Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1389

Search results for: Mohamed Amine

1389 Synthesis and Characterization of Model Amines for Corrosion Applications

Authors: John Vergara, Giuseppe Palmese


Fundamental studies aimed at elucidating the key contributions to corrosion performance are needed to make progress toward effective and environmentally compliant corrosion control. Epoxy/amine systems are typically employed as barrier coatings for corrosion control. However, the hardening agents used for coating applications can be very complex, making fundamental studies of water and oxygen permeability challenging to carry out. Creating model building blocks for epoxy/amine coatings is the first step in carrying out these studies. We will demonstrate the synthesis and characterization of model amine building blocks from saturated fatty acids and simple amines such as diethylenetriamine (DETA) and Bis(3-aminopropyl)amine. The structure-property relationship of thermosets made from these model amines and Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGBEA) will be discussed.

Keywords: building block, amine, synthesis, characterization

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1388 Effect of Amine-Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes on the Properties of CNT-PAN Composite Nanofibers

Authors: O. Eren, N. Ucar, A. Onen, N. Kızıldag, O. F. Vurur, N. Demirsoy, I. Karacan


PAN nanofibers reinforced with amine functionalized carbon nanotubes. The effect of amine functionalization and the effect of concentration of CNT on the conductivity and mechanical and morphological properties of composite nanofibers were examined. 1%CNT-NH2 loaded PAN/CNT nanofiber showed the best mechanical properties. Conductivity increased with the incorporation of carbon nanotubes. While an increase of the concentration of CNT increases the diameter of nanofiber, the use of functionalized CNT results to a decrease of diameter of nanofiber.

Keywords: amine functionalized carbon nanotube, electrospinning, nanofiber, polyacrylonitrile

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
1387 Ammonia and Biogenic Amine Production of Fish Spoilage Bacteria: Affected by Olive Leaf, Olive Cake and Black Water

Authors: E. Kuley, M. Durmuş, E. Balikci, G. Ozyurt, Y. Uçar, F. Kuley, F. Ozogul, Y. Ozogul


Ammonia and biogenic amine production of fish spoilage bacteria in sardine infusion decarboxylase broth and antimicrobial effect of olive by products (olive leaf extract:OL, olive cake: OC and black water:BW) was monitored using HPLC method. Fish spoilage bacteria produced all biogenic amine tested, mainly histamine and serotonin. Ammonia was accumulated more than 13.60 mg/L. Histamine production was in range 37.50 mg/L by Ser. liquefaciens and 86.71 mg/L by Ent. cloacae. The highest putrescine and cadaverine production was observed by Ent. cloacae (17.80 vs. 17.69 mg/L). The presence of OL, OC and BW in the broth significantly affected biogenic amine accumulation by bacteria. The antibacterial effect of olive by products depended on bacterial strains. OL and OC resulted in significant inhibition effect on HIS accumulation by bacteria apart from Ser. liquefaciens and Prot. mirabilis. The study result revealed that usefulness of OL and OC to prevent the accumulation of this amine which may affect human health.

Keywords: Antimicrobials, biogenic amine, fish spoilage bacteria, olive-by products

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1386 Synthesis, Characterization of Pd Nanoparticle Supported on Amine-Functionalized Graphene and Its Catalytic Activity for Suzuki Coupling Reaction

Authors: Surjyakanta Rana, Sreekantha B. Jonnalagadda


Synthesis of well distributed Pd nanoparticles (3 – 7 nm) on organo amine-functionalized graphene is reported, which demonstrated excellent catalytic activity towards Suzuki coupling reaction. The active material was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET surface area, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), Fourier-transfer infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectra, Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) analysis and HRTEM. FT-IR revealed that the organic amine functional group was successfully grafted onto the graphene oxide surface. The formation of palladium nanoparticles was confirmed by XPS, TEM and HRTEM techniques. The catalytic activity in the coupling reaction was superb with 100% conversion and 98 % yield and also activity remained almost unaltered up to six cycles. Typically, an extremely high turnover frequency of 185,078 h-1 is observed in the C-C Suzuki coupling reaction using organo di-amine functionalized graphene as catalyst.

Keywords: Di-amine, graphene, Pd nanoparticle, suzuki coupling

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1385 Overview of the CRM Market in Tunisia

Authors: Mohamed Amine Bouraoui


The aim of this paper is to realize the importance of a CRM approach, to detect the degree of awareness of Tunisian managers of this importance and analyse the degree of integration of CRM in the Tunisian companies. Initially, we focus on the definition and components of CRM, then we focus on the level of integration of CRM within Tunisian enterprises.

Keywords: CRM, operational tools, analytical tools, Tunisian company

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
1384 Optimization of Interface Radio of Universal Mobile Telecommunication System Network

Authors: O. Mohamed Amine, A. Khireddine


Telecoms operators are always looking to meet their share of the other customers, they try to gain optimum utilization of the deployed equipment and network optimization has become essential. This project consists of optimizing UMTS network, and the study area is an urban area situated in the center of Algiers. It was initially questions to become familiar with the different communication systems (3G) and the optimization technique, its main components, and its fundamental characteristics radios were introduced.

Keywords: UMTS, UTRAN, WCDMA, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1383 Chiral Amine Synthesis and Recovery by Using High Molecular Weight Amine Donors

Authors: Claudia Matassa, Matthias Hohne, Dominic Ormerod, Yamini Satyawali


Chiral amines integrate the backbone of several active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) used in modern medicine for the treatment of a vast range of diseases. Despite the demand, their synthesis remains challenging. Besides a range of chemicals and enzymatical methods, chiral amine synthesis using transaminases (EC 2.6.1.W) represents a useful alternative to access this important class of compounds. Even though transaminases exhibit excellent stereo and regioselectivity and the potential for high yield, the reaction suffers from a number of challenges, including the thermodynamic equilibrium, product inhibition, and low substrate solubility. In this work, we demonstrate a membrane assisted strategy for addressing these challenges. It involves the use of high molecular weight (HMW) amine donors for the transaminase-catalyzed synthesis of 4-phenyl-2-butylamine in both aqueous and organic solvent media. In contrast to common amine donors such as alanine or isopropylamine, these large molecules, provided in excess for thermodynamic equilibrium shifting, are easily retained by commercial nanofiltration membranes; thus a selective permeation of the desired smaller product amine is possible. The enzymatic transamination in aqueous media, combined with selective product removal shifted the equilibrium enhancing substrate conversion by an additional 25% compared to the control reaction. Along with very efficient amine product removal, there was undesirable loss of ketone substrate and low product concentration was achieved. The system was therefore further improved by performing the reaction in organic solvent (n-heptane). Coupling the reaction system with membrane-assisted product removal resulted in a highly concentrated and relatively pure ( > 97%) product solution. Moreover, a product yield of 60% was reached, compared to 15% without product removal.

Keywords: amine donor, chiral amines, in situ product removal, transamination

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1382 Soil Reinforcement by Stone Columns

Authors: Saou Mohamed Amine


The construction industry has been identified as a user of substantial amount of materials and energy resources that has an enormous impact on environment. The energy efficient in refurbishment project is being considered as one of the approaches to achieve sustainability in construction industry. The increasing concern for environment has made building owners and designers to incorporate the energy efficiency features into their building projects.

Keywords: construction industry, design team attributes, energy efficient performance, refurbishment projects characteristics

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
1381 Synthesis of Amine Functionalized MOF-74 for Carbon Dioxide Capture

Authors: Ghulam Murshid, Samil Ullah


Scientific studies suggested that the incremented greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere, particularly of carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major factors in global warming. The concentration of CO2 in our climate has crossed the milestone level of 400 parts per million (ppm) hence breaking the record of human history. A report by 49 researchers from 10 countries said, 'Global CO2 emissions from burning fossil fuels will rise to a record 36 billion metric tons (39.683 billion tons) this year.' Main contributors of CO2 in to the atmosphere are usage of fossil fuel, transportation sector and power generation plants. Among all available technologies, which include; absorption via chemicals, membrane separation, cryogenic and adsorption are in practice around the globe. Adsorption of CO2 using metal organic frameworks (MOF) is getting interest of researcher around the globe. In the current work, MOF-74 as well as modified MOF-74 with a sterically hindered amine (AMP) was synthesized and characterized. The modification was carried out using a sterically hindered amine in order to study the effect on its adsorption capacity. Resulting samples were characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM), Thermal Gravimetric Analyser (TGA) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). The FTIR results clearly confirmed the formation of MOF-74 structure and the presence of AMP. FESEM and TEM revealed the topography and morphology of the both MOF-74 and amine modified MOF. BET isotherm result shows that due to the addition of AMP in to the structure, significant enhancement of CO2 adsorption was observed.

Keywords: adsorbents, amine, CO2, global warming

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1380 Maximum Power Point Tracking Using FLC Tuned with GA

Authors: Mohamed Amine Haraoubia, Abdelaziz Hamzaoui, Najib Essounbouli


The pursuit of the MPPT has led to the development of many kinds of controllers, one of which is the Fuzzy Logic Controller, which has proven its worth. To further tune this controller this paper will discuss and analyze the use of Genetic Algorithms to tune the Fuzzy Logic Controller. It will provide an introduction to both systems, and test their compatibility and performance.

Keywords: fuzzy logic controller, fuzzy logic, genetic algorithm, maximum power point, maximum power point tracking

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1379 Biogas Separation, Alcohol Amine Solutions

Authors: Jingxiao Liang, David Rooneyman


Biogas, which is a valuable renewable energy source, can be produced by anaerobic fermentation of agricultural waste, manure, municipal waste, plant material, sewage, green waste, or food waste. It is composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) but also contains significant quantities of undesirable compounds such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and siloxanes. Since typical raw biogas contains 25–45% CO2, The requirements for biogas quality depend on its further application. Before biogas is being used more efficiently, CO2 should be removed. One of the existing options for biogas separation technologies is based on chemical absorbents, in particular, mono-, di- and tri-alcohol amine solutions. Such amine solutions have been applied as highly efficient CO2 capturing agents. The benchmark in this experiment is N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) with piperazine (PZ) as an activator, from CO2 absorption Isotherm curve, optimization conditions are collected, such as activator percentage, temperature etc. This experiment makes new alcohol amines, which could have the same CO2 absorbing ability as activated MDEA, using glycidol as one of reactant, the result is quite satisfying.

Keywords: biogas, CO2, MDEA, separation

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1378 Flowsheet Development, Simulation and Optimization of Carbon-Di-Oxide Removal System at Natural Gas Reserves by Aspen–Hysys Process Simulator

Authors: Mohammad Ruhul Amin, Nusrat Jahan


Natural gas is a cleaner fuel compared to the others. But it needs some treatment before it is in a state to be used. So natural gas purification is an integral part of any process where natural gas is used as raw material or fuel. There are several impurities in natural gas that have to be removed before use. CO2 is one of the major contaminants. In this project we have removed CO2 by amine process by using MEA solution. We have built up the whole amine process for removing CO2 in Aspen Hysys and simulated the process. At the end of simulation we have got very satisfactory results by using MEA solution for the removal of CO2. Simulation result shows that amine absorption process enables to reduce CO2 content from NG by 58%. HYSYS optimizer allowed us to get a perfect optimized plant. After optimization the profit of existing plant is increased by 2.34 %.Simulation and optimization by Aspen-HYSYS simulator makes available us to enormous information which will help us to further research in future.

Keywords: Aspen–Hysys, CO2 removal, flowsheet development, MEA solution, natural gas optimization

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1377 Amine Hardeners with Carbon Nanotubes Dispersing Ability for Epoxy Coating Systems

Authors: Szymon Kugler, Krzysztof Kowalczyk, Tadeusz Spychaj


An addition of carbon nanotubes (CNT) can simultaneously improve many features of epoxy coatings, i.e. electrical, mechanical, functional and thermal. Unfortunately, this nanofiller negatively affects visual properties of the coatings, such as transparency and gloss. The main reason for the low visual performance of CNT-modified epoxy coatings is the lack of compatibility between CNT and popular amine curing agents, although epoxy resins based on bisphenol A are indisputable good CNT dispersants. This is a serious obstacle in utilization of the coatings in advanced applications, demanding both high transparency and electrical conductivity. The aim of performed investigations was to find amine curing agents exhibiting affinity for CNT, and ensuring good performance of epoxy coatings with them. Commercially available CNT was dispersed in epoxy resin, as well as in different aliphatic, cycloaliphatic and aromatic amines, using one of two dispergation methods: ultrasonic or mechanical. The CNT dispersions were subsequently used in the preparation of epoxy coating compositions and coatings on a transparent substrate. It was found that amine derivative of bio-based cardanol, as well as modified o-tolylbiguanide exhibit significant CNT, dispersing properties, resulting in improved transparent/electroconductive performance of epoxy coatings. In one of prepared coating systems just 0.025 wt.% (250 ppm) of CNT was enough to obtain coatings with semi conductive properties, 83% of transparency as well as perfect chemical resistance to methyl-ethyl ketone and improved thermal stability. Additionally, a theory of the influence of amine chemical structure on CNT dispersing properties was proposed.

Keywords: bio-based cardanol, carbon nanotubes, epoxy coatings, tolylbiguanide

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1376 Green Chemical Processing in the Teaching Laboratory: A Convenient Solvent Free Microwave Extraction of Natural Products

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ferhat, Mohamed Nadjib Bouhatem, Farid Chemat


One of the principal aims of sustainable and green processing development remains the dissemination and teaching of green chemistry to both developed and developing nations. This paper describes one attempt to show that “north-south” collaborations yield innovative sustainable and green technologies which give major benefits for both nations. In this paper we present early results from a solvent free microwave extraction (SFME) of essential oils using fresh orange peel, a byproduct in the production of orange juice. SFME is performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. SFME increases essential oil yield and eliminate wastewater treatment. The procedure is appropriate for the teaching laboratory, and allows the students to learn extraction, chromatographic and spectroscopic analysis skills, and are expose to dramatic visual example of rapid, sustainable and green extraction of essential oil, and are introduced to commercially successful sustainable and green chemical processing with microwave energy.

Keywords: essential oil, extraction, green processing, microwave

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1375 Molecular Dynamic Simulation of CO2 Absorption into Mixed Aqueous Solutions MDEA/PZ

Authors: N. Harun, E. E. Masiren, W. H. W. Ibrahim, F. Adam


Amine absorption process is an approach for mitigation of CO2 from flue gas that produces from power plant. This process is the most common system used in chemical and oil industries for gas purification to remove acid gases. On the challenges of this process is high energy requirement for solvent regeneration to release CO2. In the past few years, mixed alkanolamines have received increasing attention. In most cases, the mixtures contain N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) as the base amine with the addition of one or two more reactive amines such as PZ. The reason for the application of such blend amine is to take advantage of high reaction rate of CO2 with the activator combined with the advantages of the low heat of regeneration of MDEA. Several experimental and simulation studies have been undertaken to understand this process using blend MDEA/PZ solvent. Despite those studies, the mechanism of CO2 absorption into the aqueous MDEA is not well understood and available knowledge within the open literature is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the intermolecular interaction of the blend MDEA/PZ using Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulation. MD simulation was run under condition 313K and 1 atm using NVE ensemble at 200ps and NVT ensemble at 1ns. The results were interpreted in term of Radial Distribution Function (RDF) analysis through two system of interest i.e binary and tertiary. The binary system will explain the interaction between amine and water molecule while tertiary system used to determine the interaction between the amine and CO2 molecule. For the binary system, it was observed that the –OH group of MDEA is more attracted to water molecule compared to –NH group of MDEA. The –OH group of MDEA can form the hydrogen bond with water that will assist the solubility of MDEA in water. The intermolecular interaction probability of –OH and –NH group of MDEA with CO2 in blended MDEA/PZ is higher than using single MDEA. This findings show that PZ molecule act as an activator to promote the intermolecular interaction between MDEA and CO2.Thus, blend of MDEA with PZ is expecting to increase the absorption rate of CO2 and reduce the heat regeneration requirement.

Keywords: amine absorption process, blend MDEA/PZ, CO2 capture, molecular dynamic simulation, radial distribution function

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
1374 Preparation and Characterization of AlkylAmines’ Surface Functionalized Activated Carbons for Dye Removal

Authors: Said M. AL-Mashaikhi, El-Said I. El-Shafey, Fakhreldin O. Suliman, Saleh Al-Busafi


Activated carbon (AC) was prepared from date palm leaflets via NaOH activation. AC was oxidized using nitric acid, producing oxidized activated carbon (OAC). OAC was surface functionalized using different amine surfactants, including methylamine (ONM), ethylamine (ONE), and diethylamine (ONDE) using the amide coupling process. Produced carbons were surface characterized for surface area and porosity, X-ray diffraction, SEM, FTIR, and TGA. AC surface area (580 m²/g) has shown a decrease in oxidation to 260 m²/g for OAC. On amine functionalization, the surface area has further decreased to 218, 108, and 20 m²/g on functionalization with methylamine, ethylamine, and diethylamine, respectively. FTIR and TGA showed that the nature of amine functionalization of AC is chemical. Methylene blue sorption was tested on these carbons in terms of kinetics and equilibrium. Sorption was found faster on amine-functionalized carbons than both AC and OAC, and this is due to hydrophobic interaction with the alkyl groups immobilized with data following pseudo second-order reaction. On the other hand, AC showed the slowest adsorption kinetic process due to the diffusion in the porous structure of AC. Sorption equilibrium data was found to follow the Langmuir sorption isotherm with maximum sorption found on ONE. Regardless of its lower surface area than activated carbon, ethylamine functionalized AC showed better performance than AC in terms of kinetics and equilibrium for dye removal.

Keywords: activated carbon, dye removal, functionalization, hydrophobic interaction, water treatment

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1373 The Impact of the Cell-Free Solution of Lactic Acid Bacteria on Cadaverine Production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus in Lysine-Decarboxylase Broth

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Nurten Toy, Yesim Özogul


The influences of cell-free solutions (CFSs) of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on cadaverine and other biogenic amine production by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated in lysine decarboxylase broth (LDB) using HPLC. Cell-free solutions were prepared from Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. cremoris, Pediococcus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophiles. Two different concentrations that were 50% and 25% CFS and the control without CFSs were prepared. Significant variations on biogenic amine production were observed in the presence of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus (P<0.05). The role of CFS on biogenic amine production by foodborne pathogens varied depending on strains and specific amine. Cadaverine formation in control by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were 500.9 and 948.1 mg/L, respectively while the CFSs of LAB induced 4-fold lower cadaverine production by L. monocytogenes and 7-fold lower cadaverine production by S. aureus. CFSs resulted in strong decreases in cadaverine and putrescine production by L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, although remarkable increases were observed for histamine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, tyramine, and agmatine, in the presence of LAB in lysine decarboxylase broth.

Keywords: cell-free solution, lactic acid bacteria, cadaverine, food borne-pathogen

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1372 Comparative Study of Essential Oils Extracted from Algerian Citrus fruits Using Microwaves and Hydrodistillation

Authors: Ferhat Mohamed Amine, Boukhatem Mohamed Nadjib, Chemat Farid


Solvent-free-microwave-extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME extraction of orange essential oil was studied using fresh orange peel from Valencia late cultivar oranges as the raw material. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, which used a Clevenger apparatus with hydro-distillation (HD). SFME and HD were compared in term of extraction time, yields, chemical composition and quality of the essential oil, efficiency and costs of the process. Extraction of essential oils from orange peels with SFME was better in terms of energy saving, extraction time (30 min versus 3 h), oxygenated fraction (11.7% versus 7.9%), product yield (0.42% versus 0.39%) and product quality. Orange peels treated by SFME and HD were observed by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by SFME, in contrast to conventional hydro-distillation.

Keywords: hydro-distillation, essential oil, microwave, orange peel, solvent free microwave, extraction SFME

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1371 Adverse Effects on Liver Function in Male Rats after Exposure to a Mixture of Endocrine Disrupting Pesticides

Authors: Mohamed Amine Aiche, Elkhansa Yahia, Leila Mallem, Mohamed Salah Boulakoud


Exposure to endocrine disrupting (ED) during life may cause long-term health effects, the population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products. Previous research indicates that a wide range of pesticides may act as endocrine disrupters. The azole fungicides propiconazole and propineb have been shown to react through several endocrine disrupting mechanisms, and to induce various endocrine disrupting effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two fungicides; propiconazole and propineb tested separately and in combination, on liver function. The experimental was applied on male Wistar rats dosed orally with Propiconazole 60 mg/kg/day, Propineb 100 mg/kg/day and their mixture 30 mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50 mg Propineb /kg/day for 4 weeks, for result, a significant increase in liver weights in both treated groups with propineb, propiconazole and their mixture by reference with controls group. Also, highly significant mean values of markers of liver function such as transaminases (ALT/AST) and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in all treated groups. The antioxidant activity showed a significant decrease in the hepatic glutathione content (GSH) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) in all treated groups.

Keywords: endocrine disrupting, pesticide mixture, propineb, propiconazole, liver, oxidative stress

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1370 Repeated Dose 28-Day Oral Toxicity Study Offungicides: Propinèbe, Propiconazole, And Their Mixture in Wistar Rats

Authors: Aiche Mohamed Amine, Mallem Leila, Yahia El Khansa, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah


Until recently, toxicological studies focused on the effects of individual chemicals. However, humans and wildlife are exposed to a complex milieu of chemicals from different sources including food and water, personal care products and the environment. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of two fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and oxidative damge induced in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with Propiconazole 60mg/Kg/day, Propinebe 100mg/Kg/day and their mixture 30mg Propiconazole/kg/day + 50mg Propineb/kg/day for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified, blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis and desired organs were removed and weighted. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count and mobility of spermatozoa in all treated group, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Reduced glutathione (GSH), Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was decreased in all treated groups.

Keywords: fungicides, mixtures, fertility, oxidative stress

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1369 Antimicrobial Functions of Some Spice Extracts Such as Sumac, Cumin, Black Pepper and Red Pepper on the Growth of Common Food-Borne Pathogens and Their Biogenic Amine Formation

Authors: Fatih Özogul, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Ferhat Kuley, Yesim Özogul


The impact of diethyl ether extract of spices (sumac, cumin, black pepper and red pepper) on growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella Paratyphi A, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Camplylobacter jejuni, Aeromonas hydrophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Yersinia enterocolitica and their biogenic amine production were investigated in tyrosine decarboxylase broth. Sumac extract generally had the highest activity to inhibit bacterial growth compared to other extracts, although antimicrobial effect of extracts used varied depending on bacterial strains. Sumac extract resulted in 3.34 and 2.54 log reduction for Y. enterocolitica and Camp. jejuni growth, whilst red pepper extract induced 0.65, 0.41 and 0.34 log reduction for growth of Y. enterocolitica, S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus, respectively. Spice extracts significantly inhibited ammonia production by bacteria (P < 0.05). Eleven and nine fold reduction on ammonia production by S. Paratyphi A and Staph. aureus were observed in the presence of sumac extract. Dopamine, agmatine, tyramine, serotonin and TMA were main amines produced by bacteria. Tyramine production by food-borne-pathogens was more than 10 mg/L, whereas histamine accumulated below 52 mg/L. The effect of spice extracts on biogenic amine production varied depending on amino acid decarboxylase broth, spice type, bacterial strains and specific amine, although cumin extract generally increased biogenic amine production by bacteria.

Keywords: antimicrobials, biogenic amines, food-borne pathogens, spice extracts

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1368 Oral Toxicity of Low Doses of Fungicides, Propinebe, Propiconazole and Their Mixtures in the Male Rat

Authors: Mallem Leila, Aiche Mohamed Amine, Boulakoud Mohamed Salah


A number of chemical compounds are being used to protect agricultural crops from diseases. Residues of these chemicals lead to environmental pollution and pose some threat to non target organisms, human and animal. The aim of this study is to detect the toxicity of these fungicides and their mixtures in the fertility and biochemical’s parameters in the rat. The male of rats (28) were used, they were divided in four groups (7 rats of each group) and one group was used as control. Rats were dosed orally with propiconazole (60 mg/kg body weight/day), propinebe (100 mg/Kg body weight/day) and their mixture (50:50) for 4 weeks. Animals were observed for clinical toxicity. At the end of treatment period, animals of all groups were scarified and samples of different organs were fixed in the formol 10% for histopathological study, and blood was collected for hematological and biochemical’s analysis. The results indicated that the fungicide and their mixture of fungicides were toxic in the treated animals. The semen study showed a decrease in the count, mobility and speed of spermatozoa in all treated group especially those dosed with the mixture and Propiconazole, it was also a decrease in the weight of the testis and epidydimis in the treated group as compared with control. Remarquable histological changes were observed in the testis and epidydimis and liver in the group treated with mixture.

Keywords: fungicides, mixture, fertility, hematological, biochemical's parameters

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1367 Characterization of Self-Assembly Behavior of 1-Dodecylamine Molecules on Au (111) Surface

Authors: Wan-Tzu Yen, Yu-Chen Luo, I-Ping Liu, Po-Hsuan Yeh, Sheng-Hsun Fu, Yuh-Lang Lee


Self-assembled characteristics and adsorption performance of 1-dodecylamine molecules on gold (Au) (111) surfaces were characterized via cyclic voltammetry (CV), surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The present study focused on the formation of 1-dodecylamine (DDA) on a gold surface with respect to the ex-situ arrangement of an adlayer on the Au(111) surface, and phase transition at potential dynamics carried out by EC-STM. This study reveals that alkyl amine molecules were formed an adsorption pattern with highly regular “lie down shape” on Au(111) surface, even in an extreme acid system (pH = 1). Acidic electrolyte (HClO₄) could protonate the surface of alkyl amine of a monolayer of the gold surface when potential shifts to negative. The quite stability of 1-dodecylamine on the gold surface maintained the monolayer across the potential window (0.1-0.8V). This transform model was confirmed by EC-STM. In addition, amine-modified Au(111) electrode adlayer used to examine how to affect an electron transfer across an interface using [Fe(CN)₆]³⁻/[Fe(CN)₆]⁴⁻ redox pair containing 0.1 M HClO₄ solution.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, dodecylamine, gold (Au)(111), scanning tunneling microscopy, self-assembled monolayer, surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy

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1366 Split-Flow Method to Reduce Duty Required in Amine Gas Sweetening Units

Authors: Abdallah Sofiane Berrouk, Dara Satyadileep


This paper investigates the feasibility of retrofitting a middle-east based commercial amine sweetening unit with a split-flow scheme which involves withdrawing a portion of partially stripped semi-lean solvent from the stripping column and re-injecting it in the absorption column to reduce the overall energy consumption of the unit. This method is comprehensively explored by performing parametric analysis of the split fraction of the semi-lean solvent using a kinetics based process simulator ProMax V 3.2. Re-boiler duty, condenser duty, solvent cooling and pumping loads are analysed as functions of a split fraction of the semi-lean solvent from the stripper. It is shown that the proposed method significantly reduces the overall energy consumption of the unit resulting in an annual savings of 325,000 USD. The thorough economic analysis is performed using Aspen Economic Evaluation V 8.4 to reveal that the retrofit scheme pays back the capital cost in less than eight years and is highly recommended for any commercial plant having suitable provisions for solvent inlet/withdrawal on the columns.

Keywords: split flow, Amine, gas processing, optimization

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1365 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui


This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

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1364 Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (N-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylidene)Pyridin-2-Amine: Thermal and Conductivity Properties

Authors: Nuray Yılmaz Baran


The conjugated Schiff base polymers which are also called as polyazomethines are promising materials for various applications due to their good thermal resistance semiconductive, liquid crystal, fiber forming, nonlinear optical outstanding photo- and electroluminescence and antimicrobial properties. In recent years, polyazomethines have attracted intense attention of researchers especially due to optoelectronic properties which have made its usage possible in organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs), solar cells (SCs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), and photorefractive holographic materials (PRHMs). In this study, N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine Schiff base was synthesized from condensation reaction of 2-aminopyridine with 2-pyridine carbaldehyde. Polymerization of Schiff base was achieved by polycondensation reaction using NaOCl oxidant in methanol medium at various time and temperatures. The synthesized Schiff base monomer and polymer (Poly(N-(pyridin-2-ylmethylidene)pyridin-2-amine)) was characterized by UV-vis, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, XRD techniques. Molecular weight distribution and the surface morphology of the polymer was determined by GPC and SEM-EDAX techniques. Thermal behaviour of the monomer and polymer was investigated by TG/DTG, DTA and DSC techniques.

Keywords: polyazomethines, polycondensation reaction, Schiff base polymers, thermal stability

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1363 Cable Diameter Effect on the Contact Temperature of Power Automotive Connector

Authors: Amine Beloufa, Mohamed Amirat


In the electric vehicle, high power leads to high current; automotive power connector should resist to this high current in order to avoid a serious damage caused by the increase of contact temperature. The purpose of this paper is to analyze experimentally and numerically the effect of the cable diameter variation on the decrease of contact temperature. For this reason, a finite element model was developed to calculate the numerical contact temperature for several cable diameters and several electrical high currents. Also, experimental tests were established in order to validate this numerical model. Results show that the influence of cable diameter on the contact temperature is never neglected.

Keywords: contact temperature, experimental test, finite element, power automotive connector

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1362 Keto-Enol Tautomerism of Salicylideneaniline Substituted

Authors: Rihana Hadjeb, Djamel Barkat


Schiff bases derived from o-hydroxybenzaldehyde has attracted a great interest not only for its promising applications towards linear and non-linear optical properties, biological activity and technological applications but also used as model compounds for the theory of hydrogen bonding. Due to its intramolecular hydrogen bonding, depending on the position of proton in the hydrogen bond o-hydroxy salicylidene Schiff bases exhibit two tautomeric forms, enol-imine (E-form) and keto-enamine (K-form) both in solution and in crystalline state. A zwitterionic structure also appears due to a proton transfer in enol – imine and keto – amine tautomer. These classes of compounds also exhibit thermochromic and photochromic behavior. We undertook in this study the synthesis of ten compounds of hydroxy Schiff bases from the condensation of salicylic aldehyde and aniline substituted in the ortho, meta and para by the methyl, chloro and nitro groups. To study the keto-enol equilibrium of the compounds; UV-VIS spectra were studied in different polarity solvents. The compounds were in tautomeric equilibrium (enol imine O–H•••N, keto-amine O•••H–N forms). For some derivatives of salicylideneanilines the keto-amine form was observed in both ethanol and dioxane. IR results showed that all Schiff bases studied favor the enol-imine form over the keto form.

Keywords: salicylideneaniline, tautomerism, keto-enol equilibrium, UV-VIS spectroscopy, solvent effect

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1361 Endocardial Ultrasound Segmentation using Level Set method

Authors: Daoudi Abdelaziz, Mahmoudi Saïd, Chikh Mohamed Amine


This paper presents a fully automatic segmentation method of the left ventricle at End Systolic (ES) and End Diastolic (ED) in the ultrasound images by means of an implicit deformable model (level set) based on Geodesic Active Contour model. A pre-processing Gaussian smoothing stage is applied to the image, which is essential for a good segmentation. Before the segmentation phase, we locate automatically the area of the left ventricle by using a detection approach based on the Hough Transform method. Consequently, the result obtained is used to automate the initialization of the level set model. This initial curve (zero level set) deforms to search the Endocardial border in the image. On the other hand, quantitative evaluation was performed on a data set composed of 15 subjects with a comparison to ground truth (manual segmentation).

Keywords: level set method, transform Hough, Gaussian smoothing, left ventricle, ultrasound images.

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1360 Selective Extraction Separation of Vanadium and Chromium in the Leaching/Aqueous Solution with Trioctylamine

Authors: Xiaohua Jing


Efficient extraction for separation of V and Cr in the leaching/aqueous solution is essential to the reuse of V and Cr in the V-Cr slag. Trioctylamine, a common tertiary amine extractant, with some good characters (e.g., weak base, insoluble in water and good stability) different from N1923, was investigated in this paper. The separation factor of Cr and V can be reached to 230.71 when initial pH of the aqueous solution is 0.5, so trioctylamine can be used for extracting Cr from the leaching/aqueous solution contained V and Cr. The highest extraction percentages of Cr and V were 98.73% and 90.22% when the initial pH values were 0.5 and 1.5, respectively. Via FT-IR spectra of loaded organic phase and trioctylamine, the hydrogen bond association mechanism of extracting V and Cr was investigated, which was the same with the way of extracting the two metals with primary amine N1923.

Keywords: selective extraction, trioctylamine, V and Cr, separation factor, hydrogen bond association

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