Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Mujtaba Roshan

31 Video-On-Demand QoE Evaluation across Different Age-Groups and Its Significance for Network Capacity

Authors: Mujtaba Roshan, John A. Schormans

Abstract:

Quality of Experience (QoE) drives churn in the broadband networks industry, and good QoE plays a large part in the retention of customers. QoE is known to be affected by the Quality of Service (QoS) factors packet loss probability (PLP), delay and delay jitter caused by the network. Earlier results have shown that the relationship between these QoS factors and QoE is non-linear, and may vary from application to application. We use the network emulator Netem as the basis for experimentation, and evaluate how QoE varies as we change the emulated QoS metrics. Focusing on Video-on-Demand, we discovered that the reported QoE may differ widely for users of different age groups, and that the most demanding age group (the youngest) can require an order of magnitude lower PLP to achieve the same QoE than is required by the most widely studied age group of users. We then used a bottleneck TCP model to evaluate the capacity cost of achieving an order of magnitude decrease in PLP, and found it be (almost always) a 3-fold increase in link capacity that was required.

Keywords: quality of service, Network Capacity, Quality of Experience, packet loss probability

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30 Effects of Viscoelastic and Viscous Links on Seismic Pounding Mitigation in Buildings

Authors: Ali Reza Mirzagoltabar Roshan, H. Ahmadi Taleshian, A. Eliasi

Abstract:

This paper examines the effects of viscous and viscoelastic dampers as an efficient technique for seismic pounding mitigation. To aim that, 15 steel frame models with different numbers of stories and bays and also with different types of ductility were analyzed under 10 different earthquake records for assigned values of link damping and stiffness and the most suitable values of damper parameters (damping and stiffness) are presented. Moreover, it is demonstrated that viscous dampers can perform as efficiently as viscoelastic alternative with a more economical aspect for pounding mitigation purposes.

Keywords: adjacent buildings, separation distance, seismic pounding mitigation, viscoelastic link

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29 Microstructure and SEM Analysis of Joints Fabricated by FSW of Aluminum Alloys 5083 and 6063

Authors: Jaskirat Singh, Roshan Lal Virdi, Khushdeep Goyal

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to perform a microstructural analysis of Friction Stir Welded joints of aluminum alloys 6063 and 5083, also to check the properties of the weld zone by SEM analysis. FSW experiments were carried on CNC Vertical milling machine. The tools used for welding were the round cylindrical pin shape and square pin shape. It is found that Microstructure shows the uniformly distributed material with minimum heat affected zone and dense welded zone without any defect. Microstructures indicate that the weld material is defect free. The SEM shows the diffusion of material with base metal with proper bonding without any defect.

Keywords: Microstructure, Friction Stir Welding, Aluminum Alloy, SEM analysis

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28 Reliability Assessment of Various Empirical Formulas for Prediction of Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

In this study, a comprehensive scouring model has been developed in order to evaluate the accuracy of various empirical relationships which were suggested for prediction of scour hole depth in plunge pools by Martins, Mason, Chian and Veronese. For this reason, scour hole depths caused by free falling jets from a flip bucket to a plunge pool were investigated. In this study various discharges, angles, scouring times, etc. have been considered. The final results demonstrated that the all mentioned empirical formulas, except Mason formula, were reasonably agreement with the experimental data.

Keywords: Reliability Assessment, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model

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27 Design, Prototyping, Integration, Flight Testing of a 20 cm Span Fully Autonomous Fixed Wing Micro Air Vehicle

Authors: Vivek Paul, Abel Nelly, Shoeb A Adeel, R. Tilak, S. Maheshwaran, S. Pulikeshi, Roshan Antony, C. S. Suraj

Abstract:

This paper presents the complete design and development cycle of a 20 cm span fixed wing micro air vehicle that was developed at CSIR-NAL, under the micro air vehicle development program. The design is a cropped delta flying wing MAV with a modified N22 airfoil of 12.3% thickness. The design was fabricated using the fused deposition method- RPT technique. COTS components were procured and integrated into this RPT prototype. A commercial autopilot that was proven in the earlier MAV designs was used for this MAV. The MAV was flown fully autonomous for 14mins at an open field. The flight data showed good performance as expected from the MAV design. The paper also describes about the process involved in the design of MAVs.

Keywords: mav, Flight Testing, autopilot, autonomous mode, RPT

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26 Impact of Social Media Usage and Psychological Absenteeism at Workplace on Job Performance

Authors: Quaid Farooq, Zainab Mujtaba

Abstract:

The main aim of this paper was to conduct a research regarding social media usage, psychological absenteeism and job performance at workplace in Pakistan. This research examined the effects of social media usage and psychological absenteeism at workplace on job performance of employees. It was a popular belief that social media usage and psychological absenteeism at workplace have a negative relation with job performance. However, to date there was no study to support this argument, and this compelled us to choose this topic and find out the results. Secondly, this research also found effect of social media usage on psychological absenteeism. Despite the theoretical appeal of these variables and significance in today’s workplace environment, no previous study has investigated the relationship between them in detail. Data was collected from a sample (N = 100 paired responses) of employees and supervisors from different organizations in Pakistan. Study results indicate that performance is negatively related to psychological absenteeism, and such individuals were rated as exhibiting low performance level by their supervisors. However, it had no significant relationship with social media. Moreover, psychological absenteeism was positively related to social media. Individuals, who used more social media at workplace, were more psychologically absent at work according to our results.

Keywords: Social Media, Job Performance, employee, psychological absenteeism

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25 A Study of Management Principles Incorporating Corporate Governance and Advocating Ethics to Reduce Fraud at a South African Bank

Authors: Charles Mbohwa, Roshan Jelal

Abstract:

In today’s world, internal fraud remains one of the most challenging problems within companies worldwide and despite investment in controls and attention given to the problem, the instances of internal fraud has not abated. To the contrary it appears that internal fraud is on the rise especially in the wake of the economic downturn. Leadership within companies believes that the more sophisticated the controls employed the less likely it would be for employees to pilfer. This is a very antiquated view as investment in controls may not be enough to curtail internal fraud; however, ensuring that a company drives the correct culture and behaviour within the organisation is likely to yield desired results. This research aims to understand how creating a strong ethical culture and embedding the principle of good corporate governance impacts on levels of internal fraud with an organization (a South African Bank).

Keywords: Corporate Governance, Ethics, internal fraud, reserve bank, the King Code

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24 Synthesis, Characterization and Applications of Some Selected Dye-Functionalized P and N-Type Nanoparticles in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Arifa Batool, Ghulam Hussain Bhatti, Syed Mujtaba Shah

Abstract:

Inorganic n-type (TiO2, CdO) and p-type (NiO, CuO) metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by a facile wet chemical method at room temperature. The morphological, compositional, structural and optical properties were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD analysis, UV/Visible and fluorescence spectroscopy. All semiconducting nanoparticles were photosensitized with Ru (II) based Z907 dye in ethanol solvent by grafting. Grafting of dye on the surface of nanoparticles was confirmed by UV/Visible and FT-IR spectroscopy. The synthesized photo-active nanohybrid was thoroughly blended with P3HT, a solid electrolyte and I-V measurements under solar stimulated radiations 1000 W/m2 (AM 1.5) were recorded. Maximum incident photon to current conversion efficiency (IPCE) of 0.9% was achieved with dye functionalized Z907-TiO2 hybrid, IPCE of 0.72% was achieved with bulk-heterojunction of TiO2-Z907-CuO and IPCE of 0.68% was attained with nanocomposite of TiO2-CdO. TiO2 based Solar cells have maximum Jscvalue i.e.4.63 mA/cm2. Dye-functionalized TiO2-based photovoltaic devices were found more efficient than the reference device but the morphology of the device was a major check in progress.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Solar Cell, bulk heterojunction, photosensitization, dye sensitized solar cell

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23 A Detailed Study of Two Different Airfoils on Flight Performance of MAV of Same Physical Dimension

Authors: Vivek Paul, Shoeb A. Adeel, Shashant Anand, Dinesh, Suraj, Roshan

Abstract:

The paper presents a study of micro air vehicles (MAVs) with wingspans of 20 Cm with two different airfoil configurations. MAVs have vast potential applications in both military and civilian areas. These MAVs are fully autonomous and supply real-time data. The paper focuses on two different designs of the MAVs one being N22 airfoil and the other a flat plate with similar dimension. As designed, the MAV would fly in a low Reynolds-number regime at airspeeds of 15 & 20 m/sec. Propulsion would be provided by an electric motor with an advanced lithium. Because of the close coupling between vehicle elements, system integration would be a significant challenge, requiring tight packaging and multifunction components to meet mass limitations and Centre of Gravity (C.G) balancing. These MAVs are feasible and within a couple of years of technology development in key areas including sensors, propulsion, Aerodynamics, and packaging these would be easily available to the users at affordable prices. The paper finally compares the flight performance of the two configurations.

Keywords: Endurance, CFD, mav, Airfoil, Flight Performance, lift, drag, climb

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22 Optimization of Flip Bucket Dents in Order to Reduce Scour Hole Depth (Plunge Pool) Using a Comprehensive Physical Model

Authors: Majid Galoie, Khodadad Safavi, Abdolreza Karami Nejad, Reza Roshan

Abstract:

Scour downstream of a flip bucket in a plunge pool is caused by impingement of water jet force. In order to reduce this force and consequently reduce scour hole depth, flip buckets may equip by dents. The minimum scour hole depth might be occurred by optimization of dents (number, shape, placement) on flip buckets. In this study, a comprehensive physical model has been developed and various options for dents have been investigated. The experimental data for each dent option such as scour hole depth, angle of impingement jet, piezometric pressure in tail-water and jet trajectory have been measured for various discharges. Finally, the best option can be found by analysis of the experimental results which has been expressed in this paper.

Keywords: scouring process, plunge pool, scour hole depth, physical model, flip bucket

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21 Impact of Climate Shifting-Change on Rural People and Agricultural Life

Authors: Arshad A. Narejo, M. Javed Sheikh, G. Mujtaba Khushk, Naeem A Qureshi, M. Ali Sheikh

Abstract:

Climate change not only influences on agriculture activities but also has certain effects on daily human activities, as well as on overall human health. Keeping in view the significance and huge research gap on the issues, the researchers have found an opportunity to conduct a study in Sindh province of Pakistan, in which the issue of climate shifting/change regarding temperature and precipitation were discussed with the local farmers of district Hyderabad. The quantified perception was gathered on a reliable and valid scale from 200 respondents and was analyzed through SPSS and AMOS software. The result of this study revealed that the significant changes are being occurred in summer (r²=0.96; M=6.78) and winter seasons (r²=0.71; M=6.57), therefore it is leaving bad effects on human health (r²=0.96) and behavior of the local population (r²=0.70). In addition, the change in the cropping calendar, i.e., timing of sowing (r²=0.69; M=8.42) and harvesting (r²=0.79; M=8.27) of different crops have been altered due to changes in local weather patterns. Since the local farmers are also facing seed germination (r²=0.57; M=7.98) problems, it is therefore recommended that concerned authorities/departments should revise the agricultural calendar. Besides this, respondents were in opinion that actual summer starts even before the vacation and cold season starts when winter vacations ended. Thus, the government and other concerned departments should reconsider or reschedule the vacation regulation policy (r²=0.70) at least at the provincial level.

Keywords: Climate, climate shifting/change, impact on daily life, impact on agricultural activities

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20 On Radially Symmetric Vibrations of Bi-Directional Functionally Graded Circular Plates on the Basis of Mindlin’s Theory and Neutral Axis

Authors: Roshan Lal, Rahul Saini

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the free axisymmetric vibrations of bi-directional functionally graded circular plates using Mindlin’s plate theory and physical neutral surface. The temperature-dependent, as well as temperature-independent mechanical properties of the plate material, varies in radial and transverse directions. Also, temperature profile for one- and two-dimensional temperature variations has been obtained from the heat conduction equation. A simple computational formulation for the governing differential equation of motion for such a plate model has been derived using Hamilton's principle for the clamped and simply supported plates at the periphery. Employing the generalized differential quadrature method, the corresponding frequency equations have been obtained and solved numerically to retain their lowest three roots as the natural frequencies for the first three modes. The effect of various other parameters such as temperature profile, functionally graded indices, and boundary conditions on the vibration characteristics has been presented. In order to validate the accuracy and efficiency of the method, the results have been compared with those available in the literature.

Keywords: vibrations, bi-directionally FG, GDQM, Mindlin’s circular plate, neutral axis

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19 The Nature of Problems Faced by Organization in Recruitment: A Comparative Analysis between Public and Private Sector of Russia

Authors: Zarema Urustamova, Chunsheng Shi, Ghulam Mujtaba Kayani 

Abstract:

This research paper helps to understand the comparative analysis of recruitment problems which majorly faced by HRD of Public/Semi-Govt. and private sectors of Russia. The natures of different recruitment problems faced by HRD are different in both sector of Russia. Recruitment is one of very critical and important decision taken by HR department and some recruitment problems are highly faced by HR department of public/semi Govt. sector but are not major problems for private sector. Moreover, some problems are majorly influence in private sector but are not major problems in public/semi-govt. sector of Russia in recruitment. It is also identified that some recruitment problems are majorly affect in recruitment in both sectors. This paper helps to understand the recruitment problems faced by HR department while recruiting the new employee in both sectors. This paper also identified that “environment” and “prejudice” in public sector have higher affect and considered as a major problems in employee recruitment and “reference”, “selection standards” are considered as a least affecting problems of recruitment in public sector. Further, in private sector, “prejudice” and “culture” are major issues and “selection standards” and “reference” is considered as least affecting recruitment problems in private sector of Russia. So, HR department will be able to hire right person on right time, and it is possible when different HR departments focus to overcome these recruitment problems more efficiently and effectively.

Keywords: Russia, Govt. /Semi-Govt. vs. private sector, HR department, recruitment problems

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18 Estimation of Constant Coefficients of Bourgoyne and Young Drilling Rate Model for Drill Bit Wear Prediction

Authors: Ali Hassanpour, Ahmed Z. Mazen, Nejat Rahmanian, Iqbal Mujtaba

Abstract:

In oil and gas well drilling, the drill bit is an important part of the Bottom Hole Assembly (BHA), which is installed and designed to drill and produce a hole by several mechanisms. The efficiency of the bit depends on many drilling parameters such as weight on bit, rotary speed, and mud properties. When the bit is pulled out of the hole, the evaluation of the bit damage must be recorded very carefully to guide engineers in order to select the bits for further planned wells. Having a worn bit for hole drilling may cause severe damage to bit leading to cutter or cone losses in the bottom of hole, where a fishing job will have to take place, and all of these will increase the operating cost. The main factor to reduce the cost of drilling operation is to maximize the rate of penetration by analyzing real-time data to predict the drill bit wear while drilling. There are numerous models in the literature for prediction of the rate of penetration based on drilling parameters, mostly based on empirical approaches. One of the most commonly used approaches is Bourgoyne and Young model, where the rate of penetration can be estimated by the drilling parameters as well as a wear index using an empirical correlation, provided all the constants and coefficients are accurately determined. This paper introduces a new methodology to estimate the eight coefficients for Bourgoyne and Young model using the gPROMS parameters estimation GPE (Version 4.2.0). Real data collected form similar formations (12 ¼’ sections) in two different fields in Libya are used to estimate the coefficients. The estimated coefficients are then used in the equations and applied to nearby wells in the same field to predict the bit wear.

Keywords: rate of penetration, Bourgoyne and Young model, bit wear, gPROMS

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17 Preparation and Characterisation of Electrospun Extracted β-Chitosan/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Blend Nanofibers for Tissue Engineering

Authors: E. Roshan Ara Begum, K. Bhavani, K. Subachitra, C. Kirthika, R. Shenbagarathai

Abstract:

In recent years, there has been a growing concern for the production of chitosan blend nanofibrous scaffold for its favorable physicochemical properties which mimic the native extracellular matrix (ECM) both morphologically and chemically. Therefore, this study focused on production of β-chitosan(β-Cts) and Poly(vinyl alcohol)(PVA) blend nanofibrous scaffold by electrospinning. β-Cts was extracted from the squid pen waste of locally available squid variety Loligo duvauceli (Indian Squid). To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on nanofibers preparation from the extracted β-Cts. Both the β-Cts and PVA polymers were mixed in two different proportions (30:70 and 40:60 respectively. The electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds were characterized by SEM, swelling property, in vitro enzymatic degradation, and hemo, biocompatibility properties. β-Cts/PVA nanofibers scaffolds had an average fiber diameter of 120 to 550nm.Among the two different β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers the β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend fibers demonstrated favourable tissue engineering properties. The β-Cts/PVA (40:60) blend nanofibers exhibited a swelling ratio of 36 ± 2.5% with mass loss percentage of 20 ± 2.71% after 4 weeks of degradation. It has exhibited good hemocompatible properties. HEK-293(Human Embryonic Kidney) cells lines were able to adhere and proliferate well in the β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers. All these results indicated that electrospun β-Cts/PVA blends nanofibers are a suitable scaffold to be used for tissue engineering purposes.

Keywords: Electrospinning, Nanofibers, β-chitosan, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)

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16 The Diet Adherence in Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Patients in the North of Iran Based on the Mediterranean Diet Adherence

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahboobeh Gholipour, Moona Naghshbandi

Abstract:

Background and objectives: Before any nutritional intervention, it is necessary to have the prospect of eating habits of people with cardiovascular risk factors. In this study, we assessed the adherence of healthy diet based on Mediterranean dietary pattern and related factors in adults in the north of Iran. Methods: This study was conducted on 550 men and women with cardiovascular risk factors that referred to Heshmat hospital in Rasht, northern Iran. Information was collected by interview and reading medical history and measuring anthropometric indexes. The Mediterranean Diet Adherence Screener was used for assessing dietary adherence, this screener was modified according to religious beliefs and culture of Iran. Results: The mean age of participants was 58±0.38 years. The mean of body mass index was 27±0.01 kg/m2, and the mean of waist circumference was 98±0.2 cm. The mean of dietary adherence was 5.76±0.07. 45% of participants had low adherence, and just 4% had suitable adherence. The mean of dietary adherence in men was significantly higher than women (p=0. 07). Participants in rural area and high educational participants insignificantly had an unsuitable dietary Adherence. There was no significant association between some cardiovascular disease risk factors and dietary adherence. Conclusion: Education to different group about dietary intake correction and using a Mediterranean dietary pattern that is similar to dietary intake in the north of Iran, for controlling cardiovascular disease is necessary.

Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease, dietary adherence, Mediterranean dietary pattern, north of Iran

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15 Market Value of Ethno-Medicinally Important Plants of the Dughalgay Valley District Swat, Pakistan

Authors: Akbar Zeb, Shujaul Mulk Khan, Habib Ahmad, Manzoor Hussain, Mujtaba Shah

Abstract:

An ethnobotanical project was carried out in the Dughalgay valley District Swat in Hindu Kush region. The Local population not only use indigenous knowledge to use medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their live hood by selling some of them in the local markets. An ethnobotanical project was carried out in the Doghalgay valley of upper Swat. The Local population not only use indigenous medicinal plants for curing various diseases but also earn their live hood by selling some of them in the local market. 102 of these medicinal plants were reported to be used in the region during questionnaire survey in spring 2007. Out of them 10 species are used as diuretic, 9 in stomachic and laxative each. Similarly 6, 5, 5, 4, 4, and 4 species of them are used as antiseptic, Anthelmintic, Carminative, Expectorant, Astringent and purgative respectively, while the remaining species have one or more than one medicinal use in the local community. 30 of these species are collected for marketing purposes, in which these medicinal plants such as Berberis lycium, Origanum vulgare, Bergenia ciliata, Aesculus indica, Podophyllum emodi, Pteredium aquilinum, Bergenia himalyca, Viola spp., Ajuga bracteosa, Morchella esculenta, Paeonia emodi, Atropa acuminate, Aconitum violaceum, Polygonum amplexicaulis, Bupleurum longicaule, Juglans regia, Diospyrus lotus, and Mentha longifolia are important. Study concluded that availability of medicinal plants is decreasing day by day due to human population pressure, marketing pressure, grazing and unwise collection. Therefore it is recommended that Governmental organizations and non Governmental organization should pay possible attention to make aware the local people about the future threats.

Keywords: Marketing, indigenous knowledge, ethnomedicinal uses, Hindu Kush

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14 Susceptibility Assessment and Genetic Diversity of Iranian and CIMMYT Wheat Genotypes to Common Root Rot Disease Bipolaris sorokiniana

Authors: Mehdi Nasr Esfahani, Abdal-Rasool Gholamalian, Abdelfattah A. Dababat

Abstract:

Wheat, Triticum aestivum L. is one of the most important and strategic crops in the human diet. Several diseases threaten this particular crop. Common root rot disease of wheat by a fungal agent, Bipolaris sorokiniana is one of the important diseases, causing considerable losses worldwide. Resistant sources are the only feasible and effective method of control for managing diseases. In this study, the response of 33 domestic and exotic wheat genotypes, including cultivars and promising lines were screened to B. sorokiniana at greenhouse and field conditions, based on five scoring scale indexes of 0 to 100 severity percentage. The screening was continued on resistant wheat genotypes and repeated several times to confirm the greenhouse and field results. Statistical and cluster analysis of data was performed using SAS and SPSS software, respectively. The results showed that, the response of wheat genotypes to the disease in the greenhouse and field conditions was highly significant. The highest rate of common root rot disease infection, B. sorokiniana in the greenhouse and field, was of CVS. Karkheh and Beck Cross-Roshan with 60.83% and 59.16% disease severity respectively, and the lowest one were in cv. Alvand with 18.33%, followed by cv. Baharan with 19.16% disease severity, with a highly significant difference respectively. The remaining wheat genotypes were located in between these two highest and lowest infected groups to B. sorokiniana significantly. There was a high correlation coefficient between the related statistical groups and cluster analysis.

Keywords: Resistance, Wheat, genotype, fungus, root, rot, crown

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13 Investigation on the Structure of Temperature-Responsive N-isopropylacrylamide Microgels Containing a New Hydrophobic Crosslinker

Authors: G. Roshan Deen, J. S. Pedersen

Abstract:

Temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide) PNIPAM microgels crosslinked with a new hydrophobic chemical crosslinker was prepared by surfactant-mediated precipitation emulsion polymerization. The temperature-responsive property of the microgel and the influence of the crosslinker on the swelling behaviour was studied systematically by light scattering and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The radius of gyration (Rg) and the hydrodynamic radius (Rh) of the microgels decreased with increase in temperature due to the volume phase transition from a swollen to a collapsed state. The ratio of Rg/Rh below the transition temperature was lower than that of hard-spheres due to the lower crosslinking density of the microgels. The SAXS data was analysed by a model in which the microgels were modelled as core-shell particles with a graded interface. The model at intermediate temperatures included a central core and a more diffuse outer layer describing pending polymer chains with a low crosslinking density. In the fully swollen state, the microgels were modelled with a single component with a broad graded surface. In the collapsed state they were modelled as homogeneous and relatively compact particles. The polymer volume fraction inside the microgel was also derived based on the model and was found to increase with increase in temperature as a result of collapse of the microgel to compact particles. The polymer volume fraction in the core of the microgel in the collapsed state was about 60% which is higher than that of similar microgels crosslinked with hydrophilic and flexible cross-linkers.

Keywords: Microgels, light scattering, SAXS, hydrophobic crosslinker

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12 Endeavor to Develop Immunological and Hematological Early Diagnostic Marker to Check the Conversion of Asymptomatic to Symptomatic Visceral Leishmaniasis

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Vidhya Nand Rabidas, Devendra Prasad Yadav

Abstract:

A diagnostic marker for asymptomatic subject becomes a crucial need for advocating early prophylactic majors to control protozoal infection. The main issue in epidemiological affected regions is the presence of an asymptomatic individual that might potentially convert to a symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The epidemiological study has been conducted at highly VL endemic Moriyama village in Patna district, Bihar, India that covers total population of 1540 individuals. Here, 1104(74.02%) people had been randomly screened and only 46 (4.17%) asymptomatic individuals were found sero-positive by the rK39 test. After taking signed informed consent form, blood samples were collected from 46 asymptomatic subjects for further hematological and immunological tests. Total leukocyte count, hemoglobin (gm%), neutrophil, lymphocyte, platelet count and interleukin-10 (IL-10) had been included as diagnostic markers. Interestingly only 5 (10.86%) individuals showed their asymptomatic conversion into symptomatic VL patients during quarterly surveillance. In overall analysis only two markers are suggestive for disease conversion that is hemoglobin (gm%) and IL-10. In all the infected patients, both the mean decrease in hemoglobin and mean increase of IL-10 was 19.23% from its normal value. The results might suggest that hematological and immunological changes would become helpful for early diagnosis of asymptomatic to symptomatic VL conversion.

Keywords: Diagnosis, epidemiological, asymptomatic, interleukin-10, symptomatic visceral leishmaniasis, hemoglobin (gm%)

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11 Dietary Habit and Anthropometric Status in Hypertensive Patients Compared to Normotensive Participants in the North of Iran

Authors: Marjan Mahdavi-Roshan, Arsalan Salari, Mahbobeh Gholipour

Abstract:

Hypertension is one of the important reasons of morbidity and mortality in countries, including Iran. It has been shown that hypertension is a consequence of the interaction of genetics and environment. Nutrients have important roles in the controlling of blood pressure. We assessed dietary habit and anthropometric status in patients with hypertension in the north of Iran, and that have special dietary habit and according to their culture. This study was conducted on 127 patients with newly recognized hypertension and the 120 normotensive participants. Anthropometric status was measured and demographic characteristics, and medical condition were collected by valid questionnaires and dietary habit assessment was assessed with 3-day food recall (two weekdays and one weekend). The mean age of participants was 58 ± 6.7 years. The mean level of energy intake, saturated fat, vitamin D, potassium, zinc, dietary fiber, vitamin C, calcium, phosphorus, copper and magnesium was significantly lower in the hypertensive group compared to the control (p < 0.05). After adjusting for energy intake, positive association was observe between hypertension and some dietary nutrients including; Cholesterol [OR: 1.1, P: 0.001, B: 0.06], fiber [OR: 1.6, P: 0.001, B: 1.8], vitamin D [OR: 2.6, P: 0.006, B: 0.9] and zinc [OR: 1.4, P: 0.006, B: 0.3] intake. Logistic regression analysis showed that there was not significant association between hypertension, weight and waist circumference. In our study, the mean intake of some nutrients was lower in the hypertensive individuals compared to the normotensive individual. Health training about suitable dietary habits and easier access to vitamin D supplementation in patients with hypertension are cost-effective tools to improve outcomes in Iran.

Keywords: Hypertension, weight, dietary intake, north of Iran

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10 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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9 Simultaneous Removal of Phosphate and Ammonium from Eutrophic Water Using Dolochar Based Media Filter

Authors: Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh Roshan Dash, Prangya Ranjan Rout

Abstract:

With the aim of enhancing the nutrient (ammonium and phosphate) removal from eutrophic wastewater with reduced cost, a novel media based multistage bio filter with drop aeration facility was developed in this work. The bio filter was packed with a discarded sponge iron industry by product, ‘dolochar’ primarily to remove phosphate via physicochemical approach. In the multi stage bio-filter drop, aeration was achieved by the process of percolation of the gravity-fed wastewater through the filter media and dropping down of wastewater from stage to stage. Ammonium present in wastewater got adsorbed by the filter media and biomass grown on the filter media and subsequently, got converted to nitrate through biological nitrification in the aerobic condition, as realized by drop aeration. The performance of the bio-filter in treating real eutrophic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 2 months. The influent phosphate concentration was in the range of 16-19 mg/L, and ammonium concentration was in the range of 65-78 mg/L. The average nutrient removal efficiency observed during the study period were 95.2% for phosphate and 88.7% for ammonium, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.91, and 8.74 mg/L, respectively. Furthermore, the subsequent release of nutrient from the saturated filter media, after completion of treatment process has been undertaken in this study and thin layer funnel analytical test results reveal the slow nutrient release nature of spent dolochar, thereby, recommending its potential agricultural application. Thus, the bio-filter displays immense prospective for treating real eutrophic wastewater, significantly decreasing the level of nutrients and keeping the effluent nutrient concentrations at par with the permissible limit and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar, ammonium removal, phosphate removal

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8 Collapsed World Heritage Site: Supply Chain Effect: Case Study of Monument in Kathmandu Valley after the Devastating Earthquake in Nepal

Authors: Rajaram Mahat, Roshan Khadka

Abstract:

Nepal has remained a land of diverse people and culture consisting more than hundred ethnic and caste groups with 92 different languages. Each ethnic and cast group have their own common culture. Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal is one of the multi-ethnic, lingual and cultural ancient places. Dozens of monuments with the history of more than thousand years are located in Kathmandu Valley. More or less all of the heritage site have been affected by devastating earthquake in April and May 2015. This study shows the most popular tourist and pilgrim’s destination like Kathmandu Darbar Square, Bhaktapur Darbarsquare, Patan Darbar Square, Swayambhunath temple complex, Dharahara Tower, Pasupatinath Hindu Religious Complex etc. have been massively destroyed. This paper analyses the socio economic consequence to the community people of world heritage site after devastating earthquake in Kathmandu Valley. Initial findings indicate that domestic and international current tourists flow have decreased by 41% and average 23% of local craft shop, curio shop, hotel, restaurant, grocery store, footpath shop including employment of tourist guide have been closed down as well as travel & tour business has decreased by 12%. Supply chain effect is noticeably shown in particular collapsed world heritage sites. It has also seen negative impact to National economy as well. This study has recommended to government of Nepal and other donor to reconstruct the collapse world heritage sites and to preserve the other existing world heritage site with treatment of earthquake resist structure as soon as possible.

Keywords: Earthquake, Community, World Heritage, supply chain effect

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7 Evolutionary Prediction of the Viral RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase of Chandipura vesiculovirus and Related Viral Species

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Vahab Ali, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar

Abstract:

Chandipura vesiculovirus is an emerging (-) ssRNA viral entity belonging to the genus Vesiculovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae, associated with fatal encephalitis in tropical regions. The multi-functionally active viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (vRdRp) that has been incorporated with conserved amino acid residues in the pathogens, assigned to synthesize distinct viral polypeptides. The lack of proofreading ability of the vRdRp produces many mutated variants. Here, we have performed the evolutionary analysis of 20 viral protein sequences of vRdRp of different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus along with other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus inferred in MEGA6.06, employing the Neighbour-Joining method. The p-distance algorithmic method has been used to calculate the optimum tree which showed the sum of branch length of about 1.436. The percentage of replicate trees in which the associated taxa are clustered together in the bootstrap test (1000 replicates), is shown next to the branches. No mutation was observed in the Indian strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. In vRdRp, 1230(His) and 1231(Arg) are actively participated in catalysis and, are found conserved in different strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus. Both amino acid residues were also conserved in the other viral species from genus Vesiculovirus. Many isolates exhibited maximum number of mutations in catalytic regions in strains of Chandipura vesiculovirus at position 26(Ser→Ala), 47 (Ser→Ala), 90(Ser→Tyr), 172(Gly→Ile, Val), 172(Ser→Tyr), 387(Asn→Ser), 1301(Thr→Ala), 1330(Ala→Glu), 2015(Phe→Ser) and 2065(Thr→Val) which make them variants under different tropical conditions from where they evolved. The result clarifies the actual concept of RNA evolution using vRdRp to develop as an evolutionary marker. Although, a limited number of vRdRp protein sequence similarities for Chandipura vesiculovirus and other species. This might endow with possibilities to identify the virulence level during viral multiplication in a host.

Keywords: Chandipura, (-) ssRNA, viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, neighbour-joining method, p-distance algorithmic, evolutionary marker

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6 Development of an Integrated System for the Treatment of Rural Domestic Wastewater: Emphasis on Nutrient Removal

Authors: Puspendu Bhunia, Rajesh Roshan Dash, Prangya Ranjan Rout

Abstract:

In a developing country like India, providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment facilities in rural areas is a huge challenge. With the aim of enhancing the nutrient removal from rural domestic wastewater while reducing the cost of treatment process, a novel, integrated treatment system consisting of a multistage bio-filter with drop aeration and a post positioned attached growth carbonaceous denitrifying-bioreactor was designed and developed in this work. The bio-filter was packed with ‘dolochar’, a sponge iron industry waste, as an adsorbent mainly for phosphate removal through physiochemical approach. The Denitrifying bio-reactor was packed with many waste organic solid substances (WOSS) as carbon sources and substrates for biomass attachment, mainly to remove nitrate in biological denitrification process. The performance of the modular system, treating real domestic wastewater was monitored for a period of about 60 days and the average removal efficiencies during the period were as follows: phosphate, 97.37%; nitrate, 85.91%, ammonia, 87.85%, with mean final effluent concentration of 0.73, 9.86, and 9.46 mg/L, respectively. The multistage bio-filter played an important role in ammonium oxidation and phosphate adsorption. The multilevel drop aeration with increasing oxygenation, and the special media used, consisting of certain oxides were likely beneficial for nitrification and phosphorus removal, respectively, whereas the nitrate was effectively reduced by biological denitrification in the carbonaceous bioreactor. This treatment system would allow multipurpose reuse of the final effluent. Moreover, the saturated dolochar can be used as nutrient suppliers in agricultural practices and the partially degraded carbonaceous substances can be subjected to composting, and subsequently used as an organic fertilizer. Thus, the system displays immense potential for treating domestic wastewater significantly decreasing the concentrations of nutrients and more importantly, facilitating the conversion of the waste materials into usable ones.

Keywords: nutrient removal, denitrifying bioreactor, multi-stage bio-filter, dolochar, waste organic solid substances

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5 Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Lytic Bacteriophage against Carbapenem Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae

Authors: Guna Raj Dhungana, Roshan Nepal, Apshara Parajuli, Archana Maharjan, Shyam K. Mishra, Pramod Aryal, Rajani Malla

Abstract:

Introduction: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known opportunistic human pathogen, primarily causing healthcare-associated infections. The global emergence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeis a major public health burden, which is often extensively multidrug resistant.Thus, because of the difficulty to treat these ‘superbug’ and menace and some term as ‘apocalypse’ of post antibiotics era, an alternative approach to controlling this pathogen is prudent and one of the approaches is phage mediated control and/or treatment. Objective: In this study, we aimed to isolate novel bacteriophage against carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaeand characterize for potential use inphage therapy. Material and Methods: Twenty lytic phages were isolated from river water using double layer agar assay and purified. Biological features, physiochemical characters, burst size, host specificity and activity spectrum of phages were determined. One most potent phage: Phage TU_Kle10O was selected and characterized by electron microscopy. Whole genome sequences of the phage were analyzed for presence/absence of virulent factors, and other lysin genes. Results: Novel phage TU_Kle10O showed multiple host range within own genus and did not induce any BIM up to 5th generation of host’s life cycle. Electron microscopy confirmed that the phage was tailed and belonged to Caudovirales family. Next generation sequencing revealed its genome to be 166.2 Kb. bioinformatical analysis further confirmed that the phage genome ‘did not’ contain any ‘bacterial genes’ within phage genome, which ruled out the concern for transfer of virulent genes. Specific 'lysin’ enzyme was identified phages which could be used as 'antibiotics'. Conclusion: Extensively multidrug resistant bacteria like carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniaecould be treated efficiently by phages.Absence of ‘virulent’ genes of bacterial origin and presence of lysin proteins within phage genome makes phages an excellent candidate for therapeutics.

Keywords: Phage Therapy, Klebsiella pneumoniae, bacteriophage, MDR, carbapenemase

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4 3D Design of Orthotic Braces and Casts in Medical Applications Using Microsoft Kinect Sensor

Authors: Sanjana S. Mallya, Roshan Arvind Sivakumar

Abstract:

Orthotics is the branch of medicine that deals with the provision and use of artificial casts or braces to alter the biomechanical structure of the limb and provide support for the limb. Custom-made orthoses provide more comfort and can correct issues better than those available over-the-counter. However, they are expensive and require intricate modelling of the limb. Traditional methods of modelling involve creating a plaster of Paris mould of the limb. Lately, CAD/CAM and 3D printing processes have improved the accuracy and reduced the production time. Ordinarily, digital cameras are used to capture the features of the limb from different views to create a 3D model. We propose a system to model the limb using Microsoft Kinect2 sensor. The Kinect can capture RGB and depth frames simultaneously up to 30 fps with sufficient accuracy. The region of interest is captured from three views, each shifted by 90 degrees. The RGB and depth data are fused into a single RGB-D frame. The resolution of the RGB frame is 1920px x 1080px while the resolution of the Depth frame is 512px x 424px. As the resolution of the frames is not equal, RGB pixels are mapped onto the Depth pixels to make sure data is not lost even if the resolution is lower. The resulting RGB-D frames are collected and using the depth coordinates, a three dimensional point cloud is generated for each view of the Kinect sensor. A common reference system was developed to merge the individual point clouds from the Kinect sensors. The reference system consisted of 8 coloured cubes, connected by rods to form a skeleton-cube with the coloured cubes at the corners. For each Kinect, the region of interest is the square formed by the centres of the four cubes facing the Kinect. The point clouds are merged by considering one of the cubes as the origin of a reference system. Depending on the relative distance from each cube, the three dimensional coordinate points from each point cloud is aligned to the reference frame to give a complete point cloud. The RGB data is used to correct for any errors in depth data for the point cloud. A triangular mesh is generated from the point cloud by applying Delaunay triangulation which generates the rough surface of the limb. This technique forms an approximation of the surface of the limb. The mesh is smoothened to obtain a smooth outer layer to give an accurate model of the limb. The model of the limb is used as a base for designing the custom orthotic brace or cast. It is transferred to a CAD/CAM design file to design of the brace above the surface of the limb. The proposed system would be more cost effective than current systems that use MRI or CT scans for generating 3D models and would be quicker than using traditional plaster of Paris cast modelling and the overall setup time is also low. Preliminary results indicate that the accuracy of the Kinect2 is satisfactory to perform modelling.

Keywords: Orthotics, registration, microsoft kinect, mesh generation

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3 Perception of Corporate Social Responsibility and Enhancing Compassion at Work through Sense of Meaningfulness

Authors: Nikeshala Weerasekara, Roshan Ajward

Abstract:

Contemporary business environment, given the circumstance of stringent scrutiny toward corporate behavior, organizations are under pressure to develop and implement solid overarching Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) strategies. In that milieu, in order to differentiate themselves from competitors and maintain stakeholder confidence banks spend millions of dollars on CSR programmes. However, knowledge on how non-western bank employees perceive such activities is inconclusive. At the same time recently only researchers have shifted their focus on positive effects of compassion at work or the organizational conditions under which it arises. Nevertheless, mediation mechanisms between CSR and compassion at work have not been adequately examined leaving a vacuum to be explored. Despite finding a purpose in work that is greater than extrinsic outcomes of the work is important to employees, meaningful work has not been examined adequately. Thus, in addition to examining the direct relationship between CSR and compassion at work, this study examined the mediating capability of meaningful work between these variables. Specifically, the researcher explored how CSR enables employees to sense work as meaningful which in turn would enhance their level of compassion at work. Hypotheses were developed to examine the direct relationship between CSR and compassion at work and the mediating effect of meaningful work on the relationship between CSR and compassion at work. Both Social Identity Theory (SIT) and Social Exchange Theory (SET) were used to theoretically support the relationships. The sample comprised of 450 respondents covering different levels of the bank. A convenience sampling strategy was used to secure responses from 13 local licensed commercial banks in Sri Lanka. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which was developed based on a comprehensive review of literature and refined using both expert opinions and a pilot survey. Structural equation modeling using Smart Partial Least Square (PLS) was utilized for data analysis. Findings indicate a positive and significant (p < .05) relationship between CSR and compassion at work. Also, it was found that meaningful work partially mediates the relationship between CSR and compassion at work. As per the findings it is concluded that bank employees’ perception of CSR engagement not only directly influence compassion at work but also impact such through meaningful work as well. This implies that employees consider working for a socially responsible bank since it creates greater meaningfulness of work to retain with the organization, which in turn trigger higher level of compassion at work. By utilizing both SIT and SET in explaining relationships between CSR and compassion at work it amounts to theoretical significance of the study. Enhance existing literature on CSR and compassion at work. Also, adds insights on mediating capability of psychologically related variables such as meaningful work. This study is expected to have significant policy implications in terms of increasing compassion at work where managers must understand the importance of including CSR activities into their strategy in order to thrive. Finally, it provides evidence of suitability of using Smart PLS to test models with mediating relationships involving non normal data.

Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility, Meaningful Work, employee commitment, positive affect, compassion at work

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2 Home Garden: A Food-Based Strategy to Achieve Sustainable Impact on Household Nutrition of Resource-Poor Families in Nepal

Authors: Purushottam P. Khatiwada, Bikash Paudel, Ram B. Rana, Parshuram Biswakarma, Roshan Pudasaini

Abstract:

Nepal has been putting its efforts into securing food and nutrition security for its citizens adopting different models and approaches. Home Garden approach, that integrates vegetables, fruits, small livestock, poultry along with other components like fish, honeybee, mushroom, spices for the promotion of nutritional security of resource-poor and disadvantaged groups was implemented during March 2009 to July 2013 spreading over 16 districts of Nepal covering 115 farmers groups, directly working with 3500 households. Sustained long-term impact of development interventions targeted to the resource-poor and disadvantaged groups has been a recurrent issue for donors, policymakers and practitioners alike. Considering the issue, a post-project evaluation was carried out in a selected project group (Dangibari of Jhapa) after four years of project completion in 2017 in order to evaluate the impact and understand the factors associated with its success. Qualitative information was collected through focus group discussion with group members and associated local institutions. For quantitative information, a quick survey was carried out to the same group members only selecting few indicators. The results are compared with the data obtained from the baseline study conducted by the project in March 2009. The impact of project intervention was evident as compared to the benchmarks established during the baseline, even after four years of project completion. The area under home garden is increased to 729 m² from 386 m² and average food self-sufficiency months increased to 10.22 from 8.11. Seven to eleven fruit species are maintained in the home gardens. An average number of vegetable species grown increased to 15.85 from 9.86. It has resulted in an increase in vegetables self-sufficient month to 8.74 from 4.74 and a huge increase in cash income NPR 6142.8 (USD 59.6) from NPR 385.7 (USD 3.9) from the sale of surplus vegetables. Coaching and mentoring including nutrition sensitization by the project staff at the beginning, inputs and technical support during the project implementation phase and projects effort on the institutional building of disadvantaged farmers were the key drivers of home garden sustainability and expansion. Specifically, package of home garden management trainings provided by the project staff, availability of group funds for buying inputs even after the project, uniting home garden group members in a cooperative, resource leveraging by local institutions through group lobbying, farmers innovations for maintaining home garden diversity and continuous backstopping support by few active members as local resource persons to other members are some additional factors contributing to sustain and/or improve the home garden status by the resource-poor and disadvantaged group.

Keywords: food-based nutrition, home garden, resource-poor and disadvantaged group, sustained impact

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