Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Milad Zoghi

33 Performance of Armchair Graphene Nanoribbon Resonant Tunneling Diode under Uniaxial Strain

Authors: Milad Zoghi, M. Zahangir Kabir


Performance of armchair graphene nanoribbon (AGNR) resonant tunneling diodes (RTD) alter if they go under strain. This may happen due to either using stretchable substrates or real working conditions such as heat generation. Therefore, it is informative to understand how mechanical deformations such as uniaxial strain can impact the performance of AGNR RTDs. In this paper, two platforms of AGNR RTD consist of width-modified AGNR RTD and electric-field modified AGNR RTD are subjected to both compressive and tensile uniaxial strain ranging from -2% to +2%. It is found that characteristics of AGNR RTD markedly change under both compressive and tensile strain. In particular, peak to valley ratio (PVR) can be totally disappeared upon strong enough strain deformation. Numerical tight binding (TB) coupled with Non-Equilibrium Green's Function (NEGF) is derived for this study to calculate corresponding Hamiltonian matrices and transport properties.

Keywords: armchair graphene nanoribbon, resonant tunneling diode, uniaxial strain, peak to valley ratio

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32 In Situ Production of Nano-Cu on a Cotton Fabric Surface by Ink-Jet Printing

Authors: N. Zoghi, Laleh Maleknia , M. E. Olya


The nano-Cu particles were produced on cotton fabric substrate by ink-jet printing technology with water-soluble ink, which was based on copper. The surface tension and viscosity of the prepared inks were evaluated. The ink-jet printing process was repeated 1, 3, and 5 times in order to evaluate variations in the optical properties by changing thickness of printed film. Following initial drying of the printed film, the samples were annealed at different temperatures (150 °C, 200 °C and 250 °C) to determine the optimum temperature for the parameters set out in this experiment. The prepared nano-Cu particles were characterized by XRD and UV spectroscopy. The appearance of printed image and the nano-Cu particles morphology were observed by SEM. The results demonstrated that the ink-jet printing technology can be used to produce nano-particles on the cotton fabrics surface.

Keywords: ink-jet printing, nano-cu, fabric ink, in situ production, cotton fabric, water-soluble ink, morphology

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31 Rrelationship Between Intrauterine Growth Retardation and TORCH Infections in Neonates

Authors: Seyed Saeid Nabavi


Background: Many infants with intrauterine growth disorder are screened for TORCH infections. This action has no economic justification in terms of the imposed costs. In this regard, due to the research gap in this field, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between intrauterine growth disorder and TORCH infection in neonates referred to Milad hospital in 2019 and 2020. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 41IUGR newborns were selected and evaluated based on diagnostic and clinical studies in Milad Hospital in 2019 and 2020. TORCH results found in IgG and IgM antibody titer assay were tested in mother and infant. Antibody titers of toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphilis were determined in cases, and other variables were compared. The collected data were entered in SPSS software 25 and analyzed at a significant level of 0.05 using the statistical tests of Kolmogorov–Smirnov, Shapiro–Wilk, chi-square, and Mann–Whitney. Results: Most of the IUGR infants studied were girls (68.3%), Gravida and Parity were reported to be 68.3% and 80%, respectively, in the study. Mean weight, APGAR score, and neonatal gestational age are reported as 1710.62±334.43 g, 7.71±1.47, and 35.7+ 1.98 weeks, respectively. Most of the newborns were born by cesarean section (92.7%). TORCH infection was reported in three patients, 7.3%. The mean gestational age of IUGR infants with TORCH infection was reported to be less than other babies with IUGR. Therefore, the mean gestational age of subjects with TORCH infection was 33±1.4 weeks and in others 35.94±1.91 weeks (p-value = 0.038). No significant relationship between TORCH infection and gender, gravidity, and parity of newborns was found (p-value > 0.05). Conclusion: TORCH infection was reported in 3 patients( 7.3%). No significant relationship between TORCH infection and gender, gravidity, and parity of newborns was found. p-value > 0.05

Keywords: congenital infection, intrauterine growth restriction, TORCH infections, neonates

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30 Designing and Simulation of a CMOS Square Root Analog Multiplier

Authors: Milad Kaboli


A new CMOS low voltage current-mode four-quadrant analog multiplier based on the squarer circuit with voltage output is presented. The proposed circuit is composed of a pair of current subtractors, a pair differential-input V-I converters and a pair of voltage squarers. The circuit was simulated using HSPICE simulator in standard 0.18 μm CMOS level 49 MOSIS (BSIM3 V3.2 SPICE-based). Simulation results show the performance of the proposed circuit and experimental results are given to confirm the operation. This topology of multiplier results in a high-frequency capability with low power consumption. The multiplier operates for a power supply ±1.2V. The simulation results of analog multiplier demonstrate a THD of 0.65% in 10MHz, a −3dB bandwidth of 1.39GHz, and a maximum power consumption of 7.1mW.

Keywords: analog processing circuit, WTA, LTA, low voltage

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29 Sustainable Land Use Evaluation Based on Preservative Approach: Neighborhoods of Susa City

Authors: Somaye Khademi, Elahe Zoghi Hoseini, Mostafa Norouzi


Determining the manner of land-use and the spatial structure of cities on the one hand, and the economic value of each piece of land, on the other hand, land-use planning is always considered as the main part of urban planning. In this regard, emphasizing the efficient use of land, the sustainable development approach has presented a new perspective on urban planning and consequently on its most important pillar, i.e. land-use planning. In order to evaluate urban land-use, it has been attempted in this paper to select the most significant indicators affecting urban land-use and matching sustainable development indicators. Due to the significance of preserving ancient monuments and the surroundings as one of the main pillars of achieving sustainability, in this research, sustainability indicators have been selected emphasizing the preservation of ancient monuments and historical observance of the city of Susa as one of the historical cities of Iran. It has also been attempted to integrate these criteria with other land-use sustainability indicators. For this purpose, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE) and the AHP model have been used for providing maps displaying spatial density and combining layers as well as providing final maps respectively. Moreover, the rating of sustainability will be studied in different districts of the city of Shush so as to evaluate the status of land sustainability in different parts of the city. The results of the study show that different neighborhoods of Shush do not have the same sustainability in land-use such that neighborhoods located in the eastern half of the city, i.e. the new neighborhoods, have a higher sustainability than those of the western half. It seems that the allocation of a high percentage of these areas to arid lands and historical areas is one of the main reasons for their sustainability.

Keywords: city of Susa, historical heritage, land-use evaluation, urban sustainable development

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28 Field Investigating the Effects of Lateral Support Elements on Lateral Resistance of Ballasted Tracks with Sharp Curves

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Jabbar Ali Zakeri


Lateral movement of CWR ballasted track occurs in sharp curves because of the lack of adequate lateral resistance. Several strategies have been proposed and used for increase the lateral resistance of ballasted tracks, but still there are some problems in tracks with small radius curves. In this paper, a new method has been presented for increase the lateral resistance. This method is using the lateral supports as numerical and field studies. In this paper, the field and laboratory tests have been conducted by using the single tie pressure test (STPT) and track panel loading test (LTPT). Then, their results were compared with the numerical results. The results of numerical and field tests showed that the lateral stiffness of ballasted tracks significantly increased when there were lateral supports in ballasted tracks. Also, the track structure had a bilinear behavior.

Keywords: ballasted railway, Lateral resistance, railway buckling, field and numerical studies

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27 Tree Species Classification Using Effective Features of Polarimetric SAR and Hyperspectral Images

Authors: Milad Vahidi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Reza Mohammadi


Forest management organizations need information to perform their work effectively. Remote sensing is an effective method to acquire information from the Earth. Two datasets of remote sensing images were used to classify forested regions. Firstly, all of extractable features from hyperspectral and PolSAR images were extracted. The optical features were spectral indexes related to the chemical, water contents, structural indexes, effective bands and absorption features. Also, PolSAR features were the original data, target decomposition components, and SAR discriminators features. Secondly, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) and the genetic algorithms (GA) were applied to select optimization features. Furthermore, the support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used to classify the image. The results showed that the combination of PSO and SVM had higher overall accuracy than the other cases. This combination provided overall accuracy about 90.56%. The effective features were the spectral index, the bands in shortwave infrared (SWIR) and the visible ranges and certain PolSAR features.

Keywords: hyperspectral, PolSAR, feature selection, SVM

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26 ViraPart: A Text Refinement Framework for Automatic Speech Recognition and Natural Language Processing Tasks in Persian

Authors: Narges Farokhshad, Milad Molazadeh, Saman Jamalabbasi, Hamed Babaei Giglou, Saeed Bibak


The Persian language is an inflectional subject-object-verb language. This fact makes Persian a more uncertain language. However, using techniques such as Zero-Width Non-Joiner (ZWNJ) recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction will lead us to a more understandable and precise language. In most of the works in Persian, these techniques are addressed individually. Despite that, we believe that for text refinement in Persian, all of these tasks are necessary. In this work, we proposed a ViraPart framework that uses embedded ParsBERT in its core for text clarifications. First, used the BERT variant for Persian followed by a classifier layer for classification procedures. Next, we combined models outputs to output cleartext. In the end, the proposed model for ZWNJ recognition, punctuation restoration, and Persian Ezafe construction performs the averaged F1 macro scores of 96.90%, 92.13%, and 98.50%, respectively. Experimental results show that our proposed approach is very effective in text refinement for the Persian language.

Keywords: Persian Ezafe, punctuation, ZWNJ, NLP, ParsBERT, transformers

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25 Photocatalytic Packed‐Bed Flow Reactor for Continuous Room‐Temperature Hydrogen Release from Liquid Organic Carriers

Authors: Malek Y. S. Ibrahim, Jeffrey A. Bennett, Milad Abolhasani


Despite the potential of hydrogen (H2) storage in liquid organic carriers to achieve carbon neutrality, the energy required for H2 release and the cost of catalyst recycling has hindered its large-scale adoption. In response, a photo flow reactor packed with rhodium (Rh)/titania (TiO2) photocatalyst was reported for the continuous and selective acceptorless dehydrogenation of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline to H2 gas and quinoline under visible light irradiation at room temperature. The tradeoff between the reactor pressure drop and its photocatalytic surface area was resolved by selective in-situ photodeposition of Rh in the photo flow reactor post-packing on the outer surface of the TiO2 microparticles available to photon flux, thereby reducing the optimal Rh loading by 10 times compared to a batch reactor, while facilitating catalyst reuse and regeneration. An example of using quinoline as a hydrogen acceptor to lower the energy of the hydrogen production step was demonstrated via the water-gas shift reaction.

Keywords: hydrogen storage, flow chemistry, photocatalysis, solar hydrogen

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24 Impact of Task Technology Fit on User Effectiveness, Efficiency and Creativity in Iranian Pharmaceutical Oraganizations

Authors: Milad Keshvardoost, Amir Khanlari, Nader Khalesi


Background: Any firm in the pharmaceutical industry requires efficient and effective management information systems (MIS) to support managerial functions. Purpose: The aim of this study is to investigate the impact of Task-Technology Fit on user effectiveness, efficiency, and creativity in Iranian pharmaceutical companies. Methodology: 345 reliable and validate questionnaires were distributed among selected samples, through the cluster method, to Information system users of eight leading Iranian pharmaceutical companies, based on the likert scale. The proposed model of the article is based on a model with Task technology fit, on user performance with the definition of efficiency, effectiveness, and creativity through mediation effects of perceived usefulness and ease of use. Results: This study confirmed that TTF with definitions of adequacy and compatibility has positive impacts on user performance Conclusion: We concluded that pharmaceutical users of IS, utilizing a system with a precise and intense observation of users' demands, may make facilitation for them to design an exclusive IS framework.

Keywords: information systems, user performance, pharmaceuticals, task technology fit

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23 Flood Prediction with Satellite Data and Remote Sensing Tools: A Case Study in Lorestan, Iran

Authors: Milad Farhadi


Flood is a natural destructive phenomenon, and its risk is expected to increase remarkably under changing climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Many parameters are involved in the occurrence of floods in an area, including the heavy rainfall in the mountainous region. A flood zone has different potential properties for flood occurrence due to different natural conditions. These conditions can be used as parameters to produce a flood risk map. Lorestan province naturally has a high flood potential due to the occurrence of floods. In this study, we have predicted the level of flood risk in this province by examining two parameters: rainfall and vegetation changes before and after the main Lorestan flood. Eight criteria for generating a flood hazard map have been considered in this study. The criteria include vegetation cover, distance from the river, drainage density, land use and land cover, elevation, slope, geology, and precipitation. A real flood map was produced using a Sentinel-1 RADAR image and compared with the flood risk map. It was found that some parameters such as vegetation cover change and the amount of rainfall in the study area can lead to a flood.

Keywords: flood risk, remote sensing, hazard, satellite data

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22 Dutch Schools: Their Ventilation Systems

Authors: Milad Golshan, Wim Zeiler


During the last decade research was done to clarify the importance of good Indoor Air Quality in schools. As a result, measurements were undertaken in different types of schools to see whether naturally ventilated schools could provide adequate indoor conditions. Also, a comparison was made between schools with hybrid ventilation and those with complete mechanical ventilation systems. Recently a large survey was undertaken at 60 schools to establish the average current situation of schools in the Netherlands. The results of the questionnaires were compared with those of earlier measured schools. This allowed us to compare different types of schools as well as schools of different periods. Overall it leads to insights about the actual current perceived quality by the teachers as well as the pupils and enables to draw some conclusions about the typical performances of specific types of school ventilation systems. Also, the perceived thermal comfort and controllability were researched. It proved that in around 50% of the schools there were major complains about the indoor air quality causing concentration problems and headaches by the pupils at the end of class. Although the main focus of the latest research was focused more on the quality of recently finished nearly Zero Energy schools, this research showed that especially the main focus school be on the renovation and upgrading of the existing 10.000 schools in the Netherlands.

Keywords: school ventilation, indoor air quality, perceiver thermal comfort, comparison different types

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21 Synthetic Aperture Radar Remote Sensing Classification Using the Bag of Visual Words Model to Land Cover Studies

Authors: Reza Mohammadi, Mahmod R. Sahebi, Mehrnoosh Omati, Milad Vahidi


Classification of high resolution polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR) images plays an important role in land cover and land use management. Recently, classification algorithms based on Bag of Visual Words (BOVW) model have attracted significant interest among scholars and researchers in and out of the field of remote sensing. In this paper, BOVW model with pixel based low-level features has been implemented to classify a subset of San Francisco bay PolSAR image, acquired by RADARSAR 2 in C-band. We have used segment-based decision-making strategy and compared the result with the result of traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. 90.95% overall accuracy of the classification with the proposed algorithm has shown that the proposed algorithm is comparable with the state-of-the-art methods. In addition to increase in the classification accuracy, the proposed method has decreased undesirable speckle effect of SAR images.

Keywords: Bag of Visual Words (BOVW), classification, feature extraction, land cover management, Polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (PolSAR)

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20 Taleghan Dam Break Numerical Modeling

Authors: Hamid Goharnejad, Milad Sadeghpoor Moalem, Mahmood Zakeri Niri, Leili Sadeghi Khalegh Abadi


While there are many benefits to using reservoir dams, their break leads to destructive effects. From the viewpoint of International Committee of Large Dams (ICOLD), dam break means the collapse of whole or some parts of a dam; thereby the dam will be unable to hold water. Therefore, studying dam break phenomenon and prediction of its behavior and effects reduces losses and damages of the mentioned phenomenon. One of the most common types of reservoir dams is embankment dam. Overtopping in embankment dams occurs because of flood discharge system inability in release inflows to reservoir. One of the most important issues among managers and engineers to evaluate the performance of the reservoir dam rim when sliding into the storage, creating waves is large and long. In this study, the effects of floods which caused the overtopping of the dam have been investigated. It was assumed that spillway is unable to release the inflow. To determine outflow hydrograph resulting from dam break, numerical model using Flow-3D software and empirical equations was used. Results of numerical models and their comparison with empirical equations show that numerical model and empirical equations can be used to study the flood resulting from dam break.

Keywords: embankment dam break, empirical equations, Taleghan dam, Flow-3D numerical model

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19 An Optimal Approach for Full-Detailed Friction Model Identification of Reaction Wheel

Authors: Ghasem Sharifi, Hamed Shahmohamadi Ousaloo, Milad Azimi, Mehran Mirshams


The ever-increasing use of satellites demands a search for increasingly accurate and reliable pointing systems. Reaction wheels are rotating devices used commonly for the attitude control of the spacecraft since provide a wide range of torque magnitude and high reliability. The numerical modeling of this device can significantly enhance the accuracy of the satellite control in space. Modeling the wheel rotation in the presence of the various frictions is one of the critical parts of this approach. This paper presents a Dynamic Model Control of a Reaction Wheel (DMCR) in the current control mode. In current-mode, the required current is delivered to the coils in order to achieve the desired torque. During this research, all the friction parameters as viscous and coulomb, motor coefficient, resistance and voltage constant are identified. In order to model identification of a reaction wheel, numerous varying current commands apply on the particular wheel to verify the estimated model. All the parameters of DMCR are identified by classical Levenberg-Marquardt (CLM) optimization method. The experimental results demonstrate that the developed model has an appropriate precise and can be used in the satellite control simulation.

Keywords: experimental modeling, friction parameters, model identification, reaction wheel

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18 Experimental Study of Application of Steel Slag as Aggregate in Road Construction

Authors: Meftah M. Elsaraiti, Samir Milad Elsariti


Steel slag is a by-product of the steel production and utilizing it potentially as new or substitute materials in road construction is advantageous regarding cost reduction and flattening improvement or properties pavement. Ease of use, low cost, and resource availability are some of few advantages of reuse and recycling of steel slag. This study assesses the use of Steel Slag Aggregates (SSA) as an alternative to natural road building aggregates. This paper discusses the basic characteristics of steel slag based on extensive laboratory tests, and to determine the possibilities of using steel slag in road construction. Samples were taken from the furnaces directly at different times and dates. Moreover, random samples were also taken from the slag field from various areas at different far distances from each other. A necessary analysis was performed through the use of (XRF). Three different percentages of SSA (0, 50 and 100%) were added as an alternative to natural aggregate in hot mix asphalt (HMA) production. The proposed design of the mix was made according to the Marshall mix design. The results of the experiments revealed that the percentages of iron oxide ranged from (9 to 26%) and that the addition of SSA has a significant improvement on HMA properties. It was observed that the Marshall stability obtained in the mix of 100% slag ranged from 600 to 800 N as a minimum, and the flow of Marshall obtained from 2.4 to 3.23 mm and the specification requires from 2 to 4 mm. The results may be showed possibilities to use steel slag as new or substitute materials in road construction in Libya.

Keywords: by-product material, properties, road construction, steel slag

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17 Effect of Different Ozone Doses on Antioxidant Activity in Different Tomato Tissues and at Different Stages of Ripening

Authors: Shalluf Milad


Tomatoes are widely produced and consumed due to their nutritional content and versatility. However, the tomato is a soft fruit liable to damage and flavour deterioration. Hence, the main challenge for the tomato producing industry is to prevent the high loss incurred during harvest, handling and transportation of the crops. The objective of this study was to investigate the overall nutritional implication of controlled storage of tomatoes using ozone on the basic nutritional components of tomatoes. This investigation was also designed to focus on the effect of different ozone doses on the basic components (antioxidant activity). Green, yellow and red stages of ripeness (elegance tomatoes), were harvested at different dates for each experiment. The tomatoes were cleaned and placed inside the glass reactors and ozonated at 0.25, 0.50 and 1 mg O3/g tomatoes and clean air respectively for 5 days at 15°C ± 2 and 90-95 % relative humidity respectively. The fruits were analysed for total antioxidant activity. Analysis of the fruits clearly showed that antioxidant activity in the pericarp tissue was the lowest (P<0.001) compared with the pulp tissue of tomatoes during storage in the red stage of maturity, after being treated with ozone in the atmosphere of storage in a dose of 1.00 mgO3/g tomatoes. It can be concluded from this study that the use of ozone in the atmospheres of storage and handling of fresh products maintains the important compounds of these products while maintaining the nutritional value and health quality.

Keywords: post-harvest treatment, controlled atmosphere storage, ozone, tomatoes, antioxidant activity

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16 Testicular Dose and Associated Risk from Common Pelvis Radiation Therapy in Iran

Authors: Ahmad Shanei, Milad Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi


This study aimed to investigate testicular dose (TD) and the associated risk of heritable disease from common pelvis radiotherapy of male patients in Iran. In this work, the relation between TD and changes in beam energy, pelvis size, source to skin distance (SSD) and beam directions (anterior or posterior) were also evaluated. The values of TDs were measured on 67 randomly selected male patients during common pelvis radiotherapy using 1.17 and 1.33 MeV, Theratron Cobalt-60 unit at SSD of 80 cm and 9 MV, Neptun 10 PC and 18 MV, GE Saturne 20 at SSD of 100 cm at Seyed-Al Shohada Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Results showed that the maximum TD was up to 12% of the tumor dose. Considering the risk factor for radiation-induced heritable disorders of 0.1% per Sv, an excess risk of hereditary disorders of 72 per 10000 births was conservatively calculated. There was a significant difference in the measured TD using different treatment machines and energies (P < 0.001). The TD at 100 cm SSD were much less than that for 80 cm SSD (P <0.001). The Pearson Correlation test showed that, as expected, there was a strong correlation between TD and patient’s pelvis size (r = 0.275, P <0.001). Using the student’s t-tests, it was found that, there was not a significant difference between TD and beam direction (P = 0.231). Iranian male patients undergoing pelvic radiotherapy have the potential of receiving a TD of more than 1 Gy which might result in temporary azoospermia. The risk for induction of hereditary disorders in future generations should be considered as low but not negligible in comparison with the correspondent nominal risk.

Keywords: pelvis radiotherapy, testicular dose, infertility, hereditary effects

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15 A Weighted Sum Particle Swarm Approach (WPSO) Combined with a Novel Feasibility-Based Ranking Strategy for Constrained Multi-Objective Optimization of Compact Heat Exchangers

Authors: Milad Yousefi, Moslem Yousefi, Ricarpo Poley, Amer Nordin Darus


Design optimization of heat exchangers is a very complicated task that has been traditionally carried out based on a trial-and-error procedure. To overcome the difficulties of the conventional design approaches especially when a large number of variables, constraints and objectives are involved, a new method based on a well-stablished evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization (PSO), weighted sum approach and a novel constraint handling strategy is presented in this study. Since, the conventional constraint handling strategies are not effective and easy-to-implement in multi-objective algorithms, a novel feasibility-based ranking strategy is introduced which is both extremely user-friendly and effective. A case study from industry has been investigated to illustrate the performance of the presented approach. The results show that the proposed algorithm can find the near pareto-optimal with higher accuracy when it is compared to conventional non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II (NSGA-II). Moreover, the difficulties of a trial-and-error process for setting the penalty parameters is solved in this algorithm.

Keywords: Heat exchanger, Multi-objective optimization, Particle swarm optimization, NSGA-II Constraints handling.

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14 Enhancement of the Corrosion Resistance of Fastening System of Ballasted ‎Railway in Sandy Desert by Using Nano-Coating

Authors: Milad Alizadeh Galdiani, Navid Sabet, Mohamad Ali Mohit, Fatemeh Palizdar


Railway as one of the most important transportation modes, passes through ‎various areas with different conditions ‎inevitably, and in many countries such as ‎China, United States, Australia, and Iran, it passes through sandy ‎desert areas. One ‎of the main problems in these areas is the movement of sand, causing various ‎damages ‎to ballasted railway track such as corrosion in the railway fastening system. ‎The soil composition of some desert areas like Fahraj in Iran consists of sand ‎and ‎salt. Due to the movement of sand and corrosive ions of salt, the fastening system ‎of the railway is ‎corroded, which, in turn, reduces the thickness of the components ‎and their life span.‎ In this research, the Nano-coating for fastening system of ‎the railway is ‎introduced, and its performance has been investigated in both ‎laboratory and field tests. The Nano-coating of ‎the fastening system consists of zinc-rich, epoxy, polyurethane, and additive, which is produced through ‎Nano ‎technology. This layer covers the surface of the fastening system and ‎prohibits the chemical reactions, which result in ‎corrosion. The results of ‎Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) ‎indicate that corrosion resistance ‎increases 315 times by using nano-coating, salt spray test results demonstrate that ‎nano-coated components remained intact after 1000 hours.‎

Keywords: ballasted railway, Nano-coating, railway fastening system, sandy desert

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13 Statistical Analysis of Parameters Effects on Maximum Strain and Torsion Angle of FRP Honeycomb Sandwich Panels Subjected to Torsion

Authors: Mehdi Modabberifar, Milad Roodi, Ehsan Souri


In recent years, honeycomb fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) sandwich panels have been increasingly used in various industries. Low weight, low price, and high mechanical strength are the benefits of these structures. However, their mechanical properties and behavior have not been fully explored. The objective of this study is to conduct a combined numerical-statistical investigation of honeycomb FRP sandwich beams subject to torsion load. In this paper, the effect of geometric parameters of the sandwich panel on the maximum shear strain in both face and core and angle of torsion in a honeycomb FRP sandwich structures in torsion is investigated. The effect of Parameters including core thickness, face skin thickness, cell shape, cell size, and cell thickness on mechanical behavior of the structure were numerically investigated. Main effects of factors were considered in this paper and regression equations were derived. Taguchi method was employed as experimental design and an optimum parameter combination for the maximum structure stiffness has been obtained. The results showed that cell size and face skin thickness have the most significant impacts on torsion angle, maximum shear strain in face and core.

Keywords: finite element, honeycomb FRP sandwich panel, torsion, civil engineering

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12 The Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum) in the Diet on Some Serum Biochemical Parameters of Oscar Fish (Astronotus ocellatus)

Authors: Ali Saghaei, Negar Ghotbeddin, Ebrahim Rajabzadeh Ghatrami, Milad Maniat


The use of herbs as natural additives in fish diets are used to enhance the efficiency and safety systems. The use of herbs, garlic, due to the structure and composition of it has beneficial role in human nutrition and animal nutrition. This study was conducted evaluate the effect different levels of garlic (Allium sativum) powder on the some serum biochemical parameters of Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus). Fish were divided into four groups fed on diets containing garlic in different levels; 5 g kg˗1, 10 g kg-1, 20 g kg-1, 30 g kg-1 diet and the control group diet was without garlic. A total number of 300 fish was used and Triplicate groups of Oscar fish with initial weight of 12.43±0.24 g were hand-fed to visual satiation at three meals per day. The experiment extended for two months. Total Protein (TP), Albumin (ALB), Globulin (GLB) and Albumin/Globulin (A/G) ratio, were determined. Based on the results, no significant differences were seen among treatments and control groups during the experimental period for TP, ALB, GLB, and A/G ratio (p > 0.05). Although, the highest amount of serum total protein and globulin levels were observed in diet containing 10 g kg-1 of garlic. Also, the highest value of albumin and A/G were observed in diet containing 20 g kg-1 of garlic, but there were no significant difference with other treatments. The results of this study show that addition of garlic Allium sativum to fish diet can improve fish health.

Keywords: garlic (Allium sativum), serum, Oscar fish (Astronotus ocellatus), iran

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11 Groundwater Potential in the Central Part of Al Jabal Al Akhdar Area, Ne Libya

Authors: Maged El Osta, Milad Masoud


Al Jabal Al Akhdar in the north-eastern part of Libya represents a region with promising ecological underpinning for grazing and other agricultural developments. The groundwater potential of both Upper Cretaceous and Eocene aquifers was studied based the available literature and a complete database for about 112 water wells drilled in the period 2003-2009. In this research, the hydrogeological methods will be integrated with the Geographic Information System (GIS) that played a main role in highlighting the spatial characteristics of the groundwater system. The results indicate that the depth to water for the Upper Cretaceous aquifer ranges from 150 to 458 m, and the piezometric surface decreases from over 500 m (m.s.l) in the northern parts to -20 m (m.s.l) in southeastern part. Salinity ranges between 303 and 1329 mg/l indicating that groundwater belongs to the slightly fresh water class. In the Eocene aquifer, the depth to groundwater ranges from 120 to 290.5 m and the potentiometric level decreases gradually southwards from 220 to -51 m (m.s.l) and characterized by steep slope in the southeastern part of the study area, where the aquifer characterized by relatively high productivity (specific capacity ranges between 10.08 and 332.3 m2/day). The groundwater salinity within this aquifer ranges between 198 and 2800 mg/l (fresh to brackish water class). The annual average rainfall (from 280 to 500 mm) plays a significant role in the recharge of the two aquifers. The priority of groundwater quality and potentiality increases towards the central and northern portions of the concerned area.

Keywords: Eocene and Upper Cretaceous aquifers, rainfall, potentiality, Geographic Information System (GIS)

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10 Machine Learning Prediction of Compressive Damage and Energy Absorption in Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Tubular Structures

Authors: Milad Abbasi


Carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composite structures are increasingly being utilized in the automotive industry due to their lightweight and specific energy absorption capabilities. Although it is impossible to predict composite mechanical properties directly using theoretical methods, various research has been conducted so far in the literature for accurate simulation of CFRP structures' energy-absorbing behavior. In this research, axial compression experiments were carried out on hand lay-up unidirectional CFRP composite tubes. The fabrication method allowed the authors to extract the material properties of the CFRPs using ASTM D3039, D3410, and D3518 standards. A neural network machine learning algorithm was then utilized to build a robust prediction model to forecast the axial compressive properties of CFRP tubes while reducing high-cost experimental efforts. The predicted results have been compared with the experimental outcomes in terms of load-carrying capacity and energy absorption capability. The results showed high accuracy and precision in the prediction of the energy-absorption capacity of the CFRP tubes. This research also demonstrates the effectiveness and challenges of machine learning techniques in the robust simulation of composites' energy-absorption behavior. Interestingly, the proposed method considerably condensed numerical and experimental efforts in the simulation and calibration of CFRP composite tubes subjected to compressive loading.

Keywords: CFRP composite tubes, energy absorption, crushing behavior, machine learning, neural network

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9 Evaluation of Immunology of Asthma Chronic Obstructive

Authors: Milad Gholizadeh


Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are very shared inflammatory diseases of the airlines. They togethercause airway tapering and are cumulative in occurrence throughout the world, imposing huge burdens on health care. It is currently recognized that some asthmatic inflammation is neutrophilic, controlled by the TH17 subset of helper T cells, and that some eosinophilic inflammation is controlled by type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2 cells) temporary together with basophils. Patients who have plain asthma or are asthmatic patients who smoke with topographies of COPD-induced inflammation and might advantage from treatments targeting neutrophils, countingmacrolides, CXCR2 antagonists, phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors, p38 mitogen-activating protein kinase inhibitors, and antibodies in contradiction of IL-1 and IL-17.Viral and bacterial infections, not only reason acute exacerbations of COPD, but also intensify and continue chronic inflammation in steady COPD through pathogen-associated molecular patterns. Present treatment plans are absorbed on titration of inhaled therapies such as long-acting bronchodilators, with cumulative interest in the usage of beleaguered biologic therapies meant at the underlying inflammatory devices. Educationssuggest that the mucosal IgA reply is abridged in COPD, and a lacking conveyance of IgA across the bronchial epithelium in COPD has been recognized, perhaps involving neutrophil proteinases, which may damage the Ig receptor mediating this transepithelialdirection-finding. Future instructions for investigation will emphasis elucidating the diverse inflammatory signatures foremost to asthma and chronic obstrucive, the development of reliable analytic standards and biomarkers of illness, and refining the clinical organization with an eye toward targeted therapies.

Keywords: imminology, asthma, COPD, CXCR2 antagonists

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8 The Impact of PM-Based Regulations on the Concentration and Sources of Fine Organic Carbon in the Los Angeles Basin from 2005 to 2015

Authors: Abdulmalik Altuwayjiri, Milad Pirhadi, Sina Taghvaee, Constantinos Sioutas


A significant portion of PM₂.₅ mass concentration is carbonaceous matter (CM), which majorly exists in the form of organic carbon (OC). Ambient OC originates from a multitude of sources and plays an important role in global climate effects, visibility degradation, and human health. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was utilized to identify and quantify the long-term contribution of PM₂.₅ sources to total OC mass concentration in central Los Angeles (CELA) and Riverside (i.e., receptor site), using the chemical speciation network (CSN) database between 2005 and 2015, a period during which several state and local regulations on tailpipe emissions were implemented in the area. Our PMF resolved five different factors, including tailpipe emissions, non-tailpipe emissions, biomass burning, secondary organic aerosol (SOA), and local industrial activities for both sampling sites. The contribution of vehicular exhaust emissions to the OC mass concentrations significantly decreased from 3.5 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.5 µg/m³ in 2015 (by about 58%) at CELA, and from 3.3 µg/m³ in 2005 to 1.2 µg/m³ in 2015 (by nearly 62%) at Riverside. Additionally, SOA contribution to the total OC mass, showing higher levels at the receptor site, increased from 23% in 2005 to 33% and 29% in 2010 and 2015, respectively, in Riverside, whereas the corresponding contribution at the CELA site was 16%, 21% and 19% during the same period. The biomass burning maintained an almost constant relative contribution over the whole period. Moreover, while the adopted regulations and policies were very effective at reducing the contribution of tailpipe emissions, they have led to an overall increase in the fractional contributions of non-tailpipe emissions to total OC in CELA (about 14%, 28%, and 28% in 2005, 2010 and 2015, respectively) and Riverside (22%, 27% and 26% in 2005, 2010 and 2015), underscoring the necessity to develop equally effective mitigation policies targeting non-tailpipe PM emissions.

Keywords: PM₂.₅, organic carbon, Los Angeles megacity, PMF, source apportionment, non-tailpipe emissions

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7 The Impact of Dust Storm Events on the Chemical and Toxicological Characteristics of Ambient Particulate Matter in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdulmalik Altuwayjiri, Milad Pirhadi, Mohammed Kalafy, Badr Alharbi, Constantinos Sioutas


In this study, we investigated the chemical and toxicological characteristics of PM10 in the metropolitan area of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. PM10 samples were collected on quartz and teflon filters during cold (December 2019–April 2020) and warm (May 2020–August 2020) seasons, including dust and non-dust events. The PM10 constituents were chemically analyzed for their metal, inorganic ions, and elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC) contents. Additionally, the PM10 oxidative potential was measured by means of the dithiothreitol (DTT) assay. Our findings revealed that the oxidative potential of the collected ambient PM10 samples was significantly higher than those measured in many urban areas worldwide. The oxidative potential of the collected ambient PM¹⁰⁻ samples was also higher during dust episodes compared to non-dust events, mainly due to higher concentrations of metals during these events. We performed Pearson correlation analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and multi-linear regression (MLR) to identify the most significant sources contributing to the toxicity of PM¹⁰⁻ The results of the MLR analyses indicated that the major pollution sources contributing to the oxidative potential of ambient PM10 were soil and resuspended dust emissions (identified by Al, K, Fe, and Li) (31%), followed by secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation (traced by SO₄-² and NH+₄) (20%), and industrial activities (identified by Se and La) (19%), and traffic emissions (characterized by EC, Zn, and Cu) (17%). Results from this study underscore the impact of transported dust emissions on the oxidative potential of ambient PM10 in Riyadh and can be helpful in adopting appropriate public health policies regarding detrimental outcomes of exposure to PM₁₀-

Keywords: ambient PM10, oxidative potential, source apportionment, Riyadh, dust episodes

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6 The Assessment Groundwater Geochemistry of Some Wells in Rafsanjan Plain, Southeast of Iran

Authors: Milad Mirzaei Aminiyan, Abdolreza Akhgar, Farzad Mirzaei Aminiyan


Water quality is the critical factor that influence on human health and quantity and quality of grain production in semi-humid and semi-arid area. Pistachio is a main crop that accounts for a considerable portion of Iranian agricultural exports. Give that pistachio tree is a tolerant type of tree to saline and alkaline soil and water conditions, but groundwater and irrigation water quality play important roles in main production this crop. For this purpose, 94 well water samples were taken from 25 wells and samples were analyzed. The results showed give that region’s geological, climatic characteristics, statistical analysis, and based on dominant cations and anions in well water samples (piper diagram); four main types of water were found: Na-Cl, K-Cl, Na-SO4, and K-SO4. It seems that most wells in terms of water quality (salinity and alkalinity) and based on Wilcox diagram have critical status. The analysis suggested that more than eighty-seven percentage of the well water samples have high values of EC that these values are higher than into critical limit EC value for irrigation water, which may be due to the sandy soils in this area. Most groundwater were relatively unsuitable for irrigation but it could be used by application of correct management such as removing and reducing the ion concentrations of Cl‾, SO42‾, Na+ and total hardness in groundwater and also the concentrated deep groundwater was required treatment to reduce the salinity and sodium hazard. Given that irrigation water quality in this area was relatively unsuitable for most agriculture production but pistachio tree was adapted to this area conditions. The integrated management of groundwater for irrigation is the way to solve water quality issues not only in Rafsanjan area, but also in other arid and semi-arid areas.

Keywords: groundwater quality, irrigation water quality, salinity, alkalinity, Rafsanjan plain, pistachio

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5 Hydro-Geochemistry of Qare-Sou Catchment and Gorgan Gulf, Iran: Examining Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Major Ions and Determining the River’s Hydro-Chemical Type

Authors: Milad Kurdi, Hadi Farhadian, Teymour Eslamkish


This study examined the hydro-geochemistry of Qare-Sou catchment and Gorgan Gulf in order to determine the spatial distribution of major ions. In this regard, six hydrometer stations in the catchment and four stations in Gorgan Gulf were chosen and the samples were collected. Results of spatial and temporal distribution of major ions have shown similar variation trends for calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. Also, the spatial trend of chloride, sulfate, sodium and potassium ions were same as Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS). In Nahar Khoran station, the concentrations of ions were more than other stations which may be related to human activities and the role of geology. The Siah Ab station’s ions showed high concentration which is may be related to the station’s close proximity to Gorgan Gulf and the return of water to Qare-Sou River. In order to determine the interaction of water and rock, the Gibbs diagram was used and the results showed that water of the river falls in the rock range and it is affected more by weathering and reaction between water and stone and less by evaporation and crystallization. Assessment of the quality of river water by using graphic methods indicated that the type of water in this area is Ca-HCO3-Mg. Major ions concentration in Qare-Sou in the universal average was more than but not more than the allowed limit by the World Health Organization and China Standard Organization. A comparison of ions concentration in Gorgan Gulf, seas and oceans showed that the pH in Gorgan Gulf was more than the other seas but in Gorgan Gulf the concentration of anion and cation was less than other seas.

Keywords: hydro-geochemistry, Qare-Sou river, Gorgan gulf, major ions, Gibbs diagram, water quality, graphical methods

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4 Antagonist Coactivation in Athletes Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

Authors: Milad Pirali, Sohrab Keyhani, Mohhamad Ali Sanjari, Ali Ashraf Jamshidi


Purpose: The effect of hamstring antagonist activity on the knee extensors torque of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction (ACLR) is not clear and persistent muscle weakness is common after ACLR. Hamstring activation when acting as antagonist is considered very important for knee strengths. Therefore the purpose of this study was to examine hamstring antagonist coactivation during maximal effort of the isokinetic knee extension in ACLR athletes with hamstring autograft. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 20 professional athletes who underwent primary ACLR (hamstring tendon autograft)with 6-24 months postoperative and 20 healthy subjects as control group. Each subjects performed maximal effort isokinetic knee extension and flexion in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities for the involved and uninvolved limb. Synchronously, surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded of vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF) and biceps femoris (BF). The antagonist integrated EMG (IEMG) values were normalized to the IEMG of the same muscle during maximal isokinetic eccentric effort at the same velocities and ROM. Results: A one-way analysis of variance designs shows significantly greater IEMG coactivation of hamstring and decreased activation of Vm in ACLR when compared to uninvolved and control group leg in 60/˚ s and 180/˚ s velocities. Likewise peak torque to body weight was decreased in ACLR compared to uninvolved and control group during knee extension in both velocities (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Decreased extensors moment caused by decreased quadriceps inhibition and increased hamstring coactivation. In addition, these result indicated to decrease of motor unit recruitment in the VM (as a kinesiologicmonitore of the knee). It is appearing that strengthening of the quadriceps to be an important for rehabilitation program after ACLR for preparation in athletes endeavors. Therefore, we suggest that having more emphasis and focus on quadriceps strength and less emphasis on hamstring following ACLR.

Keywords: ACLR-coactivation, dynamometry, electromyography, isokinetic

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