Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

Search results for: Mubbasir Kapadia

3 Autonomous Position Control of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Based on Accelerometer Response for Indoor Navigation Using Kalman Filtering

Authors: Syed Misbahuddin, Sagufta Kapadia

Abstract:

Autonomous indoor drone navigation has been posed with various challenges, including the inability to use a Global Positioning System (GPS). As of now, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) either rely on 3D mapping systems or utilize external camera arrays to track the UAV in an enclosed environment. The objective of this paper is to develop an algorithm that utilizes Kalman Filtering to reduce noise, allowing the UAV to be navigated indoors using only the flight controller and an onboard companion computer. In this paper, open-source libraries are used to control the UAV, which will only use the onboard accelerometer on the flight controller to estimate the position through double integration. One of the advantages of such a system is that it allows for low-cost and lightweight UAVs to autonomously navigate indoors without advanced mapping of the environment or the use of expensive high-precision-localization sensors.

Keywords: accelerometer, indoor-navigation, Kalman-filtering, position-control

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2 Impact of Lifestyle and User Expectations on the Demand of Compact Living Spaces in the Home Interiors in Indian Cities

Authors: Velly Kapadia, Reenu Singh

Abstract:

This report identifies the long-term driving forces behind urbanization and the impact of compact living on both society and the home and proposes a concept to create smarter and more sustainable homes. Compact living has been trending across India as a sustainable housing solution, and the reality is that India is currently facing a housing shortage in urban areas of around 10 million units. With the rising demand for housing, urban land prices have been rising and the cost of homes. The paper explores how and why the interior design of the homes can be improved to relieve the housing demand in an environmentally, socially and economically sustainable manner. A questionnaire survey was conducted to determine living patterns, area requirements, ecological footprints, energy consumption, purchasing patterns, and various pro-environmental behaviors of people who downsize to compact homes. Quantitative research explores sustainable material choices, durability, functionality, cost, and reusability of furniture. Besides addressing the need for smart and sustainable designed compact homes, a conceptual model is proposed, including options of ideal schematic layouts for homes in urban areas. In the conclusions, suggestions to improve space planning and suitable interior entities have been made to support the fact that compact homes are an eminently practical and sensible solution for the urban citizen.

Keywords: compact living, housing shortage, lifestyle, sustainable interior design

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1 Immune Modulation and Cytomegalovirus Reactivation in Sepsis-Induced Immunosuppression

Authors: G. Lambe, D. Mansukhani, A. Shetty, S. Khodaiji, C. Rodrigues, F. Kapadia

Abstract:

Introduction: Sepsis is known to cause impairment of both innate and adaptive immunity and involves an early uncontrolled inflammatory response, followed by a protracting immunosuppression phase, which includes decreased expression of cell receptors, T cell anergy and exhaustion, impaired cytokine production, which may cause high risk for secondary infections due to reduced response to antigens. Although human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is widely recognized as a serious viral pathogen in sepsis and immunocompromised patients, the incidence of CMV reactivation in patients with sepsis lacking strong evidence of immunosuppression is not well defined. Therefore, it is important to determine an association between CMV reactivation and sepsis-induced immunosuppression. Aim: To determine the association between incidence of CMV reactivation and immune modulation in sepsis-induced immunosuppression with time. Material and Methods: Ten CMV-seropositive adult patients with severe sepsis were included in this study. Blood samples were collected on Day 0, and further weekly up to 21 days. CMV load was quantified by real-time PCR using plasma. The expression of immunosuppression markers, namely, HLA-DR, PD-1, and regulatory T cells, were determined by flow cytometry using whole blood. Results: At Day 0, no CMV reactivation was observed in 6/10 patients. In these patients, the median length for reactivation was 14 days (range, 7-14 days). The remaining four patients, at Day 0, had a mean viral load of 1802+2599 copies/ml, which increased with time. At Day 21, the mean viral load for all 10 patients was 60949+179700 copies/ml, indicating that viremia increased with the length of stay in the hospital. HLA-DR expression on monocytes significantly increased from Day 0 to Day 7 (p = 0.001), following which no significant change was observed until Day 21, for all patients except 3. In these three patients, HLA-DR expression on monocytes showed a decrease at elevated viral load (>5000 copies/ml), indicating immune suppression. However, the other markers, PD-1 and regulatory T cells, did not show any significant changes. Conclusion: These preliminary findings suggest that CMV reactivation can occur in patients with severe sepsis. In fact, the viral load continued to increase with the length of stay in the hospital. Immune suppression, indicated by decreased expression of HLA-DR alone, was observed in three patients with elevated viral load.

Keywords: CMV reactivation, immune suppression, sepsis immune modulation, CMV viral load

Procedia PDF Downloads 82