However it is a lifelong therapy which requires frequent hospital, or dialysis centers visits mainly twice and thrice weekly, thus considerably changes the normal way of patient’s living. So this study aimed to Assess Health-Related Quality of life in End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Undergoing Twice and Thrice weekly Hemodialysis. Method: A prospective observational, cross-sectional study was carried out from September 2016 to April 2017 in end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis. Socio-demographic and clinical details of patients were obtained from the medical records. WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire was used to Access Health-Related Quality Of Life. Quality of Life scores of Twice weekly and Thrice weekly hemodialysis was analyzed by Kruskal Wallis Test. Results: Majority of respondents were male (72.55%), married (89.31%), employed (58.02%), belong to middle class (71.00%) and resides in rural area (58.78%). The mean ages in the patient undergoing twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis were 51.89 ± 15.64 years and 51.33 ± 15.70 years respectively. Average Quality of Life scores observed in twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis was 52.07 ± 13.30 (p=0.0037) and 52.87 ± 13.47 (p=0.0004) respectively. The hemoglobin of thrice weekly dialysis patients (10.28 gm/dL) was high as compared to twice weekly dialysis (9.23 gm/dL). Patients undergoing thrice weekly dialysis had improved serum urea, serum creatinine values (95.85 mg/dL, 8.32 mg/dL) as compared to twice weekly hemodialysis ( 104.94 mg/dL, 8.68 mg/dL). Conclusion: Our study concluded that there was no significant difference between overall Health-Related Quality Of Life in twice weekly and thrice weekly hemodialysis. Frequent hemodialysis was associated with improved control of hypertension, serum urea, serum creatinine levels.

Keywords: end stage renal disease, health related quality of life, twice weekly hemodialysis, thrice weekly hemodialysis

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9 Lung Cancer Detection and Multi Level Classification Using Discrete Wavelet Transform Approach

Authors: V. Veeraprathap, G. S. Harish, G. Narendra Kumar

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Uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the lung in the form of tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Patients with Lung Cancer (LC) have an average of five years life span expectancy provided diagnosis, detection and prediction, which reduces many treatment options to risk of invasive surgery increasing survival rate. Computed Tomography (CT), Positron Emission Tomography (PET), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) for earlier detection of cancer are common. Gaussian filter along with median filter used for smoothing and noise removal, Histogram Equalization (HE) for image enhancement gives the best results without inviting further opinions. Lung cavities are extracted and the background portion other than two lung cavities is completely removed with right and left lungs segmented separately. Region properties measurements area, perimeter, diameter, centroid and eccentricity measured for the tumor segmented image, while texture is characterized by Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) functions, feature extraction provides Region of Interest (ROI) given as input to classifier. Two levels of classifications, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) is used for determining patient condition as normal or abnormal, while Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) is used for identifying the cancer stage is employed. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) algorithm is used for the main feature extraction leading to best efficiency. The developed technology finds encouraging results for real time information and on line detection for future research.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, ANN, discrete wavelet transform, DWT, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, GLCM, k-nearest neighbor, KNN, region of interest, ROI

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8 Effect of Temperature on the Binary Mixture of Imidazolium Ionic Liquid with Pyrrolidin-2-One: Volumetric and Ultrasonic Study

Authors: T. Srinivasa Krishna, K. Narendra, K. Thomas, S. S. Raju, B. Munibhadrayya

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The densities, speeds of sound and refractive index of the binary mixture of ionic liquid (IL) 1-Butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([BMIM][Imide]) and Pyrrolidin-2-one(PY) was measured at atmospheric pressure, and over the range of temperatures T= (298.15 -323.15)K. The excess molar volume, excess isentropic compressibility, excess speed of sound, partial molar volumes, and isentropic partial molar compressibility were calculated from the values of the experimental density and speed of sound. From the experimental data excess thermal expansion coefficients and isothermal pressure coefficient of excess molar enthalpy at 298.15K were calculated. The results were analyzed and were discussed from the point of view of structural changes. Excess properties were calculated and correlated by the Redlich–Kister and the Legendre polynomial equation and binary coefficients were obtained. Values of excess partial volumes at infinite dilution for the binary system at different temperatures were calculated from the adjustable parameters obtained from Legendre polynomial and Redlich–Kister smoothing equation. Deviation in refractive indices ΔnD and deviation in molar refraction, ΔRm were calculated from the measured refractive index values. Equations of state and several mixing rules were used to predict refractive indices of the binary mixtures and compared with the experimental values by means of the standard deviation and found to be in excellent agreement. By using Prigogine–Flory–Patterson (PFP) theory, the above thermodynamic mixing functions have been calculated and the results obtained from this theory were compared with experimental results.

Keywords: density, refractive index, speeds of sound, Prigogine-Flory-Patterson theory

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7 AMF activates PDH 45 and G-proteins Genes to Alleviate Abiotic Stress in Tomato Plants

Authors: Deepak Bhardwaj, Narendra Tuteja

Abstract:

Global climate change is impacting large agrarian societies, especially those in countries located near the equator. Agriculture, and consequently, plant-based food, is the hardest hit in tropical and sub-tropical countries such as India due to an increased incidence of drought as well as an increase in soil salinity. One method that holds promise is AMF-rich biofertilizers which assist in activating proteins which in turn help alleviate abiotic stress in plants. In the present study, we identified two important species of (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus) AMF belonging to Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of the important medicinal plant Justicia adathoda. These two species have been found to be responsible for the abundance of Justicia adathoda in the semi-arid areas of the Jammu valley located in northern India, namely, the Union Territory of Jammu and Kashmir. We isolated the species of Glomus and Gigaspora from the rhizosphere of Justicia adathoda and used them as biofertilizers for the tomato plant. Significant improvements in the growth parameters were observed in the tomato plants inoculated with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. in comparison with the tomato plants that were grown without AMF treatments. Tomato plants grown along with Glomus sp. and Gigaspora sp. have been observed to withstand 200 mM of salinity and 25% PEG stress. AMF also resulted in an increased concentration of proline and antioxidant enzymes in tomato plants. We also examined the expression levels of salinity and drought stress-inducible genes such as pea DNA helicase 45 (PDH 45) and genes of G-protein subunits of the tomato plants inoculated with and without AMF under stress and normal conditions. All the stress-inducible genes showed a significant increase in their gene expression under stress and AMF inoculation, while their levels were found to be normal under AMF inoculation without stress. We propose a model of abiotic stress alleviation in tomato plants with the help of external factors such as AMF and internally with the help of proteins like PDH 45 and G-proteins.

Keywords: AMF, abiotic stress, g-proteins, PDH-45

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6 Analysis of Secondary Peak in Hα Emission Profile during Gas Puffing in Aditya Tokamak

Authors: Harshita Raj, Joydeep Ghosh, Rakesh L. Tanna, Prabal K. Chattopadhyay, K. A. Jadeja, Sharvil Patel, Kaushal M. Patel, Narendra C. Patel, S. B. Bhatt, V. K. Panchal, Chhaya Chavda, C. N. Gupta, D. Raju, S. K. Jha, J. Raval, S. Joisa, S. Purohit, C. V. S. Rao, P. K. Atrey, Umesh Nagora, R. Manchanda, M. B. Chowdhuri, Nilam Ramaiya, S. Banerjee, Y. C. Saxena

Abstract:

Efficient gas fueling is a critical aspect that needs to be mastered in order to maintain plasma density, to carry out fusion. This requires a fair understanding of fuel recycling in order to optimize the gas fueling. In Aditya tokamak, multiple gas puffs are used in a precise and controlled manner, for hydrogen fueling during the flat top of plasma discharge which has been instrumental in achieving discharges with enhanced density as well as energy confinement time. Following each gas puff, we observe peaks in temporal profile of Hα emission, Soft X-ray (SXR) and chord averaged electron density in a number of discharges, indicating efficient gas fueling. Interestingly, Hα temporal profile exhibited an additional peak following the peak corresponding to each gas puff. These additional peak Hα appeared in between the two gas puffs, indicating the presence of a secondary hydrogen source apart from the gas puffs. A thorough investigation revealed that these secondary Hα peaks coincide with Hard X- ray bursts which come from the interaction of runaway electrons with vessel limiters. This leads to consider that the runaway electrons (REs), which hit the wall, in turn, bring out the absorbed hydrogen and oxygen from the wall and makes the interaction of REs with limiter a secondary hydrogen source. These observations suggest that runaway electron induced recycling should also be included in recycling particle source in the particle balance calculations in tokamaks. Observation of two Hα peaks associated with one gas puff and their roles in enhancing and maintaining plasma density in Aditya tokamak will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: fusion, gas fueling, recycling, Tokamak, Aditya

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5 In vitro Establishment and Characterization of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Derived Cancer Stem-Like Cells

Authors: Varsha Salian, Shama Rao, N. Narendra, B. Mohana Kumar

Abstract:

Evolving evidence proposes the existence of a highly tumorigenic subpopulation of undifferentiated, self-renewing cancer stem cells, responsible for exhibiting resistance to conventional anti-cancer therapy, recurrence, metastasis and heterogeneous tumor formation. Importantly, the mechanisms exploited by cancer stem cells to resist chemotherapy are very less understood. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most regularly diagnosed cancer types in India and is associated commonly with alcohol and tobacco use. Therefore, the isolation and in vitro characterization of cancer stem-like cells from patients with OSCC is a critical step to advance the understanding of the chemoresistance processes and for designing therapeutic strategies. With this, the present study aimed to establish and characterize cancer stem-like cells in vitro from OSCC. The primary cultures of cancer stem-like cell lines were established from the tissue biopsies of patients with clinical evidence of an ulceroproliferative lesion and histopathological confirmation of OSCC. The viability of cells assessed by trypan blue exclusion assay showed more than 95% at passage 1 (P1), P2 and P3. Replication rate was performed by plating cells in 12-well plate and counting them at various time points of culture. Cells had a more marked proliferative activity and the average doubling time was less than 20 hrs. After being cultured for 10 to 14 days, cancer stem-like cells gradually aggregated and formed sphere-like bodies. More spheroid bodies were observed when cultured in DMEM/F-12 under low serum conditions. Interestingly, cells with higher proliferative activity had a tendency to form more sphere-like bodies. Expression of specific markers, including membrane proteins or cell enzymes, such as CD24, CD29, CD44, CD133, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is being explored for further characterization of cancer stem-like cells. To summarize the findings, the establishment of OSCC derived cancer stem-like cells may provide scope for better understanding the cause for recurrence and metastasis in oral epithelial malignancies. Particularly, identification and characterization studies on cancer stem-like cells in Indian population seem to be lacking thus provoking the need for such studies in a population where alcohol consumption and tobacco chewing are major risk habits.

Keywords: cancer stem-like cells, characterization, in vitro, oral squamous cell carcinoma

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4 Part Variation Simulations: An Industrial Case Study with an Experimental Validation

Authors: Narendra Akhadkar, Silvestre Cano, Christophe Gourru

Abstract:

Injection-molded parts are widely used in power system protection products. One of the biggest challenges in an injection molding process is shrinkage and warpage of the molded parts. All these geometrical variations may have an adverse effect on the quality of the product, functionality, cost, and time-to-market. The situation becomes more challenging in the case of intricate shapes and in mass production using multi-cavity tools. To control the effects of shrinkage and warpage, it is very important to correctly find out the input parameters that could affect the product performance. With the advances in the computer-aided engineering (CAE), different tools are available to simulate the injection molding process. For our case study, we used the MoldFlow insight tool. Our aim is to predict the spread of the functional dimensions and geometrical variations on the part due to variations in the input parameters such as material viscosity, packing pressure, mold temperature, melt temperature, and injection speed. The input parameters may vary during batch production or due to variations in the machine process settings. To perform the accurate product assembly variation simulation, the first step is to perform an individual part variation simulation to render realistic tolerance ranges. In this article, we present a method to simulate part variations coming from the input parameters variation during batch production. The method is based on computer simulations and experimental validation using the full factorial design of experiments (DoE). The robustness of the simulation model is verified through input parameter wise sensitivity analysis study performed using simulations and experiments; all the results show a very good correlation in the material flow direction. There exists a non-linear interaction between material and the input process variables. It is observed that the parameters such as packing pressure, material, and mold temperature play an important role in spread on functional dimensions and geometrical variations. This method will allow us in the future to develop accurate/realistic virtual prototypes based on trusted simulated process variation and, therefore, increase the product quality and potentially decrease the time to market.

Keywords: correlation, molding process, tolerance, sensitivity analysis, variation simulation

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3 Achieving Product Robustness through Variation Simulation: An Industrial Case Study

Authors: Narendra Akhadkar, Philippe Delcambre

Abstract:

In power protection and control products, assembly process variations due to the individual parts manufactured from single or multi-cavity tooling is a major problem. The dimensional and geometrical variations on the individual parts, in the form of manufacturing tolerances and assembly tolerances, are sources of clearance in the kinematic joints, polarization effect in the joints, and tolerance stack-up. All these variations adversely affect the quality of product, functionality, cost, and time-to-market. Variation simulation analysis may be used in the early product design stage to predict such uncertainties. Usually, variations exist in both manufacturing processes and materials. In the tolerance analysis, the effect of the dimensional and geometrical variations of the individual parts on the functional characteristics (conditions) of the final assembled products are studied. A functional characteristic of the product may be affected by a set of interrelated dimensions (functional parameters) that usually form a geometrical closure in a 3D chain. In power protection and control products, the prerequisite is: when a fault occurs in the electrical network, the product must respond quickly to react and break the circuit to clear the fault. Usually, the response time is in milliseconds. Any failure in clearing the fault may result in severe damage to the equipment or network, and human safety is at stake. In this article, we have investigated two important functional characteristics that are associated with the robust performance of the product. It is demonstrated that the experimental data obtained at the Schneider Electric Laboratory prove the very good prediction capabilities of the variation simulation performed using CETOL (tolerance analysis software) in an industrial context. Especially, this study allows design engineers to better understand the critical parts in the product that needs to be manufactured with good, capable tolerances. On the contrary, some parts are not critical for the functional characteristics (conditions) of the product and may lead to some reduction of the manufacturing cost, ensuring robust performance. The capable tolerancing is one of the most important aspects in product and manufacturing process design. In the case of miniature circuit breaker (MCB), the product's quality and its robustness are mainly impacted by two aspects: (1) allocation of design tolerances between the components of a mechanical assembly and (2) manufacturing tolerances in the intermediate machining steps of component fabrication.

Keywords: geometrical variation, product robustness, tolerance analysis, variation simulation

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2 Startup Ecosystem in India: Development and Impact

Authors: Soham Chakraborty

Abstract:

This article examines the development of start-up culture in India, its development as well as related impact on the Indian society. Another vibrant synonym of start-up in the present century can be starting afresh. Startups have become the new flavor of this decade. A startup ecosystem is formed by mainly the new generation in the making. A startup ecosystem involves a variety of elements without which a startup can never prosper, they are—ideas, inventions, innovations as well as authentic research in the field into which one is interested, mentors, advisors, funding bodies, service provider organizations, angel, venture and so on. The culture of startup is quiet nascent but rampant in India. This is largely due to the widespread of media as a medium through which the newfangled entrepreneurs can spread their word of mouth far and wide. Different kinds of media such as Television, Radio, Internet, Print media and so on, act as the weapon to any startup company in India. The article explores how there is a sudden shift in the growing Indian economy due to the rise of startup ecosystem. There are various reasons, which are the result of the growing success of startup in India, firstly, entrepreneurs are building up startup ideas on the basis of various international startup but giving them a pinch of Indian flavor; secondly, business models are framed based on the current problems that people face in the modern century; thirdly, balance between social and technological entrepreneurs and lastly, quality of mentorship. The Government of India boasts startup as a flagship initiative. Bunch full of benefits and assistance was declared in an event named as 'Start Up India, Stand Up India' on 16th January 2016 by the current Prime Minister of India Mr. Narendra Modi. One of the biggest boon that increasing startups are creating in the society is the proliferation of self-employment. Noted Startups which are thriving in India are like OYO, Where’s The Food (WTF), TVF Pitchers, Flipkart and so on are examples of India is getting covered up by various innovative startups. The deep impact can be felt by each Indian after a few years as various governmental and non-governmental policies and agendas are helping in the sprawling up of startups and have mushroom growth in India. The impact of startup uprising in India is also possible due to increasing globalization which is leading to the eradication of national borders, thereby creating the environment to enlarge one’s business model. To conclude, this article points out on the correlation between rising startup in Indian market and its increasing developmental benefits for the people at large. Internationally, various business portals are tagging India to be the world’s fastest growing startup ecosystem.

Keywords: business, ecosystem, entrepreneurs, media, globalization, startup

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1 Nutritional Status of Children in a Rural Food Environment, Haryana: A Paradox for the Policy Action

Authors: Neha Gupta, Sonika Verma, Seema Puri, Nikhil Tandon, Narendra K. Arora

Abstract:

The concurrent increasing prevalence of underweight and overweight/obesity among children with changing lifestyle and the rapid transitioning society has necessitated the need for a unifying/multi-level approach to understand the determinants of the problem. The present community-based cross-sectional research study was conducted to assess the associations between lifestyle behavior and food environment of the child at household, neighborhood, and school with the BMI of children (6-12 year old) (n=612) residing in three rural clusters of Palwal district, Haryana. The study used innovative and robust methods for assessing the lifestyle and various components of food environment in the study. The three rural clusters selected for the study were located at three different locations according to their access to highways in the SOMAARTH surveillance site. These clusters were significantly different from each other in terms of their socio-demographic and socio-economic profile, living conditions, environmental hygiene, health seeking behavior and retail density. Despite of being different, the quality of living conditions and environmental hygiene was poor across three clusters. The children had higher intakes of dietary energy and sugars; one-fifth share of the energy being derived from unhealthy foods, engagement in high levels of physical activity and significantly different food environment at home, neighborhood and school level. However, despite having a high energy intake, 22.5% of the recruited children were thin/severe thin, and 3% were overweight/obese as per their BMI-for-age categories. The analysis was done using multi-variate logistic regression at three-tier hierarchy including individual, household and community level. The factors significantly explained the variability in governing the risk of getting thin/severe thin among children in rural area (p-value: 0.0001; Adjusted R2: 0.156) included age (>10years) (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.0-4.4), the interaction between minority category and poor SES of the household (OR: 4.4; 95% CI: 1.6-12.1), availability of sweets (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-0.99) and cereals (OR: 0.9; 95% CI: 0.8-1.0) in the household and poor street condition (proxy indicator of the hygiene and cleanliness in the neighborhood) (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.1-1.1). The homogeneity of other factors at neighborhood and school level food environment diluted the heterogeneity in the lifestyles and home environment of the recruited children and their households. However, it is evident that when various individual factors interplay at multiple levels amplifies the risk of undernutrition in a rural community. Conclusion: These rural areas in Haryana are undergoing developmental, economic and societal transition. In correspondence, no improvements in the nutritional status of children have happened. Easy access to the unhealthy foods has become a paradox.

Keywords: transition, food environment, lifestyle, undernutrition, overnutrition

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