Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18

Search results for: Mukul Dhiman

18 3D Printing: Rebounding from Global Supply Chain Disruption Due to Natural Disaster

Authors: Gurjinder Singh, Jasmeen Kaur, Mukul Dhiman

Abstract:

This paper mainly describes the significance of 3D printing in the supply chain management in a scenario when there is disruption in global supply chain. Furthermore, the development and implementation of supply chain strategies in context of 3D printing technology is framed to make supply chain of an organization resilient to disruption caused by natural disasters.

Keywords: 3D printing, global supply chain, supply chain management, supply chain strategies

Procedia PDF Downloads 386
17 Survey of Some Important Nepalese and Russian Anti-Diabetic Herbs

Authors: Ram Prasad Baral, Vinogradov Dmitriy Valerievich, Rameshwar Adhikari

Abstract:

Diabetes has posed a great threat to the human health worldwide, both in developed and developing countries. The disease has basically rooted from the dramatically changed way of living of the present day human civilization as our living has deviated from what the nature has adapted us for. In this context, due to availability of wide range of climatic condition and hence the wide spectrum of biodiversity, Nepal is blessed with a valuable reservoir of medicinal herbs. These assets have been utilized and developed practices in traditional medicines and Ayurvedic way of treatment over several thousand years in the region. It has been established since ancient times that each and every plant has a specific medicinal value. There are many plants’ products which have been utilized in Ayurvedic medicine for the effective treatment of diabetes. The medicaments are less expensive and pose practically no side effects. In this work, we report a general survey of anti-diabetic properties of some medicinal herbs with pronounced effects and their applications. The plants covered in this study originate from far western region of Nepal and include Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, and Hippophae salicifolia.

Keywords: Ficus racemosa, Momordica charantia, Azadirachta indica, Helieteres isora, Saraca asoca, Ichnocarpus frutescens, Tinospora sinensis, Commiphora mukul, Coccinia grandis, Hippophae salicifolia

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
16 An Investigation of Machinability of Inconel 718 in EDM Using Different Cryogenic Treated Tools

Authors: Pradeep Joshi, Prashant Dhiman, Shiv Dayal Dhakad

Abstract:

Inconel 718 is a family if Nickel-Chromium based Superalloy; it has very high oxidation and corrosion resistance. Inconel 718 is widely being used in aerospace, engine, turbine etc. due to its high mechanical strength and creep resistance. Being widely used, its machining should be easy but in real its machining is very difficult, especially by using traditional machining methods. It becomes easy to machine only by using non Traditional machining such as EDM. During EDM machining there is wear of both tool and workpiece, the tool wear is undesired because it changes tool shape, geometry. To reduce the tool wear rate (TWR) cryogenic treatment is performed on tool before the machining operation. The machining performances of the process are to be evaluated in terms of MRR, TWR which are functions of Discharge current, Pulse on-time, Pulse Off-time.

Keywords: EDM, cyrogenic, TWR, MRR

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
15 Effect of Prandtl Number on Flow and Heat Transfer Across a Confined Equilateral Triangular Cylinder

Authors: Tanveer Rasool, A. K. Dhiman

Abstract:

The paper reports 2-D numerical study used to investigate the effect of changing working fluids with Prandtl numbers 0.71, 10 and 50 on the flow and convective heat transfer across an equilateral triangular cylinder placed in a horizontal channel with its apex facing the flow. Numerical results have been generated for fixed blockage ratio of 50% and for three Reynolds numbers of 50, 75, and 100 for each Prandtl numbers respectively. The studies show that for above range of Reynolds numbers, the overall drag coefficient is insensitive to the Prandtl number changes while as the heat transfer characteristics change drastically with changing Prandtl number of the working fluid. The results generated are in complete agreement with the previous literature available.

Keywords: Prandtl number, Reynolds number, drag coefficient, flow and isothermal patterns

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
14 Studying the Effect of Silicon Substrate Intrinsic Carrier Concentration on Performance of ZnO/Si Solar Cells

Authors: Syed Sadique Anwer Askari, Mukul Kumar Das

Abstract:

Zinc Oxide (ZnO) solar cells have drawn great attention due to the enhanced efficiency and low-cost fabrication process. In this study, ZnO thin film is used as the active layer, hole blocking layer, antireflection coating (ARC) as well as transparent conductive oxide. To improve the conductivity of ZnO, top layer of ZnO is doped with aluminum, for top contact. Intrinsic carrier concentration of silicon substrate plays an important role in enhancing the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of ZnO/Si solar cell. With the increase of intrinsic carrier concentration PCE decreased due to increase in dark current in solar cell. At 80nm ZnO and 160µm Silicon substrate thickness, power conversion efficiency of 26.45% and 21.64% is achieved with intrinsic carrier concentration of 1x109/cm3, 1.4x1010/cm3 respectively.

Keywords: hetero-junction solar cell, solar cell, substrate intrinsic carrier concentration, ZnO/Si

Procedia PDF Downloads 515
13 Effect of Seed Treatment on Seed Quality and Storability in Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) in Northwestern Himalayas

Authors: Anubhav Thakur, Karam Chand Dhiman

Abstract:

Storage experiment was conducted to study the effect of polymer, fungicides and insecticide on seed quality parameters and storability in wheat. The experimental material consisted of carry over wheat seeds (variety HPW- 155) of rabi 2017 - 18. The observations were recorded bimonthly on parameters viz; germination (%), seedling length (cm), dry weight (g), vigour index - I, vigour - II, speed of germination, field emergence (%), 100 seed weight (g) for 12 months of storage. All parameters declined with the advancement in storage period. The results showed that seeds treated with polymer + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed recorded higher germination percentage (95.00 %), seedling length (17.58 cm), seedling dry weight (0.0138 g), vigour index - I (1670) & vigour - II (1.311), speed of germination (19.98), 100 seed weight (5.54 g) and field emergence (87.33 %) which was at par with vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed, over untreated control (T1). So it can be concluded that for maintain seed quality and enhancing storability, seed of wheat can either be treated with polymer @ 3 ml/kg of seed + vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed or vitavax 200 @ 2 g/kg of seed.

Keywords: wheat, seed treatment, storability, seed quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
12 A Machine Learning Based Method to Detect System Failure in Resource Constrained Environment

Authors: Payel Datta, Abhishek Das, Abhishek Roychoudhury, Dhiman Chattopadhyay, Tanushyam Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) is most predominantly used in image/video processing, natural language processing (NLP), audio and speech recognition but not that much used in system performance evaluation. In this paper, authors are going to describe the architecture of an abstraction layer constructed using ML/DL to detect the system failure. This proposed system is used to detect the system failure by evaluating the performance metrics of an IoT service deployment under constrained infrastructure environment. This system has been tested on the manually annotated data set containing different metrics of the system, like number of threads, throughput, average response time, CPU usage, memory usage, network input/output captured in different hardware environments like edge (atom based gateway) and cloud (AWS EC2). The main challenge of developing such system is that the accuracy of classification should be 100% as the error in the system has an impact on the degradation of the service performance and thus consequently affect the reliability and high availability which is mandatory for an IoT system. Proposed ML/DL classifiers work with 100% accuracy for the data set of nearly 4,000 samples captured within the organization.

Keywords: machine learning, system performance, performance metrics, IoT, edge

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
11 Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on Various Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties of Different Material: A Review

Authors: Prashant Dhiman, Viranshu Kumar, Pradeep Joshi

Abstract:

Lot of research is going on to study the effect of cryogenic treatment on materials. Cryogenic treatment is a heat treatment process which is used widely to enhance the mechanical and metallurgical properties of various materials whether the material is ferrous or non ferrous. In almost all ferrous metals, it is found that retained austenite is converted into martensite. Generally deep cryogenic treatment is done using liquid nitrogen having temperature of -195 ℃. The austenite is unstable at this stage and converts into martensite. In non ferrous materials there presents a microcavity and under the action of stress it becomes crack. When this crack propagates, fracture takes place. As the metal contract under low temperature, by doing cryogenic treatment these microcavities will be filled hence increases the soundness of the material. Properties which are enhanced by cryogenic treatment of both ferrous and non ferrous materials are hardness, tensile strength, wear rate, electrical and thermal conductivity, and others. Also there is decrease in residual stress. A large number of manufacturing process (EDM, CNC etc.) are using cryogenic treatment on different tools or workpiece to reduce their wear. In this Review paper the use of cryogenic heat treatment in different manufacturing has been shown along with their advantages.

Keywords: cyrogenic treatment, EDM (Electrical Discharge Machining), CNC (Computer Numeric Control), Mechanical and Metallurgical Properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
10 Decision Making Approach through Generalized Fuzzy Entropy Measure

Authors: H. D. Arora, Anjali Dhiman

Abstract:

Uncertainty is found everywhere and its understanding is central to decision making. Uncertainty emerges as one has less information than the total information required describing a system and its environment. Uncertainty and information are so closely associated that the information provided by an experiment for example, is equal to the amount of uncertainty removed. It may be pertinent to point out that uncertainty manifests itself in several forms and various kinds of uncertainties may arise from random fluctuations, incomplete information, imprecise perception, vagueness etc. For instance, one encounters uncertainty due to vagueness in communication through natural language. Uncertainty in this sense is represented by fuzziness resulting from imprecision of meaning of a concept expressed by linguistic terms. Fuzzy set concept provides an appropriate mathematical framework for dealing with the vagueness. Both information theory, proposed by Shannon (1948) and fuzzy set theory given by Zadeh (1965) plays an important role in human intelligence and various practical problems such as image segmentation, medical diagnosis etc. Numerous approaches and theories dealing with inaccuracy and uncertainty have been proposed by different researcher. In the present communication, we generalize fuzzy entropy proposed by De Luca and Termini (1972) corresponding to Shannon entropy(1948). Further, some of the basic properties of the proposed measure were examined. We also applied the proposed measure to the real life decision making problem.

Keywords: entropy, fuzzy sets, fuzzy entropy, generalized fuzzy entropy, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
9 Cost Reduction Techniques for Provision of Shelter to Homeless

Authors: Mukul Anand

Abstract:

Quality oriented affordable shelter for all has always been the key issue in the housing sector of our country. Homelessness is the acute form of housing need. It is a paradox that in spite of innumerable government initiated programmes for affordable housing, certain section of society is still devoid of shelter. About nineteen million (18.78 million) households grapple with housing shortage in Urban India in 2012. In Indian scenario there is major mismatch between the people for whom the houses are being built and those who need them. The prime force faced by public authorities in facilitation of quality housing for all is high cost of construction. The present paper will comprehend executable techniques for dilution of cost factor in housing the homeless. The key actors responsible for delivery of cheap housing stock such as capacity building, resource optimization, innovative low cost building material and indigenous skeleton housing system will also be incorporated in developing these techniques. Time performance, which is an important angle of above actors, will also be explored so as to increase the effectiveness of low cost housing. Along with this best practices will be taken up as case studies where both conventional techniques of housing and innovative low cost housing techniques would be cited. Transportation consists of approximately 30% of total construction budget. Thus use of alternative local solutions depending upon the region would be covered so as to highlight major components of low cost housing. Government is laid back regarding base line information on use of innovative low cost method and technique of resource optimization. Therefore, the paper would be an attempt to bring to light simpler solutions for achieving low cost housing.

Keywords: construction, cost, housing, optimization, shelter

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
8 Stereoselective Glycosylation and Functionalization of Unbiased Site of Sweet System via Dual-Catalytic Transition Metal Systems/Wittig Reaction

Authors: Mukul R. Gupta, Rajkumar Gandhi, Rajitha Sachan, Naveen K. Khare

Abstract:

The field of glycoscience has burgeoned in the last several decades, leading to the identification of many glycosides which could serve critical roles in a wide range of biological processes. This has prompted a resurgence in synthetic interest, with a particular focus on new approaches to construct the selective glycosidic bond. Despite the numerous elegant strategies and methods developed for the formation of glycosidic bonds, stereoselective construction of glycosides remains challenging. Here, we have recently developed the novel Hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) catalyzed stereoselective glycosylation methods by using KDN imidate glycosyl donor and a variety of alcohols in excellent yield. This method is broadly applicable to a wide range of substrates and with excellent selectivity of glycoside. Also, herein we are reporting the functionalization of the unbiased side of newly formed glycosides by dual-catalytic transition metal systems (Ru- or Fe-). We are using the innovative Reverse & Catalyst strategy, i.e., a reversible activation reaction by one catalyst with a functionalization reaction by another catalyst, together with enabling functionalization of substrates at their inherently unreactive sites. As well, we are targeting the diSia derivative synthesis by Wittig reaction. This synthetic method is applicable in mild conditions, functional group tolerance of the dual-catalytic systems and also highlights the potential of the multicatalytic approach to address challenging transformations to avoid multistep procedures in carbohydrate synthesis.

Keywords: KDN, stereoselective glycosylation, dual-catalytic functionalization, Wittig reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
7 Efficacy and Safety of Probiotic Treatment in Patients with Liver Cirrhosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Samir Malhotra, Rajan K. Khandotra, Rakesh K. Dhiman, Neelam Chadha

Abstract:

There is paucity of data about safety and efficacy of probiotic treatment on patient outcomes in cirrhosis. Specifically, it is important to know whether probiotics can improve mortality, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), number of hospitalizations, ammonia levels, quality of life, and adverse events. Probiotics may improve outcomes in patients with acute or chronic HE. However, it is also important to know whether probiotics can prevent development of HE, even in situations where patients do not have acute HE at the time of administration. It is also important to know if probiotics are useful as primary prophylaxis of HE. We aimed to conduct an updated systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the safety and efficacy of probiotics in patients with cirrhosis. We searched PubMed, Cochrane library, Embase, Scopus, SCI, Google Scholar, conference proceedings, and references of included studies till June 2017 to identify randomised clinical trials comparing probiotics with other treatments in cirrhotics. Data was analyzed using MedCalc. Probiotics had no effect on mortality but significantly reduced HE (14 trials, 1073 patients, OR 0.371; 95% CI 0.282 to 0.489). There was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis on outcomes like hospitalizations and quality of life. The effect on plasma ammonia levels was not significant (SMD -0.429; 95%CI -1.034 – 0.177). There was no difference in adverse events. To conclude, although the included studies had a high risk of bias, the available evidence does suggest a beneficial effect on HE. Larger studies with longer periods of follow-up are needed to determine if probiotics can reduce all-cause mortality.

Keywords: cirrhosis, hepatic encephalopathy, meta-analysis, probiotic

Procedia PDF Downloads 140
6 Atherosclerosis Prevalence Within Populations of the Southeastern United States

Authors: Samuel P. Prahlow, Anthony Sciuva, Katherine Bombly, Emily Wilson, Shiv Dhiman, Savita Arya

Abstract:

A prevalence cohort study of atherosclerotic lesions within cadavers was performed to better understand and characterize the prevalence of atherosclerosis among Georgia residents within body donors in the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM) - Georgia body donor program. We procured specimens from cadavers used for medical students, physical therapy students, and biomedical science students cadaveric anatomical dissection at PCOM - South Georgia and PCOM - Georgia. Tissues were prepared using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stainas histological slides by Colquitt Regional Medical Center Laboratory Services. One section from each of the following arteries was taken after cadaveric dissection at the site of most calcification palpated grossly (if present): left anterior descending coronary artery, left internal carotid artery, abdominal aorta, splenic artery, and hepatic artery. All specimens were graded and categorized according to the American Heart Association’s Modified and Conventional Standards for Atherosclerotic Lesions using x4, x10, x40 microscopic magnification. Our study cohort included 22 cadavers, with 16 females and 6 males. The average age was 72.54, and the median age was 72, with a range of 52 to 90 years old. The cause of death determination listing vascular and/or cardiovascular causes was present on 6 of the 22 death certificates. 19 of 22 (86%) cadavers had at least a single artery grading > 5. Of the cadavers with at least a single artery graded at greater than 5, only 5 of 19 (26%) cadavers had a vascular or cardiovascular cause of death reported. Malignancy was listed as a cause of death on 7 (32%) death certificates. The average atherosclerosis grading of the common hepatic, splenic and left internal carotid arteries (2.15, 3.05, and 3.36 respectively) were lower than the left anterior descending artery and the abdominal aorta (5.16 and 5.86 respectively). This prevalence study characterizes atherosclerosis found in five medium and large systemic arteries within cadavers from the state of Georgia.

Keywords: pathology, atherosclerosis, histology, cardiovascular

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
5 Detailed Sensitive Detection of Impurities in Waste Engine Oils Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy, Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission Spectroscopy and Surface Plasmon Resonance

Authors: Cherry Dhiman, Ayushi Paliwal, Mohd. Shahid Khan, M. N. Reddy, Vinay Gupta, Monika Tomar

Abstract:

The laser based high resolution spectroscopic experimental techniques such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), Rotating Disk Electrode Optical Emission spectroscopy (RDE-OES) and Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) have been used for the study of composition and degradation analysis of used engine oils. Engine oils are mainly composed of aliphatic and aromatics compounds and its soot contains hazardous components in the form of fine, coarse and ultrafine particles consisting of wear metal elements. Such coarse particulates matter (PM) and toxic elements are extremely dangerous for human health that can cause respiratory and genetic disorder in humans. The combustible soot from thermal power plants, industry, aircrafts, ships and vehicles can lead to the environmental and climate destabilization. It contributes towards global pollution for land, water, air and global warming for environment. The detection of such toxicants in the form of elemental analysis is a very serious issue for the waste material management of various organic, inorganic hydrocarbons and radioactive waste elements. In view of such important points, the current study on used engine oils was performed. The fundamental characterization of engine oils was conducted by measuring water content and kinematic viscosity test that proves the crude analysis of the degradation of used engine oils samples. The microscopic quantitative and qualitative analysis was presented by RDE-OES technique which confirms the presence of elemental impurities of Pb, Al, Cu, Si, Fe, Cr, Na and Ba lines for used waste engine oil samples in few ppm. The presence of such elemental impurities was confirmed by LIBS spectral analysis at various transition levels of atomic line. The recorded transition line of Pb confirms the maximum degradation which was found in used engine oil sample no. 3 and 4. Apart from the basic tests, the calculations for dielectric constants and refractive index of the engine oils were performed via SPR analysis.

Keywords: surface plasmon resonance, laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, ICCD spectrometer, engine oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
4 Modern Pilgrimage Narratives and India’s Heterogeneity

Authors: Alan Johnson

Abstract:

This paper focuses on modern pilgrimage narratives about sites affiliated with Indian religious expressions located both within and outside India. The paper uses a multidisciplinary approach to examine poetry, personal essays, and online attestations of pilgrimage to illustrate how non-religious ideas coexist with outwardly religious ones, exemplifying a characteristically Indian form of syncretism that pre-dates Western ideas of pluralism. The paper argues that the syncretism on display in these modern creative works refutes the current exclusionary vision of India as a primordially Hindu-nationalist realm. A crucial premise of this argument is that the narrative’s intrinsic heteroglossia, so evident in India’s historically rich variety of stories and symbols, belies this reactionary version of Hindu nationalism. Equally important to this argument, therefore, is the vibrancy of Hindu sites outside India, such as the Batu Caves temple complex in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The literary texts examined in this paper include, first, Arun Kolatkar’s famous 1976 collection of poems, titled Jejuri, about a visit to the pilgrimage site of the same name in Maharashtra. Here, the modern, secularized visitor from Bombay (Mumbai) contemplates the effect of the temple complex on himself and on the other, more worshipful visitors. Kolatkar’s modernist poems reflect the narrator’s typically modern-Indian ambivalence for holy ruins, for although they do not evoke a conventionally religious feeling in him, they nevertheless possess an aura of timelessness that questions the narrator’s time-conscious sensibility. The paper bookends Kolatkar’s Jejuri with considerations of an early-twentieth-century text, online accounts by visitors to the Batu Caves, and a recent, more conventional Hindu account of pilgrimage. For example, the pioneering graphic artist Mukul Chandra Dey published in 1917, My Pilgrimages to Ajanta and Bagh, in which he devotes an entire chapter to the life of the Buddha as a means of illustrating the layering of stories that is a characteristic feature of sacred sites in India. In a different but still syncretic register, Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, and a committed secularist proffers India’s ancient pilgrimage network as a template for national unity in his classic 1946 autobiography The Discovery of India. Narrative is the perfect vehicle for highlighting this layering of sensibilities, for a single text can juxtapose the pilgrim-narrator’s description with that of a far older pilgrimage, a juxtaposition that establishes an imaginative connection between otherwise distanced actors, and between them and the reader.

Keywords: India, literature, narrative, syncretism

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
3 Compositional Influence in the Photovoltaic Properties of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ Thin Films

Authors: Brajendra S. Sengar, Vivek Garg, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

The optimal band gap (~ 1 to 1.5 eV) and high absorption coefficient ~104 cm⁻¹ has made Cu₂ZnSn(S,Se)₄ (CZTSSe) films as one of the most promising absorber materials in thin-film photovoltaics. Additionally, CZTSSe consists of elements that are abundant and non-toxic, makes it even more favourable. The CZTSSe thin films are grown at 100 to 500ᵒC substrate temperature (Tsub) on Soda lime glass (SLG) substrate by Elettrorava dual ion beam sputtering (DIBS) system by utilizing a target at 2.43x10⁻⁴ mbar working pressure with RF power of 45 W in argon ambient. The chemical composition, depth profiling, structural properties and optical properties of these CZTSSe thin films prepared on SLG were examined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX, Oxford Instruments), Hiden secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) workstation with oxygen ion gun of energy up to 5 keV, X-ray diffraction (XRD) (Rigaku Cu Kα radiation, λ=.154nm) and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE, M-2000D from J. A. Woollam Co., Inc). It is observed that from that, the thin films deposited at Tsub=200 and 300°C show Cu-poor and Zn-rich states (i.e., Cu/(Zn + Sn) < 1 and Zn/Sn > 1), which is not the case for films grown at other Tsub. It has been reported that the CZTSSe thin films with the highest efficiency are typically at Cu-poor and Zn-rich states. The values of band gap in the fundamental absorption region of CZTSSe are found to be in the range of 1.23-1.70 eV depending upon the Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. It is also observed that there is a decline in optical band gap with the increase in Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio (evaluated from EDX measurement). Cu-poor films are found to have higher optical band gap than Cu-rich films. The decrease in the band gap with the increase in Cu content in case of CZTSSe films may be attributed to changes in the extent of p-d hybridization between Cu d-levels and (S, Se) p-levels. CZTSSe thin films with Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio in the range 0.86–1.5 have been successfully deposited using DIBS. Optical band gap of the films is found to vary from 1.23 to 1.70 eV based on Cu/(Zn+Sn) ratio. CZTSe films with Cu/ (Zn+Sn) ratio of .86 are found to have optical band gap close to the ideal band gap (1.49 eV) for highest theoretical conversion efficiency. Thus by tailoring the value of Cu/(Zn+Sn), CZTSSe thin films with the desired band gap could be obtained. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B. S. S and A. K. acknowledge CSIR, and V. G. acknowledges UGC, India for their fellowships. B. S. S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CZTSSe, DIBS, EDX, solar cell

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
2 An Investigation on the Suitability of Dual Ion Beam Sputtered GMZO Thin Films: For All Sputtered Buffer-Less Solar Cells

Authors: Vivek Garg, Brajendra S. Sengar, Gaurav Siddharth, Nisheka Anadkat, Amitesh Kumar, Shailendra Kumar, Shaibal Mukherjee

Abstract:

CuInGaSe (CIGSe) is the dominant thin film solar cell technology. The band alignment of Buffer/CIGSe interface is one of the most crucial parameters for solar cell performance. In this article, the valence band offset (VBOff) and conduction band offset (CBOff) values of Cu(In0.70Ga0.30)Se/ 1 at.% Ga: Mg0.25Zn0.75O (GMZO) heterojunction, grown by dual ion beam sputtering system (DIBS), are calculated to understand the carrier transport mechanism at the heterojunction for the realization of all sputtered buffer-less solar cells. To determine the valence band offset (VBOff), ∆E_V at GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction interface, the standard method based on core-level photoemission is utilized. The value of ∆E_V can be evaluated by considering common core-level peaks. In our study, the values of (Valence band onset)VBOn, obtained by linear extrapolation method for GMZO and CIGSe films are calculated to be 2.86 and 0.76 eV. In the UPS spectra peak positions of Se 3d is observed in UPS spectra at 54.82 and 54.7 eV for CIGSe film and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively, while the peak position of Mg 2p is observed at 50.09 and 50.12 eV for GMZO and GMZO/CIGSe interface respectively. The optical band gap of CIGSe and GMZO are obtained from absorption spectra procured from spectroscopic ellipsometry are 1.26 and 3.84 eV respectively. The calculated average values of ∆E_v and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. We investigated the band-offset properties at the GMZO/CIGSe heterojunction to verify the suitability of the GMZO for the realization of the buffer-less solar cells. The calculated average values of ∆E_V and ∆E_C are estimated to be 2.37 and 0.21 eV, respectively, at room temperature. The calculated positive conduction band offset termed as a spike at the absorber junction is the required criterion for the high-efficiency solar cells for the efficient charge extraction from the junction. So we can conclude that the above study confirms GMZO thin films grown by the dual ion beam sputtering system are the suitable candidate for the CIGSe thin films based ultra-thin buffer-less solar cells. Acknowledgment: We are thankful to DIBS, EDX, and XRD facility equipped at Sophisticated Instrument Centre (SIC) at IIT Indore. The authors B.S.S and A.K acknowledge CSIR and V.G acknowledge UGC, India for their fellowships. B.S.S is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Internship Award. Prof. Shaibal Mukherjee is thankful to DST and IUSSTF for BASE Fellowship and MEITY YFRF award. This work is partially supported by DAE BRNS, DST CERI, and DST-RFBR Project under India-Russia Programme of Cooperation in Science and Technology. We are thankful to Mukul Gupta for SIMS facility equipped at UGC-DAE Indore.

Keywords: CIGSe, DIBS, GMZO, solar cells, UPS

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
1 Differential Expression Profile Analysis of DNA Repair Genes in Mycobacterium Leprae by qPCR

Authors: Mukul Sharma, Madhusmita Das, Sundeep Chaitanya Vedithi

Abstract:

Leprosy is a chronic human disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, that cannot be cultured in vitro. Though treatable with multidrug therapy (MDT), recently, bacteria reported resistance to multiple antibiotics. Targeting DNA replication and repair pathways can serve as the foundation of developing new anti-leprosy drugs. Due to the absence of an axenic culture medium for the propagation of M. leprae, studying cellular processes, especially those belonging to DNA repair pathways, is challenging. Genomic understanding of M. Leprae harbors several protein-coding genes with no previously assigned function known as 'hypothetical proteins'. Here, we report identification and expression of known and hypothetical DNA repair genes from a human skin biopsy and mouse footpads that are involved in base excision repair, direct reversal repair, and SOS response. Initially, a bioinformatics approach was employed based on sequence similarity, identification of known protein domains to screen the hypothetical proteins in the genome of M. leprae, that are potentially related to DNA repair mechanisms. Before testing on clinical samples, pure stocks of bacterial reference DNA of M. leprae (NHDP63 strain) was used to construct standard graphs to validate and identify lower detection limit in the qPCR experiments. Primers were designed to amplify the respective transcripts, and PCR products of the predicted size were obtained. Later, excisional skin biopsies of newly diagnosed untreated, treated, and drug resistance leprosy cases from SIHR & LC hospital, Vellore, India were taken for the extraction of RNA. To determine the presence of the predicted transcripts, cDNA was generated from M. leprae mRNA isolated from clinically confirmed leprosy skin biopsy specimen across all the study groups. Melting curve analysis was performed to determine the integrity of the amplification and to rule out primer‑dimer formation. The Ct values obtained from qPCR were fitted to standard curve to determine transcript copy number. Same procedure was applied for M. leprae extracted after processing a footpad of nude mice of drug sensitive and drug resistant strains. 16S rRNA was used as positive control. Of all the 16 genes involved in BER, DR, and SOS, differential expression pattern of the genes was observed in terms of Ct values when compared to human samples; this was because of the different host and its immune response. However, no drastic variation in gene expression levels was observed in human samples except the nth gene. The higher expression of nth gene could be because of the mutations that may be associated with sequence diversity and drug resistance which suggests an important role in the repair mechanism and remains to be explored. In both human and mouse samples, SOS system – lexA and RecA, and BER genes AlkB and Ogt were expressing efficiently to deal with possible DNA damage. Together, the results of the present study suggest that DNA repair genes are constitutively expressed and may provide a reference for molecular diagnosis, therapeutic target selection, determination of treatment and prognostic judgment in M. leprae pathogenesis.

Keywords: DNA repair, human biopsy, hypothetical proteins, mouse footpads, Mycobacterium leprae, qPCR

Procedia PDF Downloads 38