Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Search results for: Michella Alnajjar

2 Corrosion Resistance of 17-4 Precipitation Hardenable Stainless Steel Fabricated by Selective Laser Melting

Authors: Michella Alnajjar, Frederic Christien, Krzysztof Wolski, Cedric Bosch

Abstract:

Additive manufacturing (AM) has gained more interest in the past few years because it allows 3D parts often having a complex geometry to be directly fabricated, layer by layer according to a CAD model. One of the AM techniques is the selective laser melting (SLM) which is based on powder bed fusion. In this work, the corrosion resistance of 17-4 PH steel obtained by SLM is investigated. Wrought 17-4 PH steel is a martensitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel. It is widely used in a variety of applications such as aerospace, medical and food industries, due to its high strength and relatively good corrosion resistance. However, the combined findings of X-Ray diffraction and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) proved that SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel has a fully ferritic microstructure, more specifically δ ferrite. The microstructure consists of coarse ferritic grains elongated along the build direction, with a pronounced solidification crystallographic texture. These results were associated with the high cooling and heating rates experienced throughout the SLM process (10⁵-10⁶ K/s) that suppressed the austenite formation and produced a 'by-passing' phenomenon of this phase during the numerous thermal cycles. Furthermore, EDS measurements revealed a uniform distribution of elements without any dendritic structure. The extremely high cooling kinetics induced a diffusionless solidification, resulting in a homogeneous elemental composition. Consequently, the corrosion properties of this steel are altered from that of conventional ones. By using electrochemical means, it was found that SLM-ed 17-4 PH is more resistant to general corrosion than the wrought steel. However, the SLM-ed material exhibits metastable pitting due to its high porosity density. In addition, the hydrogen embrittlement of SLM-ed 17-4 PH steel is investigated, and a correlation between its behavior and the observed microstructure is made.

Keywords: corrosion resistance, 17-4 PH stainless steel, selective laser melting, hydrogen embrittlement

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1 Discrete Group Search Optimizer for the Travelling Salesman Problem

Authors: Raed Alnajjar, Mohd Zakree, Ahmad Nazri

Abstract:

In this study, we apply Discrete Group Search Optimizer (DGSO) for solving Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). The DGSO is a nature inspired optimization algorithm that imitates the animal behavior, especially animal searching behavior. The proposed DGSO uses a vector representation and some discrete operators, such as destruction, construction, differential evolution, swap and insert. The TSP is a well-known hard combinatorial optimization problem, which seeks to find the shortest path among numbers of cities. The performance of the proposed DGSO is evaluated and tested on benchmark instances which listed in LIBTSP dataset. The experimental results show that the performance of the proposed DGSO is comparable with the other methods in the state of the art for some instances. The results show that DGSO outperform Ant Colony System (ACS) in some instances whilst outperform other metaheuristic in most instances. In addition to that, the new results obtained a number of optimal solutions and some best known results. DGSO was able to obtain feasible and good quality solution across all dataset.

Keywords: discrete group search optimizer (DGSO); Travelling salesman problem (TSP); Variable neighborhood search(VNS)

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