Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 25

Search results for: Musalimov Viktor

25 The Current State Of Human Gait Simulator Development

Authors: Stepanov Ivan, Musalimov Viktor, Monahov Uriy

Abstract:

This report examines the current state of human gait simulator development based on the human hip joint model. This unit will create a database of human gait types, useful for setting up and calibrating mechano devices, as well as the creation of new systems of rehabilitation, exoskeletons and walking robots. The system has ample opportunity to configure the dimensions and stiffness, while maintaining relative simplicity.

Keywords: hip joint, human gait, physiotherapy, simulation

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24 Nonlinear Power Measurement Algorithm of the Input Mix Components of the Noise Signal and Pulse Interference

Authors: Alexey V. Klyuev, Valery P. Samarin, Viktor F. Klyuev, Andrey V. Klyuev

Abstract:

A power measurement algorithm of the input mix components of the noise signal and pulse interference is considered. The algorithm efficiency analysis has been carried out for different interference to signal ratio. Algorithm performance features have been explored by numerical experiment results.

Keywords: noise signal, pulse interference, signal power, spectrum width, detection

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23 The Effect of Arabic Gum on Polyethersulfone Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) to the dope solutions of polyethersulfone (PES) was studied. The aim of adding AG is to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. several AG loading (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in PES/ N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) casting solutions were prepared to fabricate PES membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PES/AG membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of oil solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG to PES membranes was found to increase the permeate flux and porosity as well as reducing surface roughness and the contact angle of the membranes.

Keywords: antifouling, Arabic gum, polyethersulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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22 Robust Adaptation to Background Noise in Multichannel C-OTDR Monitoring Systems

Authors: Andrey V. Timofeev, Viktor M. Denisov

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A robust sequential nonparametric method is proposed for adaptation to background noise parameters for real-time. The distribution of background noise was modelled like to Huber contamination mixture. The method is designed to operate as an adaptation-unit, which is included inside a detection subsystem of an integrated multichannel monitoring system. The proposed method guarantees the given size of a nonasymptotic confidence set for noise parameters. Properties of the suggested method are rigorously proved. The proposed algorithm has been successfully tested in real conditions of a functioning C-OTDR monitoring system, which was designed to monitor railways.

Keywords: guaranteed estimation, multichannel monitoring systems, non-asymptotic confidence set, contamination mixture

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21 The Use of Arabic Gum Mixed with Carbon Nanotubes Functionalized with Dodecylamine to Fabricate Superior Ultrafiltration Membranes

Authors: Yehia Manawi, Viktor Kochkodan, Muataz Hussien

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of adding Arabic Gum (AG) and carbon nanotubes functionalized with dodecylamine (CNT-DDA) to the casting solutions of polysulfone (PS) was investigated. The aim of adding AG and CNT-DDA was to enhance the properties of ultrafiltration membranes such as hydrophilicity, porosity and selectivity. Different CNT-DDA loadings (0.1-3.0 wt.%) in 2 wt.% AG were added to PS/dimethylacetamide (DMAc) casting solutions to prepare PS membranes using phase inversion technique. The surface morphology, hydrophilicity and selectivity of the cast PS/AG/CNT-DDA membranes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and contact angle measurements. The selectivity of the fabricated membranes was also tested by filtration of BSA solutions (1 ppm) and found to show quite high removal efficiency. The effect of adding AG and CNT-DDA to PS membranes was found to increase the hydrophilicity, porosity and hence the permeate flux of the fabricated membranes.

Keywords: Arabic gum, hydrophilicity, polysulfone membrane, ultrafiltration

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20 The Criteria of the Aesthetic Quality of Art: Contemporary Photography

Authors: Artem Surkov

Abstract:

This work is devoted to a problem of aesthetic quality determinism in the context of contemporary art. The object of study is photography regarding as a kind of art which demands specific system of quality marking. Objective: To define aesthetic criteria in photography art. For current searching different kind of texts by such powerful authors like Clement Greenberg and Rosalind Krauss, Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse, Charlott Cotton and Boris Groys, Viktor Miziano and Ekaterina Degot' were analyzed. Before all, there are two different kinds of photography: the classic art photography (by Ansel Adams) and the photography as kind of art (by Andreas Gursky). In this text we are talking about the photography as kind of art. The main principle of current searching is synthesis of two different approaches: modernism and postmodernism. This method helps us to define uniform criteria of aesthetic quality in photography as kind of art. The criteria mentioned in conclusion paragraph are: aesthetic rationality, aesthetic economy, awareness (using photographic technics or references), and intention to go beyond form, practice and method.

Keywords: aesthetic, art, criteria of quality, photography, visually

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19 Produce High-Quality Activated Carbon with a Large Surface Area from Date Seeds Biomass for Water Treatment

Authors: Rashad Al-Gaashani, Viktor Kochkodan, Jenny Lawler

Abstract:

Physico-chemical activation method wasused to produce high-quality activated carbon (AC) with a large surface area of about 2000 m2/g from low-cost and abundant biomasswastes in Qatar, namely date seeds. X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis were used to evaluate the AC samples. AC produced from date seeds have a wide range of the pores available, including micro- andnano-pores. This type of AC with a well-developed pore structure may be very attractive for different applications, including air and water purification from micro and nano pollutants. Heavy metalsiron (III) and copper (II) ions were removed from wastewater using the AC producedusinga batch adsorption technique. The AC produced from date seeds biomass wastes show high removal of heavy metals such as iron (III) ions (100%) and copper (II) ions (97.25%). The highest removal of copper (II) ions (100%) with AC produced from date seeds was found at pH 8, whereas the lowest removal (22.63%) occurred at pH 2. The effect of adsorption time, adsorbent dose, pH on the removal of heavy metalswere studied.

Keywords: activated carbon, date seeds, biomass, heavy metals removal, water treatment

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18 Salter Pelvic Osteotomy for the Treatment of Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip: Assessment of Postoperative Results and Risk Factors

Authors: Suvorov Vasyl, Filipchuk Viktor

Abstract:

Background: If non-surgical treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) fails or if DDH is late-detected, surgery is necessary. Salter pelvic osteotomy (SPO) is an effective surgical option for such cases. The objectives of this study were to assess the results after SPO, evaluate risk factors, and reveal those radiological parameters that may correlate with the results. Mid- and long-term postoperative results after SPO in 17 patients (22 hip joints) were analyzed. Risk factors included those that do not depend on the surgeon (patient's age, value of the acetabular index (AI) preoperatively, DDH Tonnis grade) and those that depend on the surgeon (amount of AI correction). To radiological parameters which may correlate with the amount of AI correction, we referred distance "d" and the lateral rotation angle. Results: SPO allows performing AI correction in ranges 24.1 ± 6.5°. Excellent and good clinical results were obtained in 95.5% of patients; excellent and good radiological results in 86.4% of patients. Risk factors that do not depend on the surgeon were older patient’s age and higher preoperative AI values (p < 0.05). The risk factor that depends on the surgeon was the amount of AI correction (p < 0.05). The distance "d" was recognized as a radiological parameter that may indicate sufficient AI correction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: In older patients with a higher preoperative AI value, the results will be predictably worse. The surgeon may influence the result with a greater amount of AI correction (which may also be indicated radiologically by the distance "d" values).

Keywords: developmental dysplasia of the hip, results, risk factor, pelvic osteotomy, salter osteotomy

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17 Carbon Nanomaterials from Agricultural Wastes for Adsorption of Organic Pollutions

Authors: Magdalena Blachnio, Viktor Bogatyrov, Mariia Galaburda, Anna Derylo-Marczewska

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Agricultural waste materials from traditional oil mill and after extraction of natural raw materials in supercritical conditions were used for the preparation of carbon nanomaterials (activated carbons) by two various methods. Chemical activation using acetic acid and physical activation with a gaseous agent (carbon dioxide) were chosen as mild and environmentally friendly ones. The effect of influential factors: type of raw material, temperature and activation agent on the porous structure characteristics of the materials was discussed by using N₂ adsorption/desorption isotherms at 77 K. Furthermore scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were employed to examine the physicochemical properties of the obtained sorbents. Selection of a raw material and an optimization of the conditions of the synthesis process, allowed to obtain the cheap sorbents with a targeted distribution of pores enabling effective adsorption of the model organic pollutants carried out in the multicomponent systems. Adsorption behavior (capacity and rate) of the chosen activated carbons was estimated by utilizing Crystal violet (CV), 4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (4-CPA), 2.4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2.4-D) as the adsorbates. Both rate and adsorption capacity of the organics on the sorbents evidenced that the activated carbons could be effectively used in sewage treatment plants. The mechanisms of organics adsorption were studied and correlated with activated carbons properties.

Keywords: activated carbon, adsorption equilibrium, adsorption kinetics, organics adsorption

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16 Breast Cancer as a Response to Distress in Women with or without a History of Precancerous Breast Disease

Authors: Viacheslav Sushko, Viktor Sushko

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Pre-cancerous breast diseases are pathological changes that precede the appearance of adenocarcinoma. The most common benign breast disease is mastopathy. We examined the life and disease history of 114 women aged 58-69 who were diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the breast at different stages of development. They filled out the Reeder Scale to determine the level of stress. The results of the study revealed that 62 of them had mastopathy at the age of 30-45 years old. These women refused surgical treatment for mastopathy. Five to six years before their diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the mammary gland, 84 women had experienced severe stress (death of a beloved close relative, torture accompanied by rape, prolonged stay in extreme conditions (under bombardment and bombardment). In the assessment of data from completed Reeder scales, 114 women had a high level of mental stress, with a score from 1-1.72. The 84 women who suffered from severe stress showed overeating or a significant decrease in food intake, insomnia, apathy, increased irritability and restlessness, loss of interest in sexual relationships, forgetfulness, difficulty in performing routine work, prolonged uncontrollable headaches, unexplained fatigue, heart pain, reduced capacity for work. In conclusion, it is important to provide psychotherapy for breast cancer patients as the diagnosis, and the different stages of treatment are very stressful. It is also advisable to see a psychiatrist at an early stage and prevent distress and treat precancerous breast disease.

Keywords: breast cancer, distress, mastopathy, severe stress

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15 Probabilistic Damage Tolerance Methodology for Solid Fan Blades and Discs

Authors: Andrej Golowin, Viktor Denk, Axel Riepe

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Solid fan blades and discs in aero engines are subjected to high combined low and high cycle fatigue loads especially around the contact areas between blade and disc. Therefore, special coatings (e.g. dry film lubricant) and surface treatments (e.g. shot peening or laser shock peening) are applied to increase the strength with respect to combined cyclic fatigue and fretting fatigue, but also to improve damage tolerance capability. The traditional deterministic damage tolerance assessment based on fracture mechanics analysis, which treats service damage as an initial crack, often gives overly conservative results especially in the presence of vibratory stresses. A probabilistic damage tolerance methodology using crack initiation data has been developed for fan discs exposed to relatively high vibratory stresses in cross- and tail-wind conditions at certain resonance speeds for limited time periods. This Monte-Carlo based method uses a damage databank from similar designs, measured vibration levels at typical aircraft operations and wind conditions and experimental crack initiation data derived from testing of artificially damaged specimens with representative surface treatment under combined fatigue conditions. The proposed methodology leads to a more realistic prediction of the minimum damage tolerance life for the most critical locations applicable to modern fan disc designs.

Keywords: combined fatigue, damage tolerance, engine, surface treatment

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14 Space Weather and Earthquakes: A Case Study of Solar Flare X9.3 Class on September 6, 2017

Authors: Viktor Novikov, Yuri Ruzhin

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The studies completed to-date on a relation of the Earth's seismicity and solar processes provide the fuzzy and contradictory results. For verification of an idea that solar flares can trigger earthquakes, we have analyzed a case of a powerful surge of solar flash activity early in September 2017 during approaching the minimum of 24th solar cycle was accompanied by significant disturbances of space weather. On September 6, 2017, a group of sunspots AR2673 generated a large solar flare of X9.3 class, the strongest flare over the past twelve years. Its explosion produced a coronal mass ejection partially directed towards the Earth. We carried out a statistical analysis of the catalogs of earthquakes USGS and EMSC for determination of the effect of solar flares on global seismic activity. New evidence of earthquake triggering due to the Sun-Earth interaction has been demonstrated by simple comparison of behavior of Earth's seismicity before and after the strong solar flare. The global number of earthquakes with magnitude of 2.5 to 5.5 within 11 days after the solar flare has increased by 30 to 100%. A possibility of electric/electromagnetic triggering of earthquake due to space weather disturbances is supported by results of field and laboratory studies, where the earthquakes (both natural and laboratory) were initiated by injection of electrical current into the Earth crust. For the specific case of artificial electric earthquake triggering the current density at a depth of earthquake, sources are comparable with estimations of a density of telluric currents induced by variation of space weather conditions due to solar flares. Acknowledgment: The work was supported by RFBR grant No. 18-05-00255.

Keywords: solar flare, earthquake activity, earthquake triggering, solar-terrestrial relations

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13 New Ethanol Method for Soft Tissue Imaging in Micro-CT

Authors: Matej Patzelt, Jan Dudak, Frantisek Krejci, Jan Zemlicka, Vladimir Musil, Jitka Riedlova, Viktor Sykora, Jana Mrzilkova, Petr Zach

Abstract:

Introduction: Micro-CT is well used for examination of bone structures and teeth. On the other hand visualization of the soft tissues is still limited. The goal of our study was to create a new fixation method for soft tissue imaging in micro-CT. Methodology: We used organs of 18 mice - heart, lungs, kidneys, liver and brain, which we fixated in ethanol after meticulous preparation. We fixated organs in different concentrations of ethanol and for different period of time. We used three types of ethanol concentration - 97%, 50% and ascending ethanol concentration (25%, 50%, 75%, 97% each for 12 hours). Fixated organs were scanned after 72 hours, 168 hours and 336 hours period of fixation. We scanned all specimens in micro-CT MARS (Medipix All Resolution System). Results: Ethanol method provided contrast enhancement in all studied organs in all used types of fixation. Fixation in 97% ethanol provided very fast fixation and the contrast among the tissues was visible already after 72 hours of fixation. Fixation for the period of 168 and 336 hours gave better details, especially in lung tissue, where alveoli were visualized. On the other hand, this type of fixation caused organs to petrify. Fixation in 50% ethanol provided best results in 336 hours fixation, details were visualized better than in 97% ethanol and samples were not as hard as in fixation in 97% ethanol. Best results were obtained in fixation in ascending ethanol concentration. All organs were visualized in great details, best-visualized organ was heart, where trabeculae and valves were visible. In this type of fixation, organs stayed soft for whole time. Conclusion: New ethanol method is a great option for soft tissue fixation as well as the method for enhancing contrast among tissues in organs. The best results were obtained with fixation of the organs in ascending ethanol concentration, the best visualized organ was the heart.

Keywords: x-ray imaging, small animals, ethanol, ex-vivo

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12 Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Wood Pellet Breakage during Pneumatic Transport

Authors: Julian Jaegers, Siegmar Wirtz, Viktor Scherer

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Wood pellets belong to the most established trade formats of wood-based fuels. Especially, because of the transportability and the storage properties, but also due to low moisture content, high energy density, and the homogeneous particle size and shape, wood pellets are well suited for power generation in power plants and for the use in automated domestic firing systems. Before they are thermally converted, wood pellets pass various transport and storage procedures. There they undergo different mechanical impacts, which leads to pellet breakage and abrasion and to an increase in fines. The fines lead to operational problems during storage, charging, and discharging of pellets, they can increase the risk of dust explosions and can lead to pollutant emissions during combustion. In the current work, the dependence of the formation of fines caused by breakage during pneumatic transport is analyzed experimentally and numerically. The focus lies on the influence of conveying velocity, pellet loading, pipe diameter, and the shape of pipe components like bends or couplings. A test rig has been built, which allows the experimental evaluation of the pneumatic transport varying the above-mentioned parameters. Two high-speed cameras are installed for the quantitative optical access to the particle-particle and particle-wall contacts. The particle size distribution of the bulk before and after a transport process is measured as well as the amount of fines produced. The experiments will be compared with results of corresponding DEM/CFD simulations to provide information on contact frequencies and forces. The contribution proposed will present experimental results and report on the status of the DEM/CFD simulations. The final goal of the project is to provide a better insight into pellet breakage during pneumatic transport and to develop guidelines ensuring a more gentle transport.

Keywords: DEM/CFD-simulation of pneumatic conveying, mechanical impact on wood pellets during transportation, pellet breakage, pneumatic transport of wood pellets

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11 Performance Assessment of Carrier Aggregation-Based Indoor Mobile Networks

Authors: Viktor R. Stoynov, Zlatka V. Valkova-Jarvis

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The intelligent management and optimisation of radio resource technologies will lead to a considerable improvement in the overall performance in Next Generation Networks (NGNs). Carrier Aggregation (CA) technology, also known as Spectrum Aggregation, enables more efficient use of the available spectrum by combining multiple Component Carriers (CCs) in a virtual wideband channel. LTE-A (Long Term Evolution–Advanced) CA technology can combine multiple adjacent or separate CCs in the same band or in different bands. In this way, increased data rates and dynamic load balancing can be achieved, resulting in a more reliable and efficient operation of mobile networks and the enabling of high bandwidth mobile services. In this paper, several distinct CA deployment strategies for the utilisation of spectrum bands are compared in indoor-outdoor scenarios, simulated via the recently-developed Realistic Indoor Environment Generator (RIEG). We analyse the performance of the User Equipment (UE) by integrating the average throughput, the level of fairness of radio resource allocation, and other parameters, into one summative assessment termed a Comparative Factor (CF). In addition, comparison of non-CA and CA indoor mobile networks is carried out under different load conditions: varying numbers and positions of UEs. The experimental results demonstrate that the CA technology can improve network performance, especially in the case of indoor scenarios. Additionally, we show that an increase of carrier frequency does not necessarily lead to improved CF values, due to high wall-penetration losses. The performance of users under bad-channel conditions, often located in the periphery of the cells, can be improved by intelligent CA location. Furthermore, a combination of such a deployment and effective radio resource allocation management with respect to user-fairness plays a crucial role in improving the performance of LTE-A networks.

Keywords: comparative factor, carrier aggregation, indoor mobile network, resource allocation

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10 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems

Authors: Viktor Soprunyuk, Wilfried Schranz, Patrick Huber

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In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).

Keywords: biological systems, liquids, glasses, amorphous systems, nanoporous materials, phase transition

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9 Influence оf Viscous Dampers on Seismic Response оf Isolated Bridges Including Soil Structure Interaction

Authors: Marija Vitanova, Aleksandra Bogdanovic, Kemal Edip, Viktor Hristovski, Vlado Micov

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Bridges represent critical structures in lifeline systems. They provide reliable modes of transportation, so their failure can seriously obstruct relief and rehabilitation work. Earthquake ground motions can cause significant damages in bridges, so during the strong earthquakes, they can easily collapse. The base isolation technique has been quite effective in seismic response mitigation of the bridges in reducing the piers base shear. The effect of soil structure interaction on the dynamic responses of seismically isolated three span girder bridge with viscous dampers is investigated. Viscous dampers are installed in the mid span of the bridge to control bearing displacement. The soil surrounding the foundation of piers has been analyzed by applying different soil densities in order to consider the soil stiffness. The soil medium has been assumed as a four layered infill as dense and loose medium. The boundaries in the soil medium are considered as infinite elements in order to absorb the radiating waves. The formulation of infinite elements is the same as for the finite elements in addition to the mapping of the domain. Based on the iso-parametric concept, the infinite element in global coordinate is mapped onto an element in local coordinate system. In the formulation of the infinite element, only the positive direction extends to infinity thus allowing the waves to propagate outside of the soil medium. Dynamic analyses for two levels of earthquake intensity are performed in time domain using direct integration method. In order to specify the effects of the SSI, the responses of the isolated and controlled isolated bridges are compared. It is observed that the soil surrounding the piers has significant effects on the bearing displacement of the isolated RC bridges. In addition, it is observed that the seismic responses of isolated RC bridge reduced significantly with the installation of the viscous dampers.

Keywords: viscous dampers, reinforced concrete girder bridges, seismic response, SSI

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8 The Desire for Significance & Memorability in Popular Culture: A Cognitive Psychological Study of Contemporary Literature, Art, and Media

Authors: Israel B. Bitton

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“Memory” is associated with various phenomena, from physical to mental, personal to collective and historical to cultural. As part of a broader exploration of memory studies in philosophy and science (slated for academic publication October 2021), this specific study employs analytical methods of cognitive psychology and philosophy of memory to theorize that A) the primary human will (drive) is to significance, in that every human action and expression can be rooted in a most primal desire to be cosmically significant (however that is individually perceived); and B) that the will to significance manifests as the will to memorability, an innate desire to be remembered by others after death. In support of these broad claims, a review of various popular culture “touchpoints”—historic and contemporary records spanning literature, film and television, traditional news media, and social media—is presented to demonstrate how this very theory is repeatedly and commonly expressed (and has been for a long time) by many popular public figures as well as “everyday people.” Though developed before COVID, the crisis only increased the theory’s relevance: so many people were forced to die alone, leaving them and their loved ones to face even greater existential angst than what ordinarily accompanies death since the usual expectations for one’s “final moments” were shattered. To underscore this issue of, and response to, what can be considered a sociocultural “memory gap,” this study concludes with a summary of several projects launched by journalists at the height of the pandemic to document the memorable human stories behind COVID’s tragic warped speed death toll that, when analyzed through the lens of Viktor E. Frankl’s psychoanalytical perspective on “existential meaning,” shows how countless individuals were robbed of the last wills and testaments to their self-significance and memorability typically afforded to the dying and the aggrieved. The resulting insight ought to inform how government and public health officials determine what is truly “non-essential” to human health, physical and mental, at times of crisis.

Keywords: cognitive psychology, covid, neuroscience, philosophy of memory

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7 Nanofiltration Membranes with Deposyted Polyelectrolytes: Caracterisation and Antifouling Potential

Authors: Viktor Kochkodan

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The main problem arising upon water treatment and desalination using pressure driven membrane processes such as microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration and reverse osmosis is membrane fouling that seriously hampers the application of the membrane technologies. One of the main approaches to mitigate membrane fouling is to minimize adhesion interactions between a foulant and a membrane and the surface coating of the membranes with polyelectrolytes seems to be a simple and flexible technique to improve the membrane fouling resistance. In this study composite polyamide membranes NF-90, NF-270, and BW-30 were modified using electrostatic deposition of polyelectrolyte multilayers made from various polycationic and polyanionic polymers of different molecular weights. Different anionic polyelectrolytes such as: poly(sodium 4-styrene sulfonate), poly(vinyl sulfonic acid, sodium salt), poly(4-styrene sulfonic acid-co-maleic acid) sodium salt, poly(acrylic acid) sodium salt (PA) and cationic polyelectrolytes such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride), poly(ethylenimine) and poly(hexamethylene biguanide were used for membrane modification. An effect of deposition time and a number of polyelectrolyte layers on the membrane modification has been evaluated. It was found that degree of membrane modification depends on chemical nature and molecular weight of polyelectrolytes used. The surface morphology of the prepared composite membranes was studied using atomic force microscopy. It was shown that the surface membrane roughness decreases significantly as a number of the polyelectrolyte layers on the membrane surface increases. This smoothening of the membrane surface might contribute to the reduction of membrane fouling as lower roughness most often associated with a decrease in surface fouling. Zeta potentials and water contact angles on the membrane surface before and after modification have also been evaluated to provide addition information regarding membrane fouling issues. It was shown that the surface charge of the membranes modified with polyelectrolytes could be switched between positive and negative after coating with a cationic or an anionic polyelectrolyte. On the other hand, the water contact angle was strongly affected when the outermost polyelectrolyte layer was changed. Finally, a distinct difference in the performance of the noncoated membranes and the polyelectrolyte modified membranes was found during treatment of seawater in the non-continuous regime. A possible mechanism of the higher fouling resistance of the modified membranes has been discussed.

Keywords: contact angle, membrane fouling, polyelectrolytes, surface modification

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6 Teicoplanin Derivatives with Antiviral Activity: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

Authors: Zsolt Szucs, Viktor Kelemen, Son Le Thai, Magdolna Csavas, Erzsebet Roth, Gyula Batta, Annelies Stevaert, Evelien Vanderlinden, Aniko Borbas, Lieve Naesens, Pal Herczegh

Abstract:

The approval of modern glycopeptide antibiotics such as dalbavancin and oritavancin which have excellent activity against Gram-positive bacteria, encouraged our research group to prepare semisynthetic compounds from several members of glycopeptides by various chemical methods. Derivatives from the aglycone of ristocetin, eremomycin, vancomycin and a pseudoaglycon of teicoplanin have been synthesized in a systematic manner. Interestingly, some of the aglycoristocetin derivatives displayed noteworthy anti-influenza activity. More recently our group has been focusing on the modifications of one of the pseudoaglycons of teicoplanin. The reaction of N-ethoxycarbonyl maleimide derivatives with the primary amino function, the copper-catalysed azide-alkyne click reaction and the sulfonylation of the N-terminus were utilized to obtain systematic series of compounds. All substituents provide a more lipophilic character to the new molecules compared to the parent antibiotics, which is known to be favourable for activity against resistant bacteria. Lipoglycopeptides are also known to have antiviral properties, which has been predominantly studied on HIV by others. The structure-activity relationship study of our compounds revealed the influence of a few structural elements on biological activity. In many cases, minimal changes in lipophilicity and structure produced great differences in efficacy and cytotoxicity. In vitro experiments showed that these compounds are not only active against glycopeptide resistant Gram-positive bacteria but in several cases they prevent the infection of cell cultures by different strains of influenza viruses. This is probably related to the inhibition of the viral entry into the host cell nucleus, of which the exact mechanism is unknown. In some instances, reasonably low concentrations were sufficient to observe this effect. Several derivatives were highly cytotoxic at the same time, but some of them displayed a good selectivity index. The antiviral properties of the compounds are not restricted to influenza viruses e.g., some of them showed good activity against Human Coronavirus 229E. This work could potentially lead to the development of antiviral drugs which possess the crucial structural motifs that are needed for antiviral activity, while missing those which contribute to the antibacterial effect.

Keywords: antiviral, glycopeptide, semisynthetic, teicoplanin

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5 Recognition by the Voice and Speech Features of the Emotional State of Children by Adults and Automatically

Authors: Elena E. Lyakso, Olga V. Frolova, Yuri N. Matveev, Aleksey S. Grigorev, Alexander S. Nikolaev, Viktor A. Gorodnyi

Abstract:

The study of the children’s emotional sphere depending on age and psychoneurological state is of great importance for the design of educational programs for children and their social adaptation. Atypical development may be accompanied by violations or specificities of the emotional sphere. To study characteristics of the emotional state reflection in the voice and speech features of children, the perceptual study with the participation of adults and the automatic recognition of speech were conducted. Speech of children with typical development (TD), with Down syndrome (DS), and with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) aged 6-12 years was recorded. To obtain emotional speech in children, model situations were created, including a dialogue between the child and the experimenter containing questions that can cause various emotional states in the child and playing with a standard set of toys. The questions and toys were selected, taking into account the child’s age, developmental characteristics, and speech skills. For the perceptual experiment by adults, test sequences containing speech material of 30 children: TD, DS, and ASD were created. The listeners were 100 adults (age 19.3 ± 2.3 years). The listeners were tasked with determining the children’s emotional state as “comfort – neutral – discomfort” while listening to the test material. Spectrographic analysis of speech signals was conducted. For automatic recognition of the emotional state, 6594 speech files containing speech material of children were prepared. Automatic recognition of three states, “comfort – neutral – discomfort,” was performed using automatically extracted from the set of acoustic features - the Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (GeMAPS) and the extended Geneva Minimalistic Acoustic Parameter Set (eGeMAPS). The results showed that the emotional state is worse determined by the speech of TD children (comfort – 58% of correct answers, discomfort – 56%). Listeners better recognized discomfort in children with ASD and DS (78% of answers) than comfort (70% and 67%, respectively, for children with DS and ASD). The neutral state is better recognized by the speech of children with ASD (67%) than by the speech of children with DS (52%) and TD children (54%). According to the automatic recognition data using the acoustic feature set GeMAPSv01b, the accuracy of automatic recognition of emotional states for children with ASD is 0.687; children with DS – 0.725; TD children – 0.641. When using the acoustic feature set eGeMAPSv01b, the accuracy of automatic recognition of emotional states for children with ASD is 0.671; children with DS – 0.717; TD children – 0.631. The use of different models showed similar results, with better recognition of emotional states by the speech of children with DS than by the speech of children with ASD. The state of comfort is automatically determined better by the speech of TD children (precision – 0.546) and children with ASD (0.523), discomfort – children with DS (0.504). The data on the specificities of recognition by adults of the children’s emotional state by their speech may be used in recruitment for working with children with atypical development. Automatic recognition data can be used to create alternative communication systems and automatic human-computer interfaces for social-emotional learning. Acknowledgment: This work was financially supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project 18-18-00063).

Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, automatic recognition of speech, child’s emotional speech, Down syndrome, perceptual experiment

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4 Tuberculosis Outpatient Treatment in the Context of Reformation of the Health Care System

Authors: Danylo Brindak, Viktor Liashko, Olexander Chepurniy

Abstract:

Despite considerable experience in implementation of the best international approaches and services within response to epidemy of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, the results of situation analysis indicate the presence of faults in this area. In 2014, Ukraine (for the first time) was included in the world’s five countries with the highest level of drug-resistant tuberculosis. The effectiveness of its treatment constitutes only 35% in the country. In this context, the increase in allocation of funds to control the epidemic of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis does not produce perceptible positive results. During 2001-2016, only the Global Fund to fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria allocated to Ukraine more than USD 521,3 million for programs of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS control. However, current conditions in post-Semashko system create little motivation for rational use of resources or cost control at inpatient TB facilities. There is no motivation to reduce overdue hospitalization and to target resources to priority sectors of modern tuberculosis control, including a model of care focused on the patient. In the presence of a line-item budget at medical institutions, based on the input factors as the ratios of beds and staff, there is a passive disposal of budgetary funds by health care institutions and their employees who have no motivation to improve quality and efficiency of service provision. Outpatient treatment of tuberculosis is being implemented in Ukraine since 2011 and has many risks, namely creation of parallel systems, low consistency through dependence on funding for the project, reduced the role of the family doctor, the fragmentation of financing, etc. In terms of reforming approaches to health system financing, which began in Ukraine in late 2016, NGO Infection Control in Ukraine conducted piloting of a new, motivating method of remuneration of employees in primary health care. The innovative aspect of this funding mechanism is cost according to results of treatment. The existing method of payment on the basis of the standard per inhabitant (per capita ratio) was added with motivating costs according to results of work. The effectiveness of such treatment of TB patients at the outpatient stage is 90%, while in whole on the basis of a current system the effectiveness of treatment of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB with positive swab is around 60% in the country. Even though Ukraine has 5.24 TB beds per 10 000 citizens. Implemented pilot model of ambulatory treatment will be used for the creation of costs system according to results of activities, the integration of TB and primary health and social services and their focus on achieving results, the reduction of inpatient treatment of tuberculosis.

Keywords: health care reform, multi-drug resistant tuberculosis, outpatient treatment efficiency, tuberculosis

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3 The Role of Behavioral Syndromes in Human-Cattle Interactions: A Physiological Approach

Authors: Fruzsina Luca Kézér, Viktor Jurkovich, Ottó Szenci, János Tőzsér, Levente Kovács

Abstract:

Positive interaction between people and animals could have a favorable effect on the welfare and production by reducing stress levels. However, to the repeated contact with humans (e.g. farm staff, veterinarians or herdsmen), animals may respond with escape behavior or avoidance, which both have negative effects on the ease of handling, welfare and may lead to the expression of aggressive behaviors. Rough or aversive handling can impair health and the function of the cardiac autonomic activity due to fear and stress, which also can be determined by certain parameters of heart rate variability (HRV). Although the essential relationships between fear from humans and basal tone of the autonomic nervous system were described by the authors previously, several questions remained unclear in terms of the associations between different coping strategies (behavioral syndromes) of the animals and physiological responsiveness to humans. The main goal of this study was to find out whether human behavior and emotions to the animals have an impact on cardiac function and behavior of animals with different coping styles in response situations. Therefore, in the present study, special (fear, approaching, restraint, novel arena, novel object) tests were performed on healthy, 2-year old heifers (n = 104) differing in coping styles [reactive (passive) vs. proactive (active) coping]. Animals were categorized as reactive or proactive based on the following tests: 1) aggressive behavior at the feeding bunk, 2) avoidance from an approaching person, 3) immobility, and 4) daily activity (number of posture changes). Heart rate, the high frequency (HF) component of HRV as a measure of vagal activity and the ratio between the low frequency (LF) and HF components (LF/HF ratio) as a parameter of sympathetic nervous system activity were calculated for all individual during lying posture (baseline) and for response situations in novel object, novel arena, and unfamiliar person tests (both for 5 min), respectively. The differences between baseline and response were compared between groups. Higher sympathetic (higher heart rates and LF/HF ratios) and lower parasympathetic activity (lower HF) was found for proactive animals in response situations than for reactive (passive) animals either during the novel object, the novel arena and the unfamiliar person test. It suggests that animals with different behavioral traits differ in their immediate autonomic adaptation to novelty and people. Based on our preliminary results, it seems, that the analysis of HRV can help to understand the physiological manifestation of responsiveness to novelty and human presence in dairy cattle with different behavioral syndromes.

Keywords: behavioral syndromes, human-cattle interaction, novel arena test, physiological responsiveness, proactive coping, reactive coping

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2 Structural, Spectral and Optical Properties of Boron-Aluminosilicate Glasses with High Dy₂O₃ and Er₂O₃ Content for Faraday Rotator Operating at 2µm

Authors: Viktor D. Dubrovin, Masoud Mollaee, Jie Zong, Xiushan Zhu, Nasser Peyghambarian

Abstract:

Glasses doped with high rare-earth (RE) elements concentration attracted considerable attention since the middle of the 20th century due to their particular magneto-optical properties. Such glasses exhibit the Faraday effect in which the polarization plane of a linearly polarized light beam is rotated by the interaction between the incident light and the magneto-optical material. That effect found application in optical isolators that are useful for laser systems, which can prevent back reflection of light into lasers or optical amplifiers and reduce signal instability and noise. Glasses are of particular interest since they are cost-effective and can be formed into fibers, thus breaking the limits of traditional bulk optics requiring optical coupling for use with fiber-optic systems. The advent of high-power fiber lasers operating near 2µm revealed a necessity in the development of all fiber isolators for this region. Ce³⁺, Pr³⁺, Dy³⁺, and Tb³⁺ ions provide the biggest contribution to the Verdet constant value of optical materials among the RE. It is known that Pr³⁺ and Tb³⁺ ions have strong absorption bands near 2 µm, thus making Dy³⁺ and Ce³⁺ the only prospective candidates for fiber isolator operating in that region. Due to the high tendency of Ce³⁺ ions pass to Ce⁴⁺ during the synthesis, glasses with high cerium content usually suffers from Ce⁴⁺ ions absorption extending from visible to IR. Additionally, Dy³⁺ (₆H¹⁵/²) same as Ho³⁺ (⁵I₈) ions, have the largest effective magnetic moment (µeff = 10.6 µB) among the RE ions that starts to play the key role if the operating region is far from 4fⁿ→ 4fⁿ⁻¹5 d¹ electric-dipole transition relevant to the Faraday Effect. Considering the high effective magnetic moment value of Er³⁺ ions (µeff = 9.6 µB) that is 3rd after Dy³⁺/ Ho³⁺ and Tb³⁺, it is possible to assume that Er³⁺ doped glasses should exhibit Verdet constant value near 2µm that is comparable with one of Dy doped glasses. Thus, partial replacement of Dy³⁺ on Er³⁺ ions has been performed, keeping the overall concentration of Re₂O₃ equal to 70 wt.% (30.6 mol.%). Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ (RE= Er, Dy) glasses had been synthesized, and their thermal, spectral, optical, structural, and magneto-optical properties had been studied. Glasses synthesis had been conducted in Pt crucibles for 3h at 1500 °C. The obtained melt was poured into preheated up to 400 °C mold and annealed from 800 oC to room temperature for 12h with 1h dwell. The mass of obtained glass samples was about 200g. Shown that the difference between crystallization and glass transition temperature is about 150 oC, even taking into account the fact that high content of RE₂O₃ leads to glass network depolymerization. Verdet constant of Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses for wavelength 1950 nm can reach more than 5.9 rad/(T*m), which is among the highest number reported for a paramagnetic glass at this wavelength. The refractive index value was found to be equal to 1.7545 at 633 nm. Our experimental results show that Al₂O₃-B₂O₃-SiO₂-30.6RE₂O₃ glasses with high Dy₂O₃ content are expected to be promising material for use as highly effective Faraday isolators and modulators of electromagnetic radiation in the 2μm region.

Keywords: oxide glass, magneto-optical, dysprosium, erbium, Faraday rotator, boron-aluminosilicate system

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1 Influence of the Local External Pressure on Measured Parameters of Cutaneous Microcirculation

Authors: Irina Mizeva, Elena Potapova, Viktor Dremin, Mikhail Mezentsev, Valeri Shupletsov

Abstract:

The local tissue perfusion is regulated by the microvascular tone which is under the control of a number of physiological mechanisms. Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) together with wavelet analyses is the most commonly used technique to study the regulatory mechanisms of cutaneous microcirculation. External factors such as temperature, local pressure of the probe on the skin, etc. influence on the blood flow characteristics and are used as physiological tests to evaluate microvascular regulatory mechanisms. Local probe pressure influences on the microcirculation parameters measured by optical methods: diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and LDF. Therefore, further study of probe pressure effects can be useful to improve the reliability of optical measurement. During pressure tests variation of the mean perfusion measured by means of LDF usually is estimated. An additional information concerning the physiological mechanisms of the vascular tone regulation system in response to local pressure can be obtained using spectral analyses of LDF samples. The aim of the present work was to develop protocol and algorithm of data processing appropriate for study physiological response to the local pressure test. Involving 6 subjects (20±2 years) and providing 5 measurements for every subject we estimated intersubject and-inter group variability of response of both averaged and oscillating parts of the LDF sample on external surface pressure. The final purpose of the work was to find special features which further can be used in wider clinic studies. The cutaneous perfusion measurements were carried out by LAKK-02 (SPE LAZMA Ltd., Russia), the skin loading was provided by the originally designed device which allows one to distribute the pressure around the LDF probe. The probe was installed on the dorsal part of the distal finger of the index figure. We collected measurements continuously for one hour and varied loading from 0 to 180mmHg stepwise with a step duration of 10 minutes. Further, we post-processed the samples using the wavelet transform and traced the energy of oscillations in five frequency bands over time. Weak loading leads to pressure-induced vasodilation, so one should take into account that the perfusion measured under pressure conditions will be overestimated. On the other hand, we revealed a decrease in endothelial associated fluctuations. Further loading (88 mmHg) induces amplification of pulsations in all frequency bands. We assume that such loading leads to a higher number of closed capillaries, higher input of arterioles in the LDF signal and as a consequence more vivid oscillations which mainly are formed in arterioles. External pressure higher than 144 mmHg leads to the decrease of oscillating components, after removing the loading very rapid restore of the tissue perfusion takes place. In this work, we have demonstrated that local skin loading influence on the microcirculation parameters measured by optic technique; this should be taken into account while developing portable electronic devices. The proposed protocol of local loading allows one to evaluate PIV as far as to trace dynamic of blood flow oscillations. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation under project N 18-15-00201.

Keywords: blood microcirculation, laser Doppler flowmetry, pressure-induced vasodilation, wavelet analyses blood

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