Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 872

Search results for: Muhammad Sufyan

812 Identification and Force Control of a Two Chambers Pneumatic Soft Actuator

Authors: Najib K. Dankadai, Ahmad 'Athif Mohd Faudzi, Khairuddin Osman, Muhammad Rusydi Muhammad Razif, IIi Najaa Aimi Mohd Nordin

Abstract:

Researches in soft actuators are now growing rapidly because of their adequacy to be applied in sectors like medical, agriculture, biological and welfare. This paper presents system identification (SI) and control of the force generated by a two chambers pneumatic soft actuator (PSA). A force mathematical model for the actuator was identified experimentally using data acquisition card and MATLAB SI toolbox. Two control techniques; a predictive functional control (PFC) and conventional proportional integral and derivative (PID) schemes are proposed and compared based on the identified model for the soft actuator flexible mechanism. Results of this study showed that both of the proposed controllers ensure accurate tracking when the closed loop system was tested with the step, sinusoidal and multi step reference input through MATLAB simulation although the PFC provides a better response than the PID.

Keywords: System Identification, predictive functional control (PFC), proportional integral and derivative (PID), soft actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
811 Impact of Brand Origin on Brand Loyalty: A Case of Personal Care Products in Pakistan

Authors: Aimen Batool Bint-E-Rashid, Syed Muhammad Dawood Ali Shah, Muhammad Usman Farooq, Mahgul Anwar

Abstract:

As the world is progressing, the needs and demands of the consumer market are also changing. Nowadays the trends of consumer purchase decisions are dependent upon multiple factors. This study aims to identify the influential impact of country of origin over the perception and devotion towards daily personal care products specifically in reference to the knowledge and awareness regarding that particular brand in Pakistan. To corroborate this study, a 30-item brand origin questionnaire has been used with 300 purchase decision makers belonging to different age groups. To illustrate this study, a model has been developed based on brand origin, brand awareness and brand loyalty. Correlation and regression analysis have been used to find out the results which conclude the findings on the perspective of Pakistan’s consumer market as that brand origin has a direct relationship with brand loyalty provided that the consumer has a positive brand awareness. Support for the fact that brand origin impacts brand loyalty through brand awareness has been presented in this study.

Keywords: Brand Awareness, Personal Care Products, brand loyalty, brand origin, P&G, Unilever

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
810 Minimum Half Power Beam Width and Side Lobe Level Reduction of Linear Antenna Array Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Saeed Ur Rahman, Naveed Ullah, Muhammad Irshad Khan, Quensheng Cao, Niaz Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

In this paper the optimization performance of non-uniform linear antenna array is presented. The Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm is presented to minimize Side Lobe Level (SLL) and Half Power Beamwidth (HPBW). The purpose of using the PSO algorithm is to get the optimum values for inter-element spacing and excitation amplitude of linear antenna array that provides a radiation pattern with minimum SLL and HPBW. Various design examples are considered and the obtain results using PSO are confirmed by comparing with results achieved using other nature inspired metaheuristic algorithms such as real coded genetic algorithm (RGA) and biogeography (BBO) algorithm. The comparative results show that optimization of linear antenna array using the PSO provides considerable enhancement in the SLL and HPBW.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization, linear antenna array, minimum side lobe level, narrow half power beamwidth

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
809 Studying the Effect of Different Sizes of Carbon Fiber on Locally Developed Copper Based Composites

Authors: Muhammad Taqi Zahid Butt, Tahir Ahmad, Abubaker Khan, Muhammad Kamran, Muhammad Umer Manzoor

Abstract:

Metal Matrix Composites (MMC) is a class of weight efficient structural materials that are becoming popular in engineering applications especially in electronic, aerospace, aircraft, packaging and various other industries. This study focuses on the development of carbon fiber reinforced copper matrix composite. Keeping in view the vast applications of metal matrix composites,this specific material is produced for its unique mechanical and thermal properties i.e. high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion at elevated temperatures. The carbon fibers were not pretreated but coated with copper by electroless plating in order to increase the wettability of carbon fiber with the copper matrix. Casting is chosen as the manufacturing route for the C-Cu composite. Four different compositions of the composite were developed by varying the amount of carbon fibers by 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 wt. % of the copper. The effect of varying carbon fiber content and sizes on the mechanical properties of the C-Cu composite is studied in this work. The tensile test was performed on the tensile specimens. The yield strength decreases with increasing fiber content while the ultimate tensile strength increases with increasing fiber content. Rockwell hardness test was also performed and the result followed the increasing trend for increasing carbon fibers and the hardness numbers are 30.2, 37.2, 39.9 and 42.5 for sample 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively. The microstructures of the specimens were also examined under the optical microscope. Wear test and SEM also done for checking characteristic of C-Cu marix composite. Through casting may be a route for the production of the C-Cu matrix composite but still powder metallurgy is better to follow as the wettability of carbon fiber with matrix, in that case, would be better.

Keywords: Microstructure, Mechanical Properties, copper based composites, wear properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
808 Biotic Potential of Different Densities of Aphid Parasitoids, Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) Feeding on Brevicoryne brassicae

Authors: Muhammad Anjum Aqueel, Abu Bakar Muhammad Raza, Muhammad Jaffar Hussain

Abstract:

Diaeretiella rapae (M’Intosh) attack most of the aphid species. However, it is specialized in feeding on crucifer aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae. Biological potential of parasitoid is its density-dependency due to sharing of limited resources in few cases. The present study was carried out to check the biotic potential of D. rapae at its different densities (1, 2, 4, 8 and 10 pairs) on fixed number of B. brassicae (100 in number) as a host. The present study was performed under laboratory conditions (25 ± 2 ºC temperature and 65-70 % R.H.). Different biological parameters for parasitoid (e.g. percent parasitism, adult emergence, adult longevity and per pair parasitism) were evaluated to check its biotic potential. The present findings showed that maximum parasitism (43.09 % ± 0.63) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (16.59 % ± 1.28) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. Maximum adult emergence (80.31 % ± 1.33) was observed in highest density (10 pairs) and minimum parasitism (45.99 % ± 1.27) in lowest density (1 pair) of the parasitoid. In the case of adult longevity, highest (8.2 days ± 0.38) and lowest (6 days ± 0.32) longevity were observed in lowest (1 pair) and highest (10 pairs) densities of parasitoids respectively. However, per pair parasitism rate decreased with the increase in parasitoid densities due to intra-specific competition, developed between the parasitoids for parasitism. The positive but close relationship was observed between percent parasitism and adult emergence. The increase in parasitoid densities increased the percent parasitism and adult emergence of the parasitoid. So, we conclude that an inter-specific competition negatively affected the efficacy of parasitoids and may reduce the fitness of the emerging parasitoid.

Keywords: Diaeretiella rapae, Parasitoid densities, Percent parasitism, adult emergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 95
807 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Mubashir Iqbal, Anum Tariq, Talha Farooq

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: field conditions, attractancy, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
806 Where Is the Sultan of Aceh? Reconsidering the Return of the Aceh Sultanate

Authors: Muhammad Harya Ramdhoni, Nidzam Sulaiman, Muhammad Ridwan

Abstract:

The Helsinki Agreement between the Indonesian Government (RI) and the Aceh Liberation Movement (GAM) on 15th Aug. 2005 fails to reconcile social and political turmoil in Aceh Darussalam (NAD). The political powers that were once unified in their struggle against Indonesian Government prior to this agreement have now become divided due to differences in political and economic interests. Using descriptive analysis and intellectual discourse, this paper proposes that the Aceh Sultanate be revived as an attempt to unite these divided political powers and to curtail potential conflicts in the area. This proposal is based on three assumptions. First, the Aceh Sultanate is the only Sultanate in Sumatera that did not fall victim to the social revolution post 1945 proclamation of independence. Second, the Acehnese still acknowledge the Sultanate as a sovereign political power even though it was defeated by the Dutch in 1904. Third, there are emotional, historical and cultural ties between the Acehnese and the Sultanate as they still perceived them to be their patron. Consequently, the Sultanate is the unifying element of all political powers in the area. This, however, is not an attempt to reinstate feudalism in Aceh. It only seeks to facilitate the political reconciliation process in Aceh Darussalam founded on sociological and historical background of locals.

Keywords: Political Power, Sultanate Aceh, political reconciliation, patron-client

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
805 Automated Heart Sound Classification from Unsegmented Phonocardiogram Signals Using Time Frequency Features

Authors: Muhammad Salman Khan, Nadia Masood Khan, Gul Muhammad Khan

Abstract:

Cardiologists perform cardiac auscultation to detect abnormalities in heart sounds. Since accurate auscultation is a crucial first step in screening patients with heart diseases, there is a need to develop computer-aided detection/diagnosis (CAD) systems to assist cardiologists in interpreting heart sounds and provide second opinions. In this paper different algorithms are implemented for automated heart sound classification using unsegmented phonocardiogram (PCG) signals. Support vector machine (SVM), artificial neural network (ANN) and cartesian genetic programming evolved artificial neural network (CGPANN) without the application of any segmentation algorithm has been explored in this study. The signals are first pre-processed to remove any unwanted frequencies. Both time and frequency domain features are then extracted for training the different models. The different algorithms are tested in multiple scenarios and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed. Results indicate that SVM outperforms the rest with an accuracy of 73.64%.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning, computer aided diagnosis, heart sound classification, and feature extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
804 Optimal Allocation of Distributed Generation Sources for Loss Reduction and Voltage Profile Improvement by Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Authors: Muhammad Zaheer Babar, Amer Kashif, Muhammad Rizwan Javed

Abstract:

Nowadays distributed generation integration is best way to overcome the increasing load demand. Optimal allocation of distributed generation plays a vital role in reducing system losses and improves voltage profile. In this paper, a Meta heuristic technique is proposed for allocation of DG in order to reduce power losses and improve voltage profile. The proposed technique is based on Multi Objective Particle Swarm optimization. Fewer control parameters are needed in this algorithm. Modification is made in search space of PSO. The effectiveness of proposed technique is tested on IEEE 33 bus test system. Single DG as well as multiple DG scenario is adopted for proposed method. Proposed method is more effective as compared to other Meta heuristic techniques and gives better results regarding system losses and voltage profile.

Keywords: Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), distributed generation (DG), multi objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO), IEEE standard Test System

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
803 Subjective Quality Assessment for Impaired Videos with Varying Spatial and Temporal Information

Authors: Muhammad Rehan Usman, Muhammad Arslan Usman, Soo Young Shin

Abstract:

The new era of digital communication has brought up many challenges that network operators need to overcome. The high demand of mobile data rates require improved networks, which is a challenge for the operators in terms of maintaining the quality of experience (QoE) for their consumers. In live video transmission, there is a sheer need for live surveillance of the videos in order to maintain the quality of the network. For this purpose objective algorithms are employed to monitor the quality of the videos that are transmitted over a network. In order to test these objective algorithms, subjective quality assessment of the streamed videos is required, as the human eye is the best source of perceptual assessment. In this paper we have conducted subjective evaluation of videos with varying spatial and temporal impairments. These videos were impaired with frame freezing distortions so that the impact of frame freezing on the quality of experience could be studied. We present subjective Mean Opinion Score (MOS) for these videos that can be used for fine tuning the objective algorithms for video quality assessment.

Keywords: subjective evaluation, frame freezing, mean opinion score, objective assessment

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
802 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

Abstract:

It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, mangrove, hyperion, SAM, SFF, SID

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
801 Stabilizing a Failed Slope in Islamabad, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Umer Zubair, Kamran Akhtar, Muhammad Arsalan Khan

Abstract:

This paper is based on a research carried out on a failed slope in Defence Housing Authority (DHA) Phase I, Islamabad. The research included determination of Soil parameters, Site Surveying and Cost Estimation. Apart from these, the use of three dimensional (3D) slope stability analysis in conjunction with two dimensional (2D) analysis was used determination of slope conditions. In addition collection of soil reports, a detailed survey was carried out to create a 3D model in Surfer 8 software. 2D cross-sections that needed to be analyzed for stability were generated from 3D model. Slope stability softwares, Rocscience Slide 6.0 and Clara-W were employed for 2D and 3D Analyses respectively which have the ability to solve complex mathematical functions. Results of the analyses were used to confirm site conditions and the threats were identified to recommend suitable remedies.The most effective remedy was suggested for slope stability after analyzing all remedies in software Slide 6 and its feasibility was determined through cost benefit analysis. This paper should be helpful to Geotechnical engineers, design engineers and the organizations working with slope stability.

Keywords: Slope Stability, Sensitivity Analysis, Rocscience, Clara W

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
800 Alterations in Esterases and Phosphatases of Three Economically Important Stored Grain Insect Pests Exposed to Botanical Extracts, Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus

Authors: Abdul Rashid, Kazam Ali, Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-Ul- Hasan, Chaudhary Muhammad Shahid Hanif, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Hafiz Muhammad Aatif

Abstract:

Natural extracts of two medicinal plants Nicotiana tabacum and Eucalyptus globulus were tested for their toxic and enzyme inhibition effects against three insects species of stored grains Tribolium castaneum, Trogoderma granarium and Sitophilus granarius. Responses of insects varied with exposure periods and dilution levels of acetone extracts of plants. Both plant extracts were lethal to insects but the crude leaf extract of N. tabacum evidenced strong toxic action against three tested insect species. Maximum mortality 36.30% in S. granarius, 25.96% in T. castaneum, and 21.88% in T. granarium were found at 20% dilution level, after 10 days exposure to botanical extract of N. tabacum. The impact of N. tabacum and E. globulus on the activity of esterases; acetylcholinesterase (AChE), α-carboxylesterase (α-CE), β-carboxylesterase (β-CE) and phosphatses; acid phosphatase (AcP), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) of three stored grain insect species were also studied in the survivors of toxicity assay. Whole body homogenates of insects were used for enzyme determination and consumption of high dose rate N. tabacum extract containing diet resulted in maximum 55.33% inhibition of AChE and 26.17% AlP inhibition in T. castaneum, while 44.17% of α-CE and 31.67% inhibition of β-CE activity were noted in S. granarius. Maximum inhibition 23.44% of AcP activity was found in T. granarium exposed to diet treated with the extract of E. globulus. The findings indicate that acetone extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus are naturally occurring pesticide and facts of the enzyme inhibition relations specify that their effect changes with the insect species.

Keywords: enzyme inhibition, medicinal plant, natural extract, acetone extract, toxic effects

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
799 Drugstore Control System Design and Realization Based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

Authors: Muhammad Faheem Khakhi, Jian Yu Wang, Salman Muhammad, Muhammad Faisal Shabir

Abstract:

Population growth and Chinese two-child policy will boost pharmaceutical market, and it will continue to maintain the growth for a period of time in the future, the traditional pharmacy dispensary has been unable to meet the growing medical needs of the peoples. Under the strong support of the national policy, the automatic transformation of traditional pharmacies is the inclination of the Times, the new type of intelligent pharmacy system will continue to promote the development of the pharmaceutical industry. Under this background, based on PLC control, the paper proposed an intelligent storage and automatic drug delivery system; complete design of the lower computer's control system and the host computer's software system has been present. The system can be applied to dispensing work for Chinese herbal medicinal and Western medicines. Firstly, the essential of intelligent control system for pharmacy is discussed. After the analysis of the requirements, the overall scheme of the system design is presented. Secondly, introduces the software and hardware design of the lower computer's control system, including the selection of PLC and the selection of motion control system, the problem of the human-computer interaction module and the communication between PC and PLC solves, the program design and development of the PLC control system is completed. The design of the upper computer software management system is described in detail. By analyzing of E-R diagram, built the establish data, the communication protocol between systems is customize, C++ Builder is adopted to realize interface module, supply module, main control module, etc. The paper also gives the implementations of the multi-threaded system and communication method. Lastly, each module of the lower computer control system is tested. Then, after building a test environment, the function test of the upper computer software management system is completed. On this basis, the entire control system accepts the overall test.

Keywords: Communication, Control System, Management System, PLC, automatic pharmacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
798 Nexus between Energy, Environment and Economic Growth: Sectoral Analysis from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Sajjad

Abstract:

Climate change has become a global environmental challenge and it has affected the world’s economy. Its impact is widespread across all major sectors of the economy i.e. agriculture, industry, and services sectors. This study attempts to measure the long run as well as the short-run dynamic between energy; environment and economic growth by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach at aggregate as well as sectoral level. We measured the causal relationship between electricity consumption, fuel consumption, CO₂ emission, and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period of 1980 to 2016 for Pakistan. Our co-integration results reveal that all the variables are co-integrated at aggregate as well as at sectoral level. Electricity consumption shows two-way casual relation at for industry, services and aggregate level. The inverted U-Curve hypothesis tested the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and per capita GDP and results supported the Environment Kuznet Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This study cannot ignore the importance of energy for economic growth but prefers to focus on renewable and green energy to pave on the trajectory of development.

Keywords: Climate Change, Energy, Environment, Economic growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 18
797 Satellite Derived Evapotranspiration and Turbulent Heat Fluxes Using Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS)

Authors: Mirza Muhammad Waqar, Muhammad Tayyab Afzal, Muhammad Arslan

Abstract:

One of the key components of the water cycle is evapotranspiration (ET), which represents water consumption by vegetated and non-vegetated surfaces. Conventional techniques for measurements of ET are point based and representative of the local scale only. Satellite remote sensing data with large area coverage and high temporal frequency provide representative measurements of several relevant biophysical parameters required for estimation of ET at regional scales. The objective is of this research is to exploit satellite data in order to estimate evapotranspiration. This study uses Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS) model to calculate daily actual evapotranspiration (ETa) in Larkana District, Sindh Pakistan using Landsat TM data for clouds-free days. As there is no flux tower in the study area for direct measurement of latent heat flux or evapotranspiration and sensible heat flux, therefore, the model estimated values of ET were compared with reference evapotranspiration (ETo) computed by FAO-56 Penman Monteith Method using meteorological data. For a country like Pakistan, agriculture by irrigation in the river basins is the largest user of fresh water. For the better assessment and management of irrigation water requirement, the estimation of consumptive use of water for agriculture is very important because it is the main consumer of water. ET is yet an essential issue of water imbalance due to major loss of irrigation water and precipitation on cropland. As large amount of irrigated water is lost through ET, therefore its accurate estimation can be helpful for efficient management of irrigation water. Results of this study can be used to analyse surface conditions, i.e. temperature, energy budgets and relevant characteristics. Through this information we can monitor vegetation health and suitable agricultural conditions and can take controlling steps to increase agriculture production.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Evapotranspiration, SEBS, ETa

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
796 Trapping Efficiency of Highly Effective Slow Released Formulations of Biodegradable Waxes with Methyl Eugenol Against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Faisal Munir, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Hamza Khaliq

Abstract:

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of highly effective Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax, Candellila wax, Bee-wax, Carnauba wax and paraffin wax in the orchard of University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. The waxes were mixed with methyl eugenol in 1:9 ratio. The results revealed that SRF of Candellila, Paraffin, Bees and Carnauba wax attracted 13.77, 11, 8.15 and 7.23 flies/day/trap which was 2.6, 2, 1.5 and 1.4 times higher than standard respectively and exhibited 41.42%, 32.05%, 20.98% and 12.87% attractive index respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulation to B. zonata and was catagorized as Class-II slow-released formulation (AI = 11-50%). However, SRF of Lanolin wax trapped 1.81 flies/day/trap which was 3 times less than standard and exhibited -61.86% attractive index proved little or non attractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, methyl euginol, biodegradable waxes

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
795 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib, Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta

Abstract:

Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Pakistan, Sheep, Trace Elements, Prevalence, coprological examination, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Sialkot

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
794 Enhancing the Performance of Bug Reporting System by Handling Duplicate Reporting Reports: Artificial Intelligence Based Mantis

Authors: Muhammad Saad, Shah Muhammad Emaduddin, Afshan Saad

Abstract:

Bug reporting systems are most important tool that guides regarding different maintenance activities in software engineering. Duplicate bug reports which describe the bugs and issues in bug reporting system repository increases processing time of bug triage that monitors all such activities and software programmers who are working and spending time on reports which were assigned by triage. These reports can reveal imperfections and degrade software quality. As there is a number of the potential duplicate bug reports increases, the number of bug reports in bug repository increases. Identifying duplicate bug reports help in decreasing development work load in fixing defects. However, it is difficult to manually identify all possible duplicates because of the huge number of already reported bug reports. In this paper, an artificial intelligence based system using Mantis is proposed to automatically detect duplicate bug reports. When new bugs are submitted to repository triages will mark it with a tag. It will investigate that whether it is a duplicate of an existing bug report by matching or not. Reports with duplicate tags will be eliminated from the repository which not only will improve the performance of the system but can also save cost and effort waste on bug triage and finding the duplicate bug.

Keywords: Quality assurance, tool, bug tracking, triager

Procedia PDF Downloads 15
793 Association of Genetic Variants of Apolipoprotein A5 Gene with the Metabolic Syndrome in the Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Saqlain, Bernard M. Y. Cheung, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja

Abstract:

Background: Association of C allele of rs662799 SNP of APOA5 gene with metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been reported in different populations around the world. A case control study was conducted to explore the relationship of rs662799 variants (T/C) with the MetS and the associated risk phenotypes in a population of Pakistani origin. Methods: MetS was defined according to the IDF criteria. Blood samples were collected from the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences, Islamabad, Pakistan for biochemical profiling and DNA extraction. Genotyping of rs662799 was performed using mass ARRAY, iPEX Gold technology. A total of 712 unrelated case and control subjects were genotyped. Data were analyzed using Plink software and SPSS 16.0. Results: The risk allele C of rs662799 showed highly significant association with MetS (OR=1.5, Ρ=0.002). Among risk phenotypes, dyslipidemia, and obesity showed strong association with SNP (OR=1.49, p=0.03; OR =1.46, p=0.01) respectively in models adjusted for age and gender. Conclusion: The rs662799C allele is a significant risk marker for MetS in the local Pakistani population studied. The effect of the SNP is more on dyslipidemia than the other components of the MetS.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, APOA5, rs662799

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
792 Comparative Efficacy of Prolene and Polyester Mesh for the Repair of Abdominal Wall Defect in Pigeons (Columba livia)

Authors: Muhammad Arif Khan, Abdul Basit, Muhammad Naveed Ali, Hamad Bin Rashid, Hafiz Muhammad Arshad

Abstract:

Abdominal defects are very common in pigeons. A new technique is known as intraabdominal mesh transplant that give better protection for herniorrhaphy. The aim of this study was to determine the performance of hernia mesh. In this study, an efficacy of two synthetic hernia mesh implants viz. conventional Prolene and a lightweight mesh monofilament polyester were assessed for the abdominal wall repair in pigeons. Twenty four healthy pigeons were selected and randomly distributed into three groups, A, B and C (n=8). In all groups, experimental laparotomy was performed; thereafter, abdominal muscles and peritoneum were sutured together, while, a 2 x 2 cm defect was created in the abdominal muscles. For onlay hernioplasty, the hernia mesh (Prolene mesh: group A; Polyester mesh: group B) was implanted over the external oblique muscles of the abdomen. In group C (control), the mesh was not implanted; instead, the laparotomy incision was closed after a herniorrhaphy. Post-operative pain wound healing, adhesion formation, histopathological findings and formation of hematoma, abscess and seroma were assessed as short-term complications. Post-operatively, pain at surgical site was significantly less (P < 0.001) in group B (Polyester mesh); wound healing was also significantly better and rapid in group B (P < 0.05) than in group A (Prolene mesh). Group B (Polyester mesh) also depicted less than 25% adhesions when assessed on the basis of a Quantitative Modified Diamond scale; a Qualitative Adhesion Tenacity scale also depicted either no adhesions or flimsy adhesions (n=2) in group B (Polyester mesh), in contrast to group A (Prolene), which manifested greater adhesion formation and presence of dense adhesions requiring blunt dissection. There were observed hematoma, seroma and abscess formations in birds treated by Prolene mesh only. Conclusively, the polyester mesh proved superior to the Prolene mesh regarding lesser adhesion, better in wound healing, and no short-term follow-up complications.

Keywords: Adhesion, Mesh, polyester, prolene

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
791 The Theology of a Muslim Artist: Tawfiq al-Hakim

Authors: Abdul Rahman Chamseddine

Abstract:

Tawfiq al-Hakim remains one of the most prominent playwrights in his native in Egypt, and in the broader Arab world. His works, at the time of their release, drew international attention and acclaim. His first 1933 masterpiece Ahl al-Kahf (The People of the Cave) especially, garnered fame and recognition in both Europe and the Arab world. Borrowing its title from the Qur’anic Sura, al-Hakim’s play relays the untold story of the life of those 'three saints' after they wake up from their prolonged sleep. The playwright’s selection of topics upon which to base his works displays a deep appreciation of Arabic and Islamic heritage. Al-Hakim was clearly influenced by Islam, to such a degree that he wrote the biography of the Prophet Muhammad in 1936 very early in his career. Knowing that Al-Hakim was preceded by many poets and creative writers in writing the Prophet Muhammad’s biography. Notably like Al-Barudi, Ahmad Shawqi, Haykal, Al-‘Aqqad, and Taha Husayn who have had their own ways in expressing their views of the Prophet Muhammad. The attempt to understand the concern of all those renaissance men and others in the person of the Prophet would be indispensable in this study. This project will examine the reasons behind al-Hakim’s choice to draw upon these particular texts, embedded as they are in the context of Arabic and Islamic heritage, and how the use of traditional texts serves his contemporary goals. The project will also analyze the image of Islam in al-Hakim’s imagination. Elsewhere, he envisions letters or conversations between God and himself, which offers a window into understanding the powerful impact of the Divine on Tawfiq al-Hakim, one that informs his literature and merits further scholarly attention. His works occupying a major rank in Arabic literature, does not reveal Al-Hakim solely but the unquestioned assumptions operative in the life of his community, its mental make-up and its attitudes. Furthermore, studying the reception of works that touch on sensitive issues, like writing a letter to God, in Al-Hakim’s historical context would be of a great significance in the process of comprehending the mentality of the Muslim community at that time.

Keywords: Arabic language, Arabic literature, Arabic theology, modern Arabic literature

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
790 Causes and Implications of Obesity in Urban School Going Children

Authors: Mohammad Amjad, Muhammad Iqbal Zafar, Ashfaq Ahmed Maan, Muhammad Tayyab Kashif

Abstract:

Obesity is an abnormal physical condition where an increased and undesirable fat accumulates in the human body. Obesity is an international phenomenon. In the present study, 12 schools were randomly selected from each district considering the areas i.e. Elite Private Schools in the private sector, Government schools in urban areas and Government schools in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with male students studying in grade 5 to grade 9 in each school. The sample size was 600 students; 300 from Faisalabad district and 300 from Rawalpindi district in Pakistan. A well-structured and pre-tested questionnaire was used for data collection. The calibrated scales were used to attain the heights and weights of the respondents. Obesity of school-going children depends on family types, family size, family history, junk food consumption, mother’s education, weekly time spent in walking, and sports facility at school levels. Academic performance, physical health and psychological health of school going children are affected with obesity. Concrete steps and policies could minimize the incidence of obesity in children in Pakistan.

Keywords: Overweight, Cardiovascular Disease, morbidity, body mass index, fast food

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
789 Physico-Chemical and Phytoplankton Analyses of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Musa Muhammad, Muhammad Kabiru Abubakar

Abstract:

Monthly changes in Phytoplankton periodicity, nutrient levels, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria were studied for a period of six months (July-Dec.-2011). Physico-chemical result showed that temperature and pH ranged between17-25˚C and 5.5-7.5, while dissolved solids and suspended solids ranged between 95-155 mg/L and 0.13-112 mg/L respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ion concentrations were within the ranges of 3.5-3.6 mg/L, 4.8-7.2 mg/L, 8.10-12.30 mg/L, 21-58µΩ/cm, 0.2-8.1 mg/L, 2.4-18.1 mg/L, and 1.22-15.60 mg/L respectively. A total of 4514 Org/L phytoplankton were recorded, of which four classes of algae were identified. These comprised of Chlorophyta (44.1%), Cyanophyta(30.62%), Bacillariophyta(3.2%), Euglenophyta (32.1%). Descriptive statistics of the result showed that phytoplankton count varied with variation of physico-chemical parameters at 5% level during the study period. The abundance and distribution of the algae varied with the variation in the physico-chemical parameters. Pearson correlation showed that temperature and nutrients were significantly correlated with phytoplankton, while DO, sulphate and pH were insignificantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation with COD and phytoplankton.

Keywords: correlation, phytoplankton, physico chemical, kazaure dam

Procedia PDF Downloads 371
788 Screening of Risk Phenotypes among Metabolic Syndrome Subjects in Adult Pakistani Population

Authors: Muhammad Fiaz, Abid Mahmood, Muhammad Saqlain, S. M. Saqlan Naqvi, Ghazala Kaukab Raja, Rizwan Aziz Qazi

Abstract:

Background: Metabolic Syndrome is a clustering of multiple risk factors including central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. These risk phenotypes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalent world-wide, Therefore we aimed to identify the frequency of risk phenotypes among metabolic syndrome subjects in local adult Pakistani population. Methods: Screening of subjects visiting out-patient department of medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto Medical University, Islamabad was performed to assess the occurrence of risk phenotypes among MetS subjects in Pakistani population. The Metabolic Syndrome was defined based on International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Anthropometric and biochemical assay results were recorded. Data was analyzed using SPSS software (16.0). Results: Our results showed that dyslipidemia (31.50%) and hyperglycemia (30.50%) was most population specific risk phenotypes of MetS. The results showed the order of association of metabolic risk phenotypes to MetS as follows hyperglycemia>dyslipidemia>obesity >hypertension. Conclusion: The hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were found be the major risk phenotypes among the MetS subjects and have greater chances of deceloping MetS among Pakistani Population.

Keywords: Obesity, metabolic syndrome, Dyslipidemia, hypertention

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
787 Continuous Differential Evolution Based Parameter Estimation Framework for Signal Models

Authors: Ammara Mehmood, Aneela Zameer, Muhammad Asif Zahoor Raja, Muhammad Faisal Fateh

Abstract:

In this work, the strength of bio-inspired computational intelligence based technique is exploited for parameter estimation for the periodic signals using Continuous Differential Evolution (CDE) by defining an error function in the mean square sense. Multidimensional and nonlinear nature of the problem emerging in sinusoidal signal models along with noise makes it a challenging optimization task, which is dealt with robustness and effectiveness of CDE to ensure convergence and avoid trapping in local minima. In the proposed scheme of Continuous Differential Evolution based Signal Parameter Estimation (CDESPE), unknown adjustable weights of the signal system identification model are optimized utilizing CDE algorithm. The performance of CDESPE model is validated through statistics based various performance indices on a sufficiently large number of runs in terms of estimation error, mean squared error and Thiel’s inequality coefficient. Efficacy of CDESPE is examined by comparison with the actual parameters of the system, Genetic Algorithm based outcomes and from various deterministic approaches at different signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) levels.

Keywords: Bio-inspired computing, Parameter Estimation, continuous differential evolution (CDE), periodic signals

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
786 Architectural and Sedimentological Parameterization for Reservoir Quality of Miocene Onshore Sandstone, Borneo

Authors: Numair A. Siddiqui, Usman Muhammad, Manoj J. Mathew, Ramkumar M., Benjamin Sautter, Muhammad A. K. El-Ghali, David Menier, Shiqi Zhang

Abstract:

The sedimentological parameterization of shallow-marine siliciclastic reservoirs in terms of reservoir quality and heterogeneity from outcrop study can help improve the subsurface reservoir prediction. An architectural analysis has documented variations in sandstone geometry and rock properties within shallow-marine sandstone exposed in the Miocene Sandakan Formation of Sabah, Borneo. This study demonstrates reservoir sandstone quality assessment for subsurface rock evaluation, from well-exposed successions of the Sandakan Formation, Borneo, with which applicable analogues can be identified. The analyses were based on traditional conventional field investigation of outcrops, grain-size and petrographic studies of hand specimens of different sandstone facies and gamma-ray and permeability measurements. On the bases of these evaluations, the studied sandstone was grouped into three qualitative reservoir rock classes; high (Ø=18.10 – 43.60%; k=1265.20 – 5986.25 mD), moderate (Ø=17.60 – 37%; k=21.36 – 568 mD) and low quality (Ø=3.4 – 15.7%; k=3.21 – 201.30 mD) for visualization and prediction of subsurface reservoir quality. These results provided analogy for shallow marine sandstone reservoir complexity that can be utilized in the evaluation of reservoir quality of regional and subsurface analogues.

Keywords: Borneo, reservoir quality, architecture and sedimentology, subsurface rock evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
785 Comparative Demography of Lady Beetle, Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) with Respect to Different Aphid Species

Authors: Muhammad Farooq, Muhammad R. Shahid, M. Shakeel, A. Iftikhar, M. Sagheer, Riaz A. Kainth

Abstract:

Comparative demography of Coccinella septempunctata Linnaeus (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) was studied with respect to four host aphid species viz; Rhopalosiphum padi, Rhopalosiphum maidis, Sitobion avenae, and Shizaphis graminum under laboratory conditions using Two-sex Age-stage life table instead of traditional age specific life table which considers only female. Results revealed that developmental period from egg to adult of C. septempunctata were shorter on R. padi (16.49 days) whereas longer on R. maidis (22.83 days). Net reproductive rate varied from 110.01 offspring on R. maidis to 288.78 offspring on R. padi. Mean generation time (T) ranged from 29.02 d on R. padi to 39.788 d on R. maidis. Highest to lowest values of intrinsic rate of increase (rm) were recorded on R. padi, S. graminum, S. avenae, and R. maidis (0.194, 0.143, 0.140 and 0.117 d⁻¹, respectively). Highest finite rate of increase was observed on R. padi (1.214 d⁻¹) followed by S. graminum (1.154 d⁻¹) whereas lowest values were obtained on R. maidis and S. avenae (1.124 and 1.150 d⁻¹, respectively). In this study, the data on the life table of both predator and prey provide useful information in the mass rearing and practical application of a natural agent to biological control systems.

Keywords: C. septempunctata, two-sex age-stage life table, population parameters, aphid species

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
784 Spatial Cluster Analysis of Human Cases of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Reported in Pakistan

Authors: Tariq Abbas, Younus Muhammad, Sayyad Aun Muhammad

Abstract:

Background : Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick born viral zoonotic disease that has been notified from almost all regions of Pakistan. The aim of this study was to investigate spatial distribution of CCHF cases reported to National Institue of Health , Islamabad during year 2013. Methods : Spatial statistics tools were applied to detect extent spatial auto-correlation and clusters of the disease based on adjusted cumulative incidence per million population for each district. Results : The data analyses revealed a large multi-district cluster of high values in the uplands of Balochistan province near Afghanistan border. Conclusion : The cluster included following districts: Pishin; Qilla Abdullah; Qilla Saifullah; Quetta, Sibi; Zhob; and Ziarat. These districts may be given priority in CCHF surveillance, control programs, and further epidemiological research . The location of the cluster close to border of Afghanistan and Iran highlight importance of the findings for organizations dealing with disease at national, regional and global levels.

Keywords: Clusters, Pakistan, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, spatial autocorrelation, adjusted cumulative incidence

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
783 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Arshad, Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Shahid Majeed

Abstract:

Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: maize, abundance, evenness, richness

Procedia PDF Downloads 21