Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 30

Search results for: Nahid M. Baddour

30 Relation Between Demodex Folliculorum and Rosacea

Authors: Maha M. Eissa, Safia M. Ali, Sonia R. Allam, Ezzat A. Badawy, Nahid M. Baddour

Abstract:

The obligate follicle mite Demodex folliculorum (Df) has been demonstrated in increased numbers in patients with rosacea. The significance of this finding is still not completely understood, because many people free of skin disease may also have mites. So, the aim of this work was to study the possible role of Df in patients with rosacea. Facial punch biopsy specimens were taken from patients with rosacea (either telangiectatic, papulopustular, squamous, granulomatous form or with rhinophyma) and age and sex matched healthy subjects. Results of this study showed that 63.3% of the rosacea patients were harbouring the mite with higher incidence in patients with papulopustular form.

Keywords: Demodex folliculorum, rosacea, papulopustular, punch biopsy

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29 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian

Abstract:

Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

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28 Qualitative Risk Assessment of Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Production

Authors: Mohammed E. Mansour, Tamador M. A. Elhassan, Nahid A. Ibrahim, Awatif A. Ahmed, Manal A. Abdalla

Abstract:

Rift valley fever (RVF) is mosquito-borne disease. RVF is transboundary zoonotic disease. It has socioeconomic and public health importance. This paper describes qualitative risk of the RVF vaccine production. RVF is endemic in the Sudan. It has been reported in Sudan due to abundance of Ades Eqytie. Thus, there is huge effort to control it. Vaccination practices had significant role to control and manage RVF. The risk assessment explains the likelihood of a risk as likely. Thus, insecticides and repellents synergize the effort of the vaccination.

Keywords: qualitative analysis, risk assessment, rift valley fever vaccine, quality control

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27 DNA Multiplier: A Design Architecture of a Multiplier Circuit Using DNA Molecules

Authors: Hafiz Md. Hasan Babu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Nitish Biswas, Sarreha Tasmin Rikta, Nuzmul Hossain Nahid

Abstract:

Nanomedicine and bioengineering use biological systems that can perform computing operations. In a biocomputational circuit, different types of biomolecules and DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) are used as active components. DNA computing has the capability of performing parallel processing and a large storage capacity that makes it diverse from other computing systems. In most processors, the multiplier is treated as a core hardware block, and multiplication is one of the time-consuming and lengthy tasks. In this paper, cost-effective DNA multipliers are designed using algorithms of molecular DNA operations with respect to conventional ones. The speed and storage capacity of a DNA multiplier are also much higher than a traditional silicon-based multiplier.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA multiplier, large storage, parallel processing

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26 Analysis of the Transcriptional Response of Rhazia stricta to Jasmonic Acid Induction

Authors: Nahid H. Hajrah, Jamal S. M. Sabir, Neil Hall

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The jasmonic pathway is ubiquitous in plants and is crucial to plant development. It Is involved in fertility, ripening, and sex determination as well as in response to environmental stresses such as herbivory, pathogen drought or temperature shock. Essentially the jasmonic pathway acts to shut down growth in order to induce defence pathways. These pathways include the production of secondary metabolites which have evolved to defend against herbivores and pathogens but are of increasing interest due to their roll in medicine and biotechnology. Here we describe the transcriptional response of Rhazia stricta (a poisonous shrub widely used in traditional medicine) to jasmonic acid, in order to better characterize the genes involved in secondary metabolite production and its response to stress. We observe coordinated upregulation of flavonoid biosynthesis pathway leading to flavonols, flavones and anthocyanins but no similar coordination of the monoterpene indole alkaloid pathway.

Keywords: medicinal plants, Rhazia stricta, jasmonic acid, transcriptional analysis

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25 Test and Evaluation of Patient Tracking Platform in an Earthquake Simulation

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Ali Samimi

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In earthquake situation, medical response communities such as field and referral hospitals are challenged with injured victims’ identification and tracking. In our project, it was developed a patient tracking platform (PTP) where first responders triage the patients with an electronic tag which report the location and some information of each patient during his/her movement. This platform includes: 1) near field communication (NFC) tags (ISO 14443), 2) smart mobile phones (Android-base version 4.2.2), 3) Base station laptops (Windows), 4) server software, 5) Android software to use by first responders, 5) disaster command software, and 6) system architecture. Our model has been completed through literature review, Delphi technique, focus group, design the platform, and implement in an earthquake exercise. This paper presents consideration for content, function, and technologies that must apply for patient tracking in medical emergencies situations. It is demonstrated the robustness of the patient tracking platform (PTP) in tracking 6 patients in a simulated earthquake situation in the yard of the relief and rescue department of Isfahan’s Red Crescent.

Keywords: test and evaluation, patient tracking platform, earthquake, simulation

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24 Influence of Biological and Chemical Fertilizers on Quantitative Characteristics of Sweet Wormwood

Authors: Anahita Yarahmadi, Nazanin Mahboobi, Nahid Sadat Rahmatpour Nori, Mohammad Hossein Bijeh Keshavarzi, Mohammad Javad Shakori

Abstract:

This research aimed at considering biological fertilizer effect and chemical fertilizer on the quantitative characteristics of Sweet wormwood (Artemisia annua L.), an experiment was carried out in factorial design in completely randomized design with 4 replications in an experimental greenhouse which was located in Tehran. Experimental treatment involved chemical fertilizers (Nitrogen, Phosphorus) in4 levels and biological fertilizers in 4 levels (control, Nitroxin, Bio-phosphorus and Vemricompost). Results showed that using biological fertilizers and increasing different levels of chemical fertilizers (N, P) had significant effects on all the characteristics. Considering means comparison showed that biological fertilizers lead to significant enhancement on all the characteristics and among biological fertilizers, Vermicompost treatment has the most effect. Considering means comparison tables of different levels of chemical fertilizer have been found that (N80P80) had the most increase on characteristics.

Keywords: Artemisia annua L, bio-fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, vermicompost

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23 Phylogenetic Analysis and a Review of the History of the Accidental Phytoplankter, Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (Bacillariophyta)

Authors: Jamal S. M. Sabir, Edward C. Theriot, Schonna R. Manning, Abdulrahman L. Al-Malki, Mohammad, Mumdooh J. Sabir, Dwight K. Romanovicz, Nahid H. Hajrah, Robert K. Jansen, Matt P. Ashworth

Abstract:

The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum has been used as a model for cell biologists and ecologists for over a century. We have incorporated several new raphid pennates into a three-gene phylogenetic dataset (SSU, rbcL, psbC), and recover Gomphonemopsis sp. as sister to P. tricornutum with 100% BS support. This is the first time a close relative has been identified for P. tricornutum with robust statistical support. We test and reject a succession of hypotheses for other relatives. Our molecular data are statistically significantly incongruent with placement of either or both species among the Cymbellales, an order of diatoms with which both have been associated. We believe that further resolution of the phylogenetic position of P. tricornutum will rely more on increased taxon sampling than increased genetic sampling. Gomphonemopsis is a benthic diatom, and its phylogenetic relationship with P. tricornutum is congruent with the hypothesis that P. tricornutum is a benthic diatom with specific adaptations that lead to active recruitment into the plankton. We hypothesize that other benthic diatoms are likely to have similar adaptations and are not merely passively recruited into the plankton.

Keywords: benthic, diatoms; ecology, Phaeodactylum tricornutum, phylogeny, tychoplankton

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22 The Impact of Organizational Justice on Organizational Loyalty Considering the Role of Spirituality and Organizational Trust Variable: Case Study of South Pars Gas Complex

Authors: Sima Radmanesh, Nahid Radmanesh, Mohsen Yaghmoor

Abstract:

The presence of large number of active rival gas companies on Persian Gulf border necessitates the adaptation and implementation of effective employee retention strategies as well as implementation of promoting loyalty and belonging strategies of specialized staffs in the South Pars gas company. Hence, this study aims at assessing the amount of organizational loyalty and explaining the effect of institutional justice on organizational justice with regard to the role of mediator variables of spirituality in the work place and organizational trust. Therefore, through reviewing the related literature, the researchers achieve a conceptual model for the effect of these factors on organizational loyalty. To this end, this model was assessed and tested through questionnaires in South Pars gas company. The research method was descriptive and correlation-structural equation modeling. The findings of the study indicated a significant relationship between the concepts addressed in the research and conceptual models were confirmed. Finally, according to the results to improve effectiveness factors affecting organizational loyalty, recommendations are provided.

Keywords: organizational loyalty, organizational trust, organizational justice, organizational spirit, oil and gas company

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21 Robustness Analysis of the Carbon and Nitrogen Co-Metabolism Model of Mucor mucedo

Authors: Nahid Banihashemi

Abstract:

An emerging important area of the life sciences is systems biology, which involves understanding the integrated behavior of large numbers of components interacting via non-linear reaction terms. A centrally important problem in this area is an understanding of the co-metabolism of protein and carbohydrate, as it has been clearly demonstrated that the ratio of these metabolites in diet is a major determinant of obesity and related chronic disease. In this regard, we have considered a systems biology model for the co-metabolism of carbon and nitrogen in colonies of the fungus Mucor mucedo. Oscillations are an important diagnostic of underlying dynamical processes of this model. The maintenance of specific patterns of oscillation and its relation to the robustness of this system are the important issues which have been targeted in this paper. In this regard, parametric sensitivity approach as a theoretical approach has been considered for the analysis of the robustness of this model. As a result, the parameters of the model which produce the largest sensitivities have been identified. Furthermore, the largest changes that can be made in each parameter of the model without losing the oscillations in biomass production have been computed. The results are obtained from the implementation of parametric sensitivity analysis in Matlab.

Keywords: system biology, parametric sensitivity analysis, robustness, carbon and nitrogen co-metabolism, Mucor mucedo

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20 Investigation of Information Security Incident Management Based on International Standard ISO/IEC 27002 in Educational Hospitals in 2014

Authors: Nahid Tavakoli, Asghar Ehteshami, Akbar Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Amini

Abstract:

Introduction: The Information security incident management guidelines was been developed to help hospitals to meet their information security event and incident management requirements. The purpose of this Study was to investigate on Information Security Incident Management in Isfahan’s educational hospitals in accordance to ISO/IEC 27002 standards. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study to investigate on Information Security Incident Management of educational hospitals in 2014. Based on ISO/IEC 27002 standards, two checklists were applied to check the compliance with standards on Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements. One inspector was trained to carry out the assessments in the hospitals. The data was analyzed by SPSS. Findings: In general the score of compliance Information Security Incident Management requirements in two steps; Reporting Information Security Events and Weakness and Management of Information Security Incidents and Improvements was %60. There was the significant difference in various compliance levels among the hospitals (p-valueKeywords: information security incident management, information security management, standards, hospitals

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19 Investigating the Effects of Psychological and Socio-Cultural Factors on the Tendency of Villagers to Use E-Banking Services: Case Study of Agricultural Bank Branches in Ilam

Authors: Nahid Ehsani, Amir Hossein Rezvanfar

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to investigate psychological and socio-cultural factors effective on the tendency of the villagers to use e-banking services. The current paper is an applied study considering its objectives. The main data gathering tool in the current study is a made questionnaire which is designed and executed based on the conceptual background of the subject matter and the objectives and hypotheses of the study. The statistical population of this study includes all the customers of rural branches of Agricultural Bank in Ilam Province (N=82885). Among these 120 participants were chosen through sample size determination formula and they were studied using stratified random sampling method. In the analytical statistics level the results obtained from calculating Spearman’s Correlative Coefficient showed that socio-cultural and psychological factors had a significant impact of the extent of the tendency of the villagers to use e-banking services of the Agricultural Bank at the 99% level. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that both sets of psychological factors as well as socio-economic factors were able to explain 50 percent of the variance of the independent variable; namely the tendency of villagers to use e-banking services.

Keywords: e-banking, agricultural bank, tendency, socio-economic factors, psychological factors

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18 Ultrasound Enhanced Release of Active Targeting Liposomes Used for Cancer Treatment

Authors: Najla M. Salkho, Vinod Paul, Pierre Kawak, Rute F. Vitor, Ana M. Martin, Nahid Awad, Mohammad Al Sayah, Ghaleb A. Husseini

Abstract:

Liposomes are popular lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are highly efficient in encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic drugs. Liposomes promote a low risk controlled release of the drug avoiding the side effects of the conventional chemotherapy. One of the great potentials of liposomes is the ability to attach a wide range of ligands to their surface producing ligand-mediated active targeting of cancer tumour with limited adverse off-target effects. Ultrasound can also aid in the controlled and specified release of the drug from the liposomes by breaking it apart and releasing the drug in the specific location where the ultrasound is applied. Our research focuses on the synthesis of PEGylated liposomes (contain poly-ethylene glycol) encapsulated with the model drug calcein and studying the effect of low frequency ultrasound applied at different power densities on calcein release. In addition, moieties are attached to the surface of the liposomes for specific targeting of the cancerous cells which over-express the receptors of these moieties, ultrasound is then applied and the release results are compared with the moiety free liposomes. The results showed that attaching these moieties to the surface of the PEGylated liposomes not only enhance their active targeting but also stimulate calcein release from these liposomes.

Keywords: active targeting, liposomes, moieties, ultrasound

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17 Surface Pressure Distribution of a Flapped-Airfoil for Different Momentum Injection at the Leading Edge

Authors: Mohammad Mashud, S. M. Nahid Hasan

Abstract:

The aim of the research work is to modify the NACA 4215 airfoil with flap and rotary cylinder at the leading edge of the airfoil and experimentally study the static pressure distribution over the airfoil completed with flap and leading-edge vortex generator. In this research, NACA 4215 wing model has been constructed by generating the profile geometry using the standard equations and design software such as AutoCAD and SolidWorks. To perform the experiment, three wooden models are prepared and tested in subsonic wind tunnel. The experiments were carried out in various angles of attack. Flap angle and momentum injection rate are changed to observe the characteristics of pressure distribution. In this research, a new concept of flow separation control mechanism has been introduced to improve the aerodynamic characteristics of airfoil. Control of flow separation over airfoil which experiences a vortex generator (rotating cylinder) at the leading edge of airfoil is experimentally simulated under the effects of momentum injection. The experimental results show that the flow separation control is possible by the proposed mechanism, and benefits can be achieved by momentum injection technique. The wing performance is significantly improved due to control of flow separation by momentum injection method.

Keywords: airfoil, momentum injection, flap, pressure distribution

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16 An In-silico Pharmacophore-Based Anti-Viral Drug Development for Hepatitis C Virus

Authors: Romasa Qasim, G. M. Sayedur Rahman, Nahid Hasan, M. Shazzad Hosain

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Millions of people worldwide suffer from Hepatitis C, one of the fatal diseases. Interferon (IFN) and ribavirin are the available treatments for patients with Hepatitis C, but these treatments have their own side-effects. Our research focused on the development of an orally taken small molecule drug targeting the proteins in Hepatitis C Virus (HCV), which has lesser side effects. Our current study aims to the Pharmacophore based drug development of a specific small molecule anti-viral drug for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). Drug designing using lab experimentation is not only costly but also it takes a lot of time to conduct such experimentation. Instead in this in silico study, we have used computer-aided techniques to propose a Pharmacophore-based anti-viral drug specific for the protein domains of the polyprotein present in the Hepatitis C Virus. This study has used homology modeling and ab initio modeling for protein 3D structure generation followed by pocket identification in the proteins. Drug-able ligands for the pockets were designed using de novo drug design method. For ligand design, pocket geometry is taken into account. Out of several generated ligands, a new Pharmacophore is proposed, specific for each of the protein domains of HCV.

Keywords: pharmacophore-based drug design, anti-viral drug, in-silico drug design, Hepatitis C virus (HCV)

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15 Household Food Insecurity, Maternal Mental Health and Self-Efficacy

Authors: Nahid Salarkia, Nasrin Omidvar, Erfan Ghassemi, Vahideh Arab-Salari, Tirang Reza Neyestani

Abstract:

Background: Household food insecurity has an adverse impact on the maternal mental health. This study was carried out to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, maternal depression and mother’s self-efficacy in Varamin, Iran, in 2014. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 423 mothers with children under 2 years old, with mean age 28.1±5.2 year; weight 66.3±13.4 kg; height 160.3± 5.7 cm and BMI 25.7±4.8 kg/m2 were selected by a multistage random sampling scheme. The instruments were: Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-III) and mother’s self-efficacy questionnaire. Data was analyzed using χ2 test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: Mildly, moderately and severely food insecure households were 39.5, 9.7 and 3.1%, respectively. Mild, moderate and sever depression was: 18.7, 13.9 and 5.7%. Mean score of depression in moderate and severe food insecure (8.6±5.3) was more than mild food insecure (4.8±4.7) and food secure (3.1±3.6) mothers. Frequency of very good, good and low mother’s self-efficacy were 62.8, 36.5, and 0.7%, respectively. Very good mother’s self-efficacy in food secure mothers (33.4%) was more than mild (25.4%) and moderate-sever food insecure groups (4%). There was a negative significant association between household food insecurity and mother’s self-efficacy (r= -0.297, p<0.01), and between mother’s depression and self-efficacy (r= -0.309, p=0.001). Conclusion: Empowerment of mothers with educational programs and social support can decrease mothers’ depression and increase self-efficacy that lead to improve maternal practices in food insecure households.

Keywords: Household food insecurity, Iran, mothers, physiological characteristics, self-efficacy

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14 Design of an Ensemble Learning Behavior Anomaly Detection Framework

Authors: Abdoulaye Diop, Nahid Emad, Thierry Winter, Mohamed Hilia

Abstract:

Data assets protection is a crucial issue in the cybersecurity field. Companies use logical access control tools to vault their information assets and protect them against external threats, but they lack solutions to counter insider threats. Nowadays, insider threats are the most significant concern of security analysts. They are mainly individuals with legitimate access to companies information systems, which use their rights with malicious intents. In several fields, behavior anomaly detection is the method used by cyber specialists to counter the threats of user malicious activities effectively. In this paper, we present the step toward the construction of a user and entity behavior analysis framework by proposing a behavior anomaly detection model. This model combines machine learning classification techniques and graph-based methods, relying on linear algebra and parallel computing techniques. We show the utility of an ensemble learning approach in this context. We present some detection methods tests results on an representative access control dataset. The use of some explored classifiers gives results up to 99% of accuracy.

Keywords: cybersecurity, data protection, access control, insider threat, user behavior analysis, ensemble learning, high performance computing

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13 Role of mHealth in Effective Response to Disaster

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohamadian, Reza Safdari, Nahid Tavakoli

Abstract:

In recent years, many countries have suffered various natural disasters. Disaster response continues to face the challenges in health care sector in all countries. Information and communication management is a significant challenge in disaster scene. During the last decades, rapid advances in information technology have led to manage information effectively and improve communication in health care setting. Information technology is a vital solution for effective response to disasters and emergencies so that if an efficient ICT-based health information system is available, it will be highly valuable in such situation. Of that, mobile technology represents a nearly computing technology infrastructure that is accessible, convenient, inexpensive and easy to use. Most projects have not yet reached the deployment stage, but evaluation exercises show that mHealth should allow faster processing and transport of patients, improved accuracy of triage and better monitoring of unattended patients at a disaster scene. Since there is a high prevalence of cell phones among world population, it is expected the health care providers and managers to take measures for applying this technology for improvement patient safety and public health in disasters. At present there are challenges in the utilization of mhealth in disasters such as lack of structural and financial issues in our country. In this paper we will discuss about benefits and challenges of mhealth technology in disaster setting considering connectivity, usability, intelligibility, communication and teaching for implementing this technology for disaster response.

Keywords: information technology, mhealth, disaster, effective response

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12 Mapping of Adrenal Gland Diseases Research in Middle East Countries: A Scientometric Analysis, 2007-2013

Authors: Zahra Emami, Mohammad Ebrahim Khamseh, Nahid Hashemi Madani, Iman Kermani

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The aim of the study was to map scientific research on adrenal gland diseases in the Middle East countries through the Web of Science database using scientometric analysis. Data were analyzed with Excel software; and HistCite was used for mapping of the scientific texts. In this study, from a total of 268 retrieved records, 1125 authors from 328 institutions published their texts in 138 journals. Among 17 Middle East countries, Turkey ranked first with 164 documents (61.19%), Israel ranked second with 47 documents (15.53%) and Iran came in the third place with 26 documents. Most of the publications (185 documents, 69.2%) were articles. Among the universities of the Middle East, Istanbul University had the highest science production rate (9.7%). The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism had the highest TGCS (243 citations). In the scientific mapping, 7 clusters were formed based on TLCS (Total Local Citation Score) & TGCS (Total Global Citation Score). considering the study results, establishment of scientific connections and collaboration with other countries and use of publications on adrenal gland diseases from high ranking universities can help in the development of this field and promote the medical practice in this regard. Moreover, investigation of the formed clusters in relation to Congenital Hyperplasia and puberty related disorders can be research priorities for investigators.

Keywords: mapping, scientific research, adrenal gland diseases, scientometric

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11 Evaluating the Seismic Stress Distribution in the High-Rise Structures Connections with Optimal Bracing System

Authors: H. R. Vosoughifar, Seyedeh Zeinab. Hosseininejad, Nahid Shabazi, Seyed Mohialdin Hosseininejad

Abstract:

In recent years, structure designers advocate further application of energy absorption devices for lateral loads damping. The Un-bonded Braced Frame (UBF) system is one of the efficient damping systems, which is made of a smart combination of steel and concrete or mortar. In this system, steel bears the earthquake-induced axial force as compressive or tension forces without loss of strength. Concrete or mortar around the steel core acts as a constraint for brace and prevents brace buckling during seismic axial load. In this study, the optimal bracing system in the high-rise structures has been evaluated considering the seismic stress distribution in the connections. An actual 18-story structure was modeled using the proper Finite Element (FE) software where braced with UBF, Eccentrically Braced Frames (EBF) and Concentrically Braced Frame (CBF) systems. Nonlinear static pushover and time-history analyses are then performed so that the acquired results demonstrate that the UBF system reduces drift values in the high-rise buildings. Further statistical analyses show that there is a significant difference between the drift values of UBF system compared with those resulted from the EBF and CBF systems. Hence, the seismic stress distribution in the connections of the proposed structure which braced with UBF system was investigated.

Keywords: optimal bracing system, high-rise structure, finite element analysis (FEA), seismic stress

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10 Saadi: The Matter of Reality and Imagination

Authors: Mozhde Shafie, Nahid Naderi, Mandana Mangeli

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Is it true to say that Saadi was an idealized embodiment of his moral teachings in Gulistan and Boustan? The body of criticism on Saadi’s works suggests that his biography provides no clear and valid information to judge about the extent to which Saadi acted what he preached. His moral teachings depict a sort of individual and social morality which is defined in relation to power and falls in the category of political ethics. Political ethics appear as for the noble and the subordinate in Gulistan and Boustan. Ethics for the noble include all his teachings for governors and rulers in eulogies. On the other hand, ethics for the subordinate include all his suggestions for the public in relation to power position. Here, Saadi puts forward some conservative recommendations that trigger some contemporary critical commentaries. However, there are some cases where he takes up a third person narrative position to narrate the story of a king and a mendicant. In these stories, the mendicant is a witty man with bitter criticism on society, implying that one should relinquish earthly pleasures and advantages if he wants his criticism to be acceptable. First person narratives fall in two categories determinate and indeterminate narratives. Indirect speeches reflecting biographical facts are indeterminate narratives which give no information about the poet’s personality. Other narratives are more of an autobiography that report probable observations. These latter narratives demonstrate Saadi as a man quick at repartee that feels free to disclose his poverty and some cases of impiety. Therefore, they provide no idealized picture of the poet in terms of ethical principles.

Keywords: Saadi, ethics, Boustan, Gulistan, first-person narrative

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9 Juvenile Justice Reforms for the 21st Century: Promising Approaches in Bangladesh

Authors: Nahid Ferdousi

Abstract:

Juvenile justice is a key component of the child rights to keep the best interest and completely different from criminal justice. After independence of Bangladesh in 1971, the Children Act 1974 and the Children Rules 1976 were considered as the basic law for juvenile justice which written before many international instruments on children’s rights came into existence, did not align with the international mandate set by those instruments. These Acts were not really child rights-based and modern concept such as diversion, restorative justice and community-based rehabilitation has not developed accordingly. In this backdrop, government has enacted the new Children Act 2013 and introduced extensive reforms to the juvenile justice system in Bangladesh. The Act has been adopted with the provisions for child-friendly juvenile courts in each district and different kinds of child-oriented practices in a number of settings, such as, child affairs police officer, probation officer, national child welfare board, diversion, alternative preventive measures on the basis of international principles. Prior to the Act, there had been a number of High Court rulings which considered the international standards for juvenile justice. But the recent reforms to juvenile justice system hail a new commitment to the country’s international obligations to its children and a change in the philosophy guiding the treatment of offender children. This is high time to create an effective juvenile justice system for the 21st century in Bangladesh by the proper implementation of the Children Act 2013. Additionally, the new Children Rules should be enacted and juvenile courts along with correctional institutions should be established in each district in Bangladesh. This study assesses the juvenile justice reforms in Bangladesh over the five decades (1974-2014) and focuses on changes that will improve the system as a whole and enable us to better achieve the ends of fair juvenile justice.

Keywords: Juvenile justice reforms, international obligations, child-oriented practices, commitment of the state

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8 Patient Tracking Challenges During Disasters and Emergencies

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Reza Safdari, Mahmoud Keyvanara, Nahid Tavakoli

Abstract:

One of the greatest challenges in disaster and emergencies is patient tracking. The concept of tracking has different denotations. One of the meanings refers to tracking patients’ physical locations and the other meaning refers to tracking patients ‘medical needs during emergency services. The main goal of patient tracking is to provide patient safety during disaster and emergencies and manage the flow of patient and information in different locations. In most of cases, there are not sufficient and accurate data regarding the number of injuries, medical conditions and their accommodation and transference. The objective of the present study is to survey on patient tracking issue in natural disaster and emergencies. Methods: This was a narrative study in which the population was E-Journals and the electronic database such as PubMed, Proquest, Science direct, Elsevier, etc. Data was gathered by Extraction Form. All data were analyzed via content analysis. Results: In many countries there is no appropriate and rapid method for tracking patients and transferring victims after the occurrence of incidents. The absence of reliable data of patients’ transference and accommodation, even in the initial hours and days after the occurrence of disasters, and coordination for appropriate resource allocation, have faced challenges for evaluating needs and services challenges. Currently, most of emergency services are based on paper systems, while these systems do not act appropriately in great disasters and incidents and this issue causes information loss. Conclusion: Patient tracking system should update the location of patients or evacuees and information related to their states. Patients’ information should be accessible for authorized users to continue their treatment, accommodation and transference. Also it should include timely information of patients’ location as soon as they arrive somewhere and leave therein such a way that health care professionals can be able to provide patients’ proper medical treatment.

Keywords: patient tracking, challenges, disaster, emergency

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7 The Immunosuppressive Effects of Silymarin with Rapamaycin on the Proliferation and Apoptosis of T Cell

Authors: Nahid Eskandari, Marjan Ghagozolo, Ehsan Almasi

Abstract:

Introduction: Silymarin, as a polyphenolic flavonoid derived from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), is known to have antioxidant, immunomodulatory, antiproliferative, antifibrotic, and antiviral effects. The goal of this study was to determine immunosuppressive effect of Silymarin on proliferation and apoptosis of human T cells in comparison with Rapamycin and FK506. Methods: Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells (PBMCs) from healthy individuals were activated with Con A (5µg/ml) and then treated with Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 in various concentrations (0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10,100 and 200M) for 5 days. PBMCs were examined for proliferation using CFSE assay and the concentration that inhibited 50% of the cell proliferation (IC50) was determined for each treatment. For apoptosis assay using flow cytometry, PBMCs were activated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 for 5 days, then cell apoptosis was analysed by FITC-annexin V/PI staining and flow cytometry. The effects of Silymarin, Rapamycin and FK506 on the activation of PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) pathway in PBMCs stimulated with Con A and treated with IC50 dose of drugs for 5 days evaluated using the PathScan cleaved PARP sandwich ELISA kit. Results: This study showed that Silymarin had the ability to inhibit T cell proliferation in vitro. Moreover, our results indicated that 100 μM (P < 0.001) and 200 μM (P < 0.001) of Silymarin has more inhibitory effect on T cells proliferation than FK506 and Rapamycin. Our data showed that the effective doses (IC50) of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin were 3×10-5 µM, 10-8 µM and 10-6 µM respectively. Data showed that the inhibitory effect of Silymarin, FK506 and Rapamycin on T cell proliferation was not due to cytotoxicity and none of these drugs at IC50 concentration had not affected the level of cleaved PARP. Conclusion: Silymarin could be a good candidate for immunosuppressive therapy for certain medical conditions with superior efficacy and lesser toxicity in comparison with other immunosuppressive drugs.

Keywords: silymarin, immunosuppressive effect, rapamycin, immunology

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6 Women and Food Security: Evidence from Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey 2011

Authors: Abdullah Al. Morshed, Mohammad Nahid Mia

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Introduction: Food security refers to the availability of food and a person’s access to it. It is a complex sustainable development issue, which is closely related to under-nutrition. Food security, in turn, can widely affect the living standard, and is rooted in poverty and leads to poor health, low productivity, low income, food shortage, and hunger. The study's aim was to identify the most vulnerable women who are in insecure positions. Method: 17,842 married women were selected for analysis from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011. Food security defined as dichotomous variables of skipped meals and eaten less food at least once in the last year. The outcome variables were cross-tabulated with women's socio-demographic characteristics and chi2 test was applied to see the significance. Logistic regression models were applied to identify the most vulnerable groups in terms of food security. Result: Only 18.5% of women said that they ever had to skip meals in the last year. 45.7% women from low socioeconomic status had skip meal for at least once whereas only 3.6% were from women with highest socioeconomic status. Women meal skipping was ranged from 1.4% to 34.2% by their educational status. 22% of women were eaten less food during the last year. The rate was higher among the poorest (51.6%), illiterate (39.9%) and household have no electricity connection (38.1) in compared with richest (4.4%), higher educated (2.0%), and household has electricity connection (14.0%). The logistic regression analysis indicated that household socioeconomic status, and women education show strong gradients to skip meals. Poorest have had higher odds (20.9) than richest and illiterate women had 7.7 higher odds than higher educated. In terms of religion, Christianity was 2.3 times more likely to skip their meals than Islam. On the other hand, a similar trend was observed in our other outcome variable eat less food. Conclusion: In this study we able to identify women with lower economics status and women with no education were mostly suffered group from starvation.

Keywords: food security, hunger, under-nutrition, women

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5 The Role of Home Composting in Waste Management Cost Reduction

Authors: Nahid Hassanshahi, Ayoub Karimi-Jashni, Nasser Talebbeydokhti

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Due to the economic and environmental benefits of producing less waste, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) introduces source reduction as one of the most important means to deal with the problems caused by increased landfills and pollution. Waste reduction involves all waste management methods, including source reduction, recycling, and composting, which reduce waste flow to landfills or other disposal facilities. Source reduction of waste can be studied from two perspectives: avoiding waste production, or reducing per capita waste production, and waste deviation that indicates the reduction of waste transfer to landfills. The present paper has investigated home composting as a managerial solution for reduction of waste transfer to landfills. Home composting has many benefits. The use of household waste for the production of compost will result in a much smaller amount of waste being sent to landfills, which in turn will reduce the costs of waste collection, transportation and burial. Reducing the volume of waste for disposal and using them for the production of compost and plant fertilizer might help to recycle the material in a shorter time and to use them effectively in order to preserve the environment and reduce contamination. Producing compost in a home-based manner requires very small piece of land for preparation and recycling compared with other methods. The final product of home-made compost is valuable and helps to grow crops and garden plants. It is also used for modifying the soil structure and maintaining its moisture. The food that is transferred to landfills will spoil and produce leachate after a while. It will also release methane and greenhouse gases. But, composting these materials at home is the best way to manage degradable materials, use them efficiently and reduce environmental pollution. Studies have shown that the benefits of the sale of produced compost and the reduced costs of collecting, transporting, and burying waste can well be responsive to the costs of purchasing home compost machine and the cost of related trainings. Moreover, the process of producing home compost may be profitable within 4 to 5 years and as a result, it will have a major role in reducing waste management.

Keywords: compost, home compost, reducing waste, waste management

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4 Bio-Remediation of Lead-Contaminated Water Using Adsorbent Derived from Papaya Peel

Authors: Sahar Abbaszadeh, Sharifah Rafidah Wan Alwi, Colin Webb, Nahid Ghasemi, Ida Idayu Muhamad

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Toxic heavy metal discharges into environment due to rapid industrialization is a serious pollution problem that has drawn global attention towards their adverse impacts on both the structure of ecological systems as well as human health. Lead as toxic and bio-accumulating elements through the food chain, is regularly entering to water bodies from discharges of industries such as plating, mining activities, battery manufacture, paint manufacture, etc. The application of conventional methods to degrease and remove Pb(II) ion from wastewater is often restricted due to technical and economic constrains. Therefore, the use of various agro-wastes as low-cost bioadsorbent is found to be attractive since they are abundantly available and cheap. In this study, activated carbon of papaya peel (AC-PP) (as locally available agricultural waste) was employed to evaluate its Pb(II) uptake capacity from single-solute solutions in sets of batch mode experiments. To assess the surface characteristics of the adsorbents, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) coupled with energy disperse X-ray (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis were utilized. The removal amount of Pb(II) was determined by atomic adsorption spectrometry (AAS). The effects of pH, contact time, the initial concentration of Pb(II) and adsorbent dosage were investigated. The pH value = 5 was observed as optimum solution pH. The optimum initial concentration of Pb(II) in the solution for AC-PP was found to be 200 mg/l where the amount of Pb(II) removed was 36.42 mg/g. At the agitating time of 2 h, the adsorption processes using 100 mg dosage of AC-PP reached equilibrium. The experimental results exhibit high capability and metal affinity of modified papaya peel waste with removal efficiency of 93.22 %. The evaluation results show that the equilibrium adsorption of Pb(II) was best expressed by Freundlich isotherm model (R2 > 0.93). The experimental results confirmed that AC-PP potentially can be employed as an alternative adsorbent for Pb(II) uptake from industrial wastewater for the design of an environmentally friendly yet economical wastewater treatment process.

Keywords: activated carbon, bioadsorption, lead removal, papaya peel, wastewater treatment

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3 Investigating Best Practice Energy Efficiency Policies and Programs, and Their Replication Potential for Residential Sector of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Habib Alshuwaikhat, Nahid Hossain

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Residential sector consumes more than half of the produced electricity in Saudi Arabia, and fossil fuel is the main source of energy to meet growing household electricity demand in the Kingdom. Several studies forecasted and expressed concern that unless the domestic energy demand growth is controlled, it will reduce Saudi Arabia’s crude oil export capacity within a decade and the Kingdom is likely to be incapable of exporting crude oil within next three decades. Though the Saudi government has initiated to address the domestic energy demand growth issue, the demand side energy management policies and programs are focused on industrial and commercial sectors. It is apparent that there is an urgent need to develop a comprehensive energy efficiency strategy for addressing efficient energy use in residential sector in the Kingdom. Then again as Saudi Arabia is at its primary stage in addressing energy efficiency issues in its residential sector, there is a scope for the Kingdom to learn from global energy efficiency practices and design its own energy efficiency policies and programs. However, in order to do that sustainable, it is essential to address local contexts of energy efficiency. It is also necessary to find out the policies and programs that will fit to the local contexts. Thus the objective of this study was set to identify globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs in residential sector that have replication potential in Saudi Arabia. In this regard two sets of multi-criteria decision analysis matrices were developed to evaluate the energy efficiency policies and programs. The first matrix was used to evaluate the global energy efficiency policies and programs, and the second matrix was used to evaluate the replication potential of global best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia. Wuppertal Institute’s guidelines for energy efficiency policy evaluation were used to develop the matrices, and the different attributes of the matrices were set through available literature review. The study reveals that the best practice energy efficiency policies and programs with good replication potential for Saudi Arabia are those which have multiple components to address energy efficiency and are diversified in their characteristics. The study also indicates the more diversified components are included in a policy and program, the more replication potential it has for the Kingdom. This finding is consistent with other studies, where it is observed that in order to be successful in energy efficiency practices, it is required to introduce multiple policy components in a cluster rather than concentrate on a single policy measure. The developed multi-criteria decision analysis matrices for energy efficiency policy and program evaluation could be utilized to assess the replication potential of other globally best practice energy efficiency policies and programs for the residential sector of the Kingdom. In addition it has potential to guide Saudi policy makers to adopt and formulate its own energy efficiency policies and programs for Saudi Arabia.

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, residential sector, energy efficiency, policy evaluation

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2 Exploring Nature and Pattern of Mentoring Practices: A Study on Mentees' Perspectives

Authors: Nahid Parween Anwar, Sadia Muzaffar Bhutta, Takbir Ali

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Mentoring is a structured activity which is designed to facilitate engagement between mentor and mentee to enhance mentee’s professional capability as an effective teacher. Both mentor and mentee are important elements of the ‘mentoring equation’ and play important roles in nourishing this dynamic, collaborative and reciprocal relationship. Cluster-Based Mentoring Programme (CBMP) provides an indigenous example of a project which focused on development of primary school teachers in selected clusters with a particular focus on their classroom practice. A study was designed to examine the efficacy of CBMP as part of Strengthening Teacher Education in Pakistan (STEP) project. This paper presents results of one of the components of this study. As part of the larger study, a cross-sectional survey was employed to explore nature and patterns of mentoring process from mentees’ perspectives in the selected districts of Sindh and Balochistan. This paper focuses on the results of the study related to the question: What are mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ support for enhancing their classroom practice during mentoring process? Data were collected from mentees (n=1148) using a 5-point scale -‘Mentoring for Effective Primary Teaching’ (MEPT). MEPT focuses on seven factors of mentoring: personal attributes, pedagogical knowledge, modelling, feedback, system requirement, development and use of material, and gender equality. Data were analysed using SPSS 20. Mentees perceptions of mentoring practice of their mentors were summarized using mean and standard deviation. Results showed that mean scale scores on mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices fell between 3.58 (system requirement) and 4.55 (personal attributes). Mentees’ perceives personal attribute of the mentor as the most significant factor (M=4.55) towards streamlining mentoring process by building good relationship between mentor and mentees. Furthermore, mentees have shared positive views about their mentors efforts towards promoting gender impartiality (M=4.54) during workshop and follow up visit. Contrary to this, mentees felt that more could have been done by their mentors in sharing knowledge about system requirement (e.g. school policies, national curriculum). Furthermore, some of the aspects in high scoring factors were highlighted by the mentees as areas for further improvement (e.g. assistance in timetabling, written feedback, encouragement to develop learning corners). Mentees’ perceptions of their mentors’ practices may assist in determining mentoring needs. The results may prove useful for the professional development programme for the mentors and mentees for specific mentoring programme in order to enhance practices in primary classrooms in Pakistan. Results would contribute into the body of much-needed knowledge from developing context.

Keywords: cluster-based mentoring programme, mentoring for effective primary teaching (MEPT), professional development, survey

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1 The Effects of Science, Technology, Engineering and Math Problem-Based Learning on Native Hawaiians and Other Underrepresented, Low-Income, Potential First-Generation High School Students

Authors: Nahid Nariman

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The prosperity of any nation depends on its ability to use human potential, in particular, to offer an education that builds learners' competencies to become effective workforce participants and true citizens of the world. Ever since the Second World War, the United States has been a dominant player in the world politically, economically, socially, and culturally. The rapid rise of technological advancement and consumer technologies have made it clear that science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) play a crucial role in today’s world economy. Exploring the top qualities demanded from new hires in the industry—i.e., problem-solving skills, teamwork, dependability, adaptability, technical and communication skills— sheds light on the kind of path that is needed for a successful educational system to effectively support STEM. The focus of 21st century education has been to build student competencies by preparing them to acquire and apply knowledge, to think critically and creatively, to competently use information, be able to work in teams, to demonstrate intellectual and moral values as well as cultural awareness, and to be able to communicate. Many educational reforms pinpoint various 'ideal' pathways toward STEM that educators, policy makers, and business leaders have identified for educating the workforce of tomorrow. This study will explore how problem-based learning (PBL), an instructional strategy developed in the medical field and adopted with many successful results in K-12 through higher education, is the proper approach to stimulate underrepresented high school students' interest in pursuing STEM careers. In the current study, the effect of a problem-based STEM model on students' attitudes and career interests was investigated using qualitative and quantitative methods. The participants were 71 low-income, native Hawaiian high school students who would be first-generation college students. They were attending a summer STEM camp developed as the result of a collaboration between the University of Hawaii and the Upward Bound Program. The project, funded by the National Science Foundation's Innovative Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program, used PBL as an approach in challenging students to engage in solving hands-on, real-world problems in their communities. Pre-surveys were used before camp and post-surveys on the last day of the program to learn about the implementation of the PBL STEM model. A Career Interest Questionnaire provided a way to investigate students’ career interests. After the summer camp, a representative selection of students participated in focus group interviews to discuss their opinions about the PBL STEM camp. The findings revealed a significantly positive increase in students' attitudes towards STEM disciplines and STEM careers. The students' interview results also revealed that students identified PBL to be an effective form of instruction in their learning and in the development of their 21st-century skills. PBL was acknowledged for making the class more enjoyable and for raising students' interest in STEM careers, while also helping them develop teamwork and communication skills in addition to scientific knowledge. As a result, the integration of PBL and a STEM learning experience was shown to positively affect students’ interest in STEM careers.

Keywords: problem-based learning, science education, STEM, underrepresented students

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