Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Moataz Elsawy

13 Transesterification of Jojoba Oil Wax Using Microwave Technique

Authors: Moataz Elsawy, Hala F. Naguib, Hilda A. Aziz, Eid A. Ismail, Labiba I. Hussein, Maher Z. Elsabee

Abstract:

Jojoba oil-wax is extracted from the seeds of the jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis Link Schneider), a perennial shrub that grows in semi-desert areas in Egypt and in some parts of the world. The main uses of jojoba oil wax are in the cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry, but new uses could arise related to the search of new energetic crops. This paper summarizes a process to convert the jojoba oil wax to biodiesel by transesterification with ethanol and a series of aliphatic alcohols using a more economic and energy saving method in a domestic microwave. The effect of time and power of the microwave on the extent of the transesterification using ethanol and other aliphatic alcohols has been studied. The separation of the alkyl esters from the fatty alcohols rich fraction has been done in a single crystallization step at low temperature (−18°C) from low boiling point petroleum ether. Gas chromatography has been used to follow up the transesterification process. All products have been characterized by spectral analysis.

Keywords: jojoba oil, transesterification, microwave, gas chromatography jojoba esters, jojoba alcohol

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12 Antimicrobial and Haemostatic Effect of Chitosan/Polyacrylic Acid Hybrid Membranes

Authors: F. A. Abdel-Mohdy, M. K. El-Bisi, A. Abou-Okeil, A. A. Sleem, S. El-Sabbagh, Kawther El-Shafei, Hoda S. El-Sayed, S. M. ElSawy

Abstract:

Chitosan/ polyacrylic acid membranes containing different amounts of Al2(SO4) and/or TiO2 were prepared. The prepared membranes were characterized by measuring mechanical properties, such as tensile strength and elongation at break, swelling properties, antimicrobial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and blood clotting. The results obtained indicate that the presence of Al2(SO4) and TiO2 in the membrane formulations have an incremental effect on the antimicrobial properties and blood clotting in albino rate.

Keywords: Chitosan, acrylic acid, antibacterial, blood clotting, membrane

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11 A Novel Comparison Scheme for Thermal Conductivity Enhancement of Heat Transfer

Authors: Islam Tarek, Moataz Soliman

Abstract:

With the amazing development of nanoscience’s and the discovery of the unique properties of nanometric materials, the ideas of scientists and researchers headed to take advantage of this progress in various fields, and one of the most important of these areas is the field of heat transfer and benefit from it in saving energy used for heat transfer, so nanometric materials were used to improve the properties of heat transfer fluids and increase the efficiency of the liquid. In this paper, we will compare two types of heat transfer fluid, one industrial type (the base fluid is a mix of ethylene glycol and deionized water ) and another natural oils(the base fluid is a mix of jatropha oil and expired olive oil), explaining the method of preparing each of them, starting from the method of preparing CNT, collecting and sorting jatropha seeds, and the most appropriate method for extracting oil from them, and characterization the both of two fluids and when to use both.

Keywords: nanoscience, heat transfer, thermal conductivity, jatropha oil

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10 Nanoindentation Behavior and Physical Properties of Polyvinyl Chloride /Styrene Co-Maleic Anhydride Blend Reinforced by Nano-Bentonite

Authors: Dalia Elsawy Abulyazied, Samia Mohamad Mokhtar, Ahmed Magdy Motawie

Abstract:

This article studies the effects of nano-bentonite on the structure and properties of polymer blends nanocomposites, based on polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and styrene co-maleic anhydride (SMA) blend. Modification of Egyptian bentonite (EB) is carried out using organo-modifier namely; octadecylamine (ODA). Octadecylamine bentonite (ODA-B) is characterized using FTIR, XRD and TEM. Nanocomposites of PVC/SMA/ODA-B are prepared by solution intercalation polymerization from 0.50 up to 5 phr. The nanocomposites are characterized by XRD and TEM. Thermal behavior of the nanocomposites is studied. The effect of different content of ODA-B on the nano-mechanical properties is investigated by a nano-indentation test method. Also the swelling and electrical properties of the nanocomposites are measured. The morphology of the nanocomposites shows that ODA-B achieved good dispersion in the PVC/SMA matrix. The thermal stability of the nanocomposites is enhanced due to the presence of the ODA-B. Incorporation of 0.5, 1, 3 and 5 phr. ODA-B into the PVC/SMA blends results in an improvement in nano-hardness of 16%, 76%, 92%, and 68% respectively. The elastic modulus increased by 37% from 4.59 GPa for unreinforced PVC/SMA blend to 6.30 GPa for 3 phr. The cross-link density and the electrical conductivity of the nanocomposites are increased with increasing the content of ODA-B.

Keywords: PVC, SMA, nanocomposites, nano-bentonite, nanoindentation, crosslink density

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9 Preparation and Characterization of Hybrid Perovskite Enhanced with PVDF for Pressure Sensing

Authors: Mohamed E. Harb, Enas Moustafa, Shaker Ebrahim, Moataz Soliman

Abstract:

In this paper pressure detectors were synthesized and characterized using hybrid perovskite/PVDF composites as an active layer. Methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI₃) was synthesized from methylammonium iodide (MAI) (CH₃NH₃I) and lead iodide (PbI₂). Composites of perovskite/PVDF using different weight ratio were prepared as the active material. PVDF with weights percentages of 6%, 8%, and 10% was used. All prepared materials were investigated by x-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transforms infrared spectrum (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A Versastat 4 Potentiostat Galvanostat instrument was used to perform the current-voltage characteristics of the fabricated sensors. The pressure sensors exhibited a voltage increase with applying different forces. Also, the current-voltage characteristics (CV) showed different effects with applying forces. So, the results showed a good pressure sensing performance.

Keywords: perovskite semiconductor, hybrid perovskite, PVDF, Pressure sensing

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8 Influence of Urban Fabric on Child’s Upbringing: A Comparative Analysis between Modern and Traditional City

Authors: Mohamed A. Tantawy, Nourelhoda A. Hussein, Moataz A. Mahrous

Abstract:

New planning and city design theories are continuously debated and optimized for seeking efficiency and adequacy in economic and life quality aspects. Here, we examine the children-city relationship, to reflect on how modern and traditional cities affect the social climate. We adopt children as a proper caliber for urbanism, as for their very young age, they are independent and attached to family. Their fragility offers a chance to gauge how various urban settings directly affect their feeling of safety, containment, and their perception of belonging for home territory. The importance of street play for the child development process is discussed thoroughly. The authority they have on their play (when and what to play) pushes us to our conclusion. A mediocre built environment characterized by spontaneity and human-scale semi-private urban spaces, is irreplaceable by a perfectly designed far away playgrounds. Street play has a huge role in empowering children for a gradual engagement with grown-ups’ urban flow.

Keywords: child's psychology, social activity, street play, urban fabric

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7 Impact of Series Reactive Compensation on Increasing a Distribution Network Distributed Generation Hosting Capacity

Authors: Moataz Ammar, Ahdab Elmorshedy

Abstract:

The distributed generation hosting capacity of a distribution network is typically limited at a given connection point by the upper voltage limit that can be violated due to the injection of active power into the distribution network. The upper voltage limit violation concern becomes more important as the network equivalent resistance increases with respect to its equivalent reactance. This paper investigates the impact of modifying the distribution network equivalent reactance at the point of connection such that the upper voltage limit is violated at a higher distributed generation penetration, than it would without the addition of series reactive compensation. The results show that series reactive compensation proves efficient in certain situations (based on the ratio of equivalent network reactance to equivalent network resistance at the point of connection). As opposed to the conventional case of capacitive compensation of a distribution network to reduce voltage drop, inductive compensation is seen to be more appropriate for alleviation of distributed-generation-induced voltage rise.

Keywords: distributed generation, distribution networks, series compensation, voltage rise

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6 Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Synthesis Fuel with Different Burner Configurations

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

The present study investigates the flame structure of turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel in a 300 KW swirl-stabilized burner. The three-dimensional model adopts a realizable k-ε turbulent scheme interacting with two-dimensional PDF combustion scheme by applying flamelet concept. The study reveals more characteristics on turbulent diffusion flame of synthesis fuel when changing the inlet air swirl number and the burner quarl angle. Moreover, it concerns with studying the effect of flue gas recirculation and staging with taking radiation effect into consideration. The comparison with natural gas was investigated. The study showed two zones of recirculation, the primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. The results revealed an increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone as a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also, it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide. The predicted results showed a great agreement when compared with the experiments.

Keywords: gas turbine, syngas, analysis, recirculation

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5 Early versus Late Percutaneous Tracheostomy in Critically Ill Adult Mechanically Ventilated Patients

Authors: Kamel Abd Elaziz Mohamed, Ahmed Yehia Mousa, Ahmed Samir ElSawy, Adel Mohamed Saleem

Abstract:

Introduction: Critically ill patients frequently require tracheostomy to simplify long term air way management. While tracheostomy indications have remained unchanged, the timing of elective tracheostomy for the ventilated patient has been questioned. Aim of the work: This study was performed to compare the differences between early and late percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) regarding, mechanical ventilation duration (MVD), length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia and hospital outcome. Patients and methods: Forty patients who met the inclusion criteria were randomly divided into early PDT who had the tracheostomy within the first 10 days of mechanical ventilation (MV) and the late PDT who had the tracheostomy after 10 days of MV. On admission, demographic data and Acute Physiology and Chronic ill Health II and GCS were collected. The duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay (LOS) and hospital LOS were all calculated. Results: Total of 40 patients were randomized to either early PDT (n= 20) or late PDT (n= 20). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding demographic data or the scores: APACHE II (22.75± 7 vs 24.35 ± 8) and GCS (6.10 ±2 vs 7.10 ± 2.71). An early PDT showed fewer complications vs late procedure, however it was insignificant. There were significant differences between the two groups regarding mean (MVD) which was shorter in early PDT than the late PDT group (32.2± 10.5) vs (20.6 ± 13 days; p= 0.004). Mean ICU stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (21 .0± 513.4) vs (40.15 ±12.7 days; p 6 0.001). Mean hospital stay was shorter in early PDT than late PDT (34.60± 18.37) vs (55.60± 25.73 days; p=0.005). Patients with early PDT suffered less sepsis and VAP than late PDT, there was no difference regarding the mortality rate between the two groups. Conclusion: Early PDT is recommended for patients who require prolonged tracheal intubation in the ICU as outcomes like the duration of mechanical ventilation length of ICU stay and hospital stay were significantly shorter in early tracheostomy.

Keywords: intensive care unit, early PDT, late PDT, intubation

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4 Using Building Information Modeling in Green Building Design and Performance Optimization

Authors: Moataz M. Hamed, Khalid S. M. Al Hagla, Zeyad El Sayad

Abstract:

Thinking in design energy-efficiency and high-performance green buildings require a different design mechanism and design approach than conventional buildings to achieve more sustainable result. By reasoning about specific issues at the correct time in the design process, the design team can minimize negative impacts, maximize building performance and keep both first and operation costs low. This paper attempts to investigate and exploit the sustainable dimension of building information modeling (BIM) in designing high-performance green buildings that require less energy for operation, emit less carbon dioxide and provide a conducive indoor environment for occupants through early phases of the design process. This objective was attained by a critical and extensive literature review that covers the following issues: the value of considering green strategies in the early design stage, green design workflow, and BIM-based performance analysis. Then the research proceeds with a case study that provides an in-depth comparative analysis of building performance evaluation between an office building in Alexandria, Egypt that was designed by the conventional design process with the same building if taking into account sustainability consideration and BIM-based sustainable analysis integration early through the design process. Results prove that using sustainable capabilities of building information modeling (BIM) in early stages of the design process side by side with green design workflow promote buildings performance and sustainability outcome.

Keywords: BIM, building performance analysis, BIM-based sustainable analysis, green building design

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3 A Three-Dimensional Investigation of Stabilized Turbulent Diffusion Flames Using Different Type of Fuel

Authors: Moataz Medhat, Essam E. Khalil, Hatem Haridy

Abstract:

In the present study, a numerical simulation study is used to 3-D model the steady-state combustion of a staged natural gas flame in a 300 kW swirl-stabilized burner, using ANSYS solver to find the highest combustion efficiency by changing the inlet air swirl number and burner quarl angle in a furnace and showing the effect of flue gas recirculation, type of fuel and staging. The combustion chamber of the gas turbine is a cylinder of diameter 1006.8 mm, and a height of 1651mm ending with a hood until the exhaust cylinder has been reached, where the exit of combustion products which have a diameter of 300 mm, with a height of 751mm. The model was studied by 15 degree of the circumference due to axisymmetric of the geometry and divided into a mesh of about 1.1 million cells. The numerical simulations were performed by solving the governing equations in a three-dimensional model using realizable K-epsilon equations to express the turbulence and non-premixed flamelet combustion model taking into consideration radiation effect. The validation of the results was done by comparing it with other experimental data to ensure the agreement of the results. The study showed two zones of recirculation. The primary one is at the center of the furnace, and the location of the secondary one varies by changing the quarl angle of the burner. It is found that the increase in temperature in the external recirculation zone is a result of increasing the swirl number of the inlet air stream. Also it was found that recirculating part of the combustion products back to the combustion zone decreases pollutants formation especially nitrogen monoxide.

Keywords: burner selection, natural gas, analysis, recirculation

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2 Combined Cervical Headache Snag with Cervical Snag Half Rotation Techniques on Cervicogenic Headache Patients

Authors: Wael Salah Shendy, Moataz Mohamed EL Semary, Hosam Salah Murad, Adham A. Mohamed

Abstract:

Background: Cervicogenic headache is a major problem in many people suffering from upper cervical dysfunction with a great conflict in its physical therapy management. Objectives: To determine the effect of C1-C2 Mulligan SNAGs mobilizations on cervicogenic headache and associated dizziness symptoms. Methods: Forty-eight patients with cervicogenic headache included in the study; from the outpatient clinic of Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University, and New Cairo outpatient clinics, were randomly assigned into three equal groups; group A ( Headache SNAG), group B (C1-C2 SNAG rotation) and group C (combined). Their mean age was (29.37 ± 2.6), (29.31 ± 2.54) and (29.68 ± 2.65). Neck Disability Index used to examine neck pain intensity and CEH symptoms. 6 Items Headache Impact test '6-HIT' scale used to examine headache severity and its adverse effects on social life and functions. Flexion-Rotation Test 'FRT' also used to assess rotation ROM at the level of C1-C2 by 'CROM' device. Dizziness Handicap Inventory 'DHI' scale was used to evaluate dizziness symptoms. Evaluation is done pre and post treatment, and comparison between groups was quantified. Correlations between the examined parameters were also measured. Headache SNAG and C1-C2 Rotation SNAGs were done separately in group (A- B) and combined in group C as a treatment intervention. Results: Group C has Significant improvement in whole parameters compared to group A and B, positive correlation was found between NDI and 6-HIT scores compared to negative correlation between NDI and DHI scores. Conclusion: SNAGs mobilizations used in the study were effective in reducing cervicogenic headache and dizziness symptoms in all groups with a noticeable improvement in the combined group.

Keywords: cervicogenic headache, cervical headache snag, cervical snag half rotation, cervical dizziness

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1 Is Presence of Psychotic Features Themselves Carry a Risk for Metabolic Syndrome?

Authors: Rady A., Elsheshai A., Elsawy M., Nagui R.

Abstract:

Background and Aim: Metabolic syndrome affect around 20% of general population , authors have incriminated antipsychotics as serious risk factor that may provoke such derangement. The aim of our study is to assess metabolic syndrome in patients presenting psychotic features (delusions and hallucinations) whether schizophrenia or mood disorder and compare results in terms of drug naïf, on medication and healthy control. Subjects and Methods: The study recruited 40 schizophrenic patients, half of them drug naïf and the other half on antipsychotics, 40 patients with mood disorder with psychotic features, half of them drug naïf and the other half on medication, 20 healthy control. Exclusion criteria were put in order to exclude patients having already endocrine or metabolic disorders that my interfere with results obtain to minimize confusion bias. Metabolic syndrome assessed by measuring parameters including weight, body mass index, waist circumference, triglyceride level, HDL, fasting glucose, fasting insulin and insulin resistance Results: No difference was found when comparing drug naïf to those on medication in both schizophrenic and psychotic mood disorder arms, schizophrenic patients whether on medication or drug naïf should difference with control group for fasting glucose, schizophrenic patients on medication also showed difference in insulin resistance compared to control group. On the other hand, patients with psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication showed difference from control group for fasting insulin level. Those on medication also differed from control for insulin resistance Conclusion: Our study didn’t reveal difference in metabolic syndrome among patients with psychotic features whether on medication or drug naïf. Only patients with Psychotic features on medication showed insulin resistance. Schizophrenic patients drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting glucose while psychotic mood disorder whether drug naïf or on medication tend to show higher fasting insulin. This study suggest that presence of psychotic features themselves regardless being on medication or not carries a risk for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Limitation: This study is limited by number of participants and larger numbers in future studies should be included in order to extrapolate results. Cohort longitudinal studies are needed in order to evaluate such hypothesis.

Keywords: schizophrenia, metabolic syndrome, psychosis, insulin, resistance

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