Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

Search results for: Martyr Sadr

12 The Feasibility of Economic Science in Islam With an Emphasis on Sadr's Vantage Point

Authors: Yahya Jahangiri, Ali Almasi

Abstract:

Currently capitalism is one of the most important economic issues discussed by great scholars around the world. But Islamic approach, regarding this issue may differ both western and eastern views. A greatest scholar in Islamic economy ‘especially in Shia’ is Martyr Muhammad Baqir Al-Sadr. He wrote “Our economy” (Iqtisaduna) to present an economic point of view according to the Islamic teachings. In this regard firstly we will mention three approaches which are common in Muslim scullers about the economic science and then the main approach which is Sadr's view is described here. His claim explains that Islam and capitalism are in conflict with each other. And finally he explains the relationship between Islam and economy and he suggests the Islamic point of view in economy and its foundations as a solution for economic problems which we face today.

Keywords: Islam, economic science, capitalism, Martyr Sadr

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11 The Effect of Micro-Order in Family on Divorce: A Case Study on Married Offspring of the Martyr in the City of Mashhad, Iran

Authors: Maryam Eskafi

Abstract:

Purpose: Frequent referrals of the martyr offspring to The Martyr Foundation and studying divorce documents revealed the depth of family quarrels among the martyr families. For this reason, conducting the research of this type can be effective. Method: Research method is survey. Statistical population is the total of married offspring of the martyr living in Mashhad City of Iran. Data were gathered by using questionnaire administered with a sample of 250 selected by using cluster sampling method. Results: Family order may lead to the ground actions for divorce through life satisfaction. Conclusion: life satisfaction with -0.62 beta value has a strong negative effect on the ground actions for divorce.

Keywords: ground actions for divorce, life satisfaction, family order, satisfaction

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10 Ibn Sina’s Necessary Existence versus Ibn ‘Arabi’s Necessary Mercy: An Exploration of Precedents and Influences

Authors: Reham Alwazzan

Abstract:

Ibn Sina (d. 1037) is perhaps the most important philosopher of the pre-modern era. Among his many contributions, the proof for the existence of the necessary existent stands out. Ibn Sina proceeds to extract each of God’s attributes (sifat) from His necessary existence. Although his ideas met with resistance in some quarters, they found a warm reception in the Akbarian school, particularly in the works of Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi (d. 1274) and ‘Abd al-Razzaq al-Qashani (d. 1335). This paper argues that the influence of Ibn Sina’s concept of necessity (wujub) had a great impact on the founder of the Akbarian school, Muhyi al-Din ibn ‘Arabi (d. 1240). Ibn ‘Arabi reformulates God’s necessary existence (wujud) as God’s necessary/metaphysical mercy (rahma) in order to extract all of the divine names from this primary attribute of God. Even as he denies all influences and insists his work is the product of spiritual unveiling (kashf), Ibn ‘Arabi seems to be following the same path delineated by his illustrious predecessor, if in his own way.

Keywords: existence, Ibn ‘Arabi, Ibn Sina, mercy, necessity

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9 Micromechanical Modeling of Fiber-Matrix Debonding in Unidirectional Composites

Authors: M. Palizvan, M. T. Abadi, M. H. Sadr

Abstract:

Due to variations in damage mechanisms in the microscale, the behavior of fiber-reinforced composites is nonlinear and difficult to model. To make use of computational advantages, homogenization method is applied to the micro-scale model in order to minimize the cost at the expense of detail of local microscale phenomena. In this paper, the effective stiffness is calculated using the homogenization of nonlinear behavior of a composite representative volume element (RVE) containing fiber-matrix debonding. The damage modes for the RVE are considered by using cohesive elements and contacts for the cohesive behavior of the interface between fiber and matrix. To predict more realistic responses of composite materials, different random distributions of fibers are proposed besides square and hexagonal arrays. It was shown that in some cases, there is quite different damage behavior in different fiber distributions. A comprehensive comparison has been made between different graphs.

Keywords: homogenization, cohesive zone model, fiber-matrix debonding, RVE

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8 Anthropology of Women and War (1979-1988) in Iran: The Role of Islamic Republic Media

Authors: Mina Dousti

Abstract:

Like many women worldwide, and especially those living in the Middle East, Iranian women are struggling to have equal rights as men. The Islamic Republic regime, established in 1979, made this path even more difficult for Iranian women. Media and the Islamic Republic's powerful propaganda are the main factors and advertisers in omitting women's social rights and civic activities. Also, the hijab (veil), which became obligatory immediately after the revolution based on the Qur'an and religious Hadiths, was another way of suppressing women. Since the Islamic Republic Revolution and the following Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988), the Iranian female community has been experiencing different social and legal challenges. Aside from the Islamic regime's role in ignoring women, their families have also contributed to this limitation via unreasonable zeals and religious prejudices. Subsequently, all these factors led to pushing Iranian women to the corner and public dormancy. During the eight-year war, many Iranian women directly participated in the war front line. Although they became martyred, the regime intentionally ignored their public presence employing Islamic justifications and Sharia as an excuse. The government did these actions to justify censorship and unfairness toward women.

Keywords: Iranian women, Islamic Republic Regime, hijab, revolution, Iran-Iraq war, Martyr

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7 Three Dimensional Simulation of the Transient Modeling and Simulation of Different Gas Flows Velocity and Flow Distribution in Catalytic Converter with Porous Media

Authors: Amir Reza Radmanesh, Sina Farajzadeh Khosroshahi, Hani Sadr

Abstract:

The transient catalytic converter performance is governed by complex interactions between exhaust gas flow and the monolithic structure of the catalytic converter. Stringent emission regulations around the world necessitate the use of highly-efficient catalytic converters in vehicle exhaust systems. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a powerful tool for calculating the flow field inside the catalytic converter. Radial velocity profiles, obtained by a commercial CFD code, present very good agreement with respective experimental results published in the literature. However the applicability of CFD for transient simulations is limited by the high CPU demands. In the present work, Geometric modeling ceramic monolith substrate is done with square shaped channel type of Catalytic converter and it is coated platinum and palladium. This example illustrates the effect of flow distribution on thermal response of a catalytic converter and different gas flow velocities, during the critical phase of catalytic converter warm up.

Keywords: catalytic converter, computational fluid dynamic, porous media, velocity distribution

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6 A Numerical Method to Evaluate the Elastoplastic Material Properties of Fiber Reinforced Composite

Authors: M. Palizvan, M. H. Sadr, M. T. Abadi

Abstract:

The representative volume element (RVE) plays a central role in the mechanics of random heterogeneous materials with a view to predicting their effective properties. In this paper, a computational homogenization methodology, developed to determine effective linear elastic properties of composite materials, is extended to predict the effective nonlinear elastoplastic response of long fiber reinforced composite. Finite element simulations of volumes of different sizes and fiber volume fractures are performed for calculation of the overall response RVE. The dependencies of the overall stress-strain curves on the number of fibers inside the RVE are studied in the 2D cases. Volume averaged stress-strain responses are generated from RVEs and compared with the finite element calculations available in the literature at moderate and high fiber volume fractions. For these materials, the existence of an RVE is demonstrated for the sizes of RVE corresponding to 10–100 times the diameter of the fibers. In addition, the response of small size RVE is found anisotropic, whereas the average of all large ones leads to recover the isotropic material properties.

Keywords: homogenization, periodic boundary condition, elastoplastic properties, RVE

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5 Interpreting the Conflicted Self: A Reading of Agha Shahid Ali's Verses

Authors: Javeria Khurshid

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to bring forth the interpretation that Agha Shahid Ali in his verses exhibits. The study will focus on the conflict and chaos in his verses, reflecting the sense of identity attached to Kashmir. His verse advertently depicts the political turmoil and social dissent in the 'un-silent' valley, and ultimately, it expresses the chaos, anguish, and suffering, a sense of longing and belonging to this conflicted state of 'being' as well as 'mind.' Agha Shahid Ali, Kashmiri- American poet who writes of Kashmiri tragedies that continue to remain unarticulated and unheard to the major parts of world, articulates the narrative that showcases the conflicted self of Kashmiris in general and Ali’s in particular. The focus of the paper will be his poetry that debunks the claims of civility and how Kashmiri identity is kept either maligned or obscured in the major narratives that arise from the mainstream writers. However, Ali’s verses are substantially broad and clear, and very brilliantly, he rewrites Kashmir in his avid and novel voice, his verses embracing the Kashmiri self, effectively anew in English language. The paper will clearly indicate how Ali remains true to his name, 'shaheed' and 'shahid,' both a martyr and witness. Ali’s fate has been intricately entangled with Kashmir, even after his untimely death. He has fully and beautifully immersed himself in the surreal world of the conflict prevalent in the Valley, and this paper will examine the grotesque and gory history that has been spanning over the years in Kashmir with never ending cycle of conflict. The originality and innovation of his poetry surfaces from the anarchy of Kashmir, spanning between its culture, historical context, the art of memory and imagery.

Keywords: identity, self, turmoil, Kashmir

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4 The Impact of Two Factors on EFL Learners' Fluency

Authors: Alireza Behfar, Mohammad Mahdavi

Abstract:

Nowadays, in the light of progress in the world of science, technology and communications, mastery of learning international languages is a sure and needful matter. In learning any language as a second language, progress and achieving a desirable level in speaking is indeed important for approximately all learners. In this research, we find out how preparation can influence L2 learners' oral fluency with respect to individual differences in working memory capacity. The participants consisted of sixty-one advanced L2 learners including MA students of TEFL at Isfahan University as well as instructors teaching English at Sadr Institute in Isfahan. The data collection consisted of two phases: A working memory test (reading span test) and a picture description task, with a one-month interval between the two tasks. Speaking was elicited through speech generation task in which the individuals were asked to discuss four topics emerging in two pairs. The two pairs included one simple and one complex topic and was accompanied by planning time and without any planning time respectively. Each topic was accompanied by several relevant pictures. L2 fluency was assessed based on preparation. The data were then analyzed in terms of the number of syllables, the number of silent pauses, and the mean length of pauses produced per minute. The study offers implications for strategies to improve learners’ both fluency and working memory.

Keywords: two factors, fluency, working memory capacity, preparation, L2 speech production reading span test picture description

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3 The Representation of the Medieval Idea of Ugliness in Messiaen's Saint François d’Assise

Authors: Nana Katsia

Abstract:

This paper explores the ways both medieval and medievalist conceptions of ugliness might be linked to the physical and spiritual transformation of the protagonists and how it is realised through specific musical rhythm, such as the dochmiac rhythm in the opera. As Eco and Henderson note, only one kind of ugliness could be represented in conformity with nature in the Middle Ages without destroying all aesthetic pleasure and, in turn, artistic beauty: namely, a form of ugliness which arouses disgust. Moreover, Eco explores the fact that the enemies of Christ who condemn, martyr, and crucify him are represented as wicked inside. In turn, the representation of inner wickedness and hostility toward God brings with it outward ugliness, coarseness, barbarity, and rage. Ultimately these result in the deformation of the figure. In all these regards, the non-beautiful is represented here as a necessary phase, which is not the case with classical (the ancient Greek) concepts of Beauty. As we can see, the understanding of disfigurement and ugliness in the Middle Ages was both varied and complex. In the Middle Ages, the disfigurement caused by leprosy (and other skin and bodily conditions) was interpreted, in a somewhat contradictory manner, as both a curse and a gift from God. Some saints’ lives even have the saint appealing to be inflicted with the disease as part of their mission toward true humility. We shall explore that this ‘different concept’ of ugliness (non-classical beauty) might be represented in Messiaen’s opera. According to Messiaen, the Leper and Saint François are the principal characters of the third scene, as both of them will be transformed, and a double miracle will take place in the process. Messiaen mirrors the idea of the true humility of Saint’s life and positions Le Baiser au Lépreux as the culmination of the first act. The Leper’s character represents his physical and spiritual disfigurement, which are healed after the miracle. So, the scene can be viewed as an encounter between beauty and ugliness, and that much of it is spent in a study of ugliness. Dochmiac rhythm is one of the most important compositional elements in the opera. It plays a crucial role in the process of creating a dramatic musical narrative and structure in the composition. As such, we shall explore how Messiaen represents the medieval idea of ugliness in the opera through particular musical elements linked to the main protagonists’ spiritual or physical ugliness; why Messiaen makes reference to dochmiac rhythm, and how they create the musical and dramatic context in the opera for the medieval aesthetic category of ugliness.

Keywords: ugliness in music, medieval time, saint françois d’assise, messiaen

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2 Results of Operation of Online Medical Care System

Authors: Mahsa Houshdar, Seyed Mehdi Samimi Ardestani , ُSeyed Saeed Sadr

Abstract:

Introduction: Online Medicare is a method in which parts of a medical process - whether its diagnostics, monitoring or the treatment itself will be done by using online services. This system has been operated in one boy’s high school, one girl’s high school and one high school in deprived aria. Method: At the first step the students registered for using the system. It was not mandatory and not free. They participated in estimating depression scale, anxiety scale and clinical interview by online medical care system. During this estimation, we could find the existence and severity of depression and anxiety in each one of the participants, also we could find the consequent needs of each one, such as supportive therapy in mild depression or anxiety, need to visited by psychologist in moderate cases, need to visited by psychiatrist in moderate-severe cases, need to visited by psychiatrist and psychologist in severe cases and need to perform medical lab examination tests. The lab examination tests were performed on persons specified by the system. The lab examinations were included: serum level of vitamin D, serum level of vitamin B12, serum level of calcium, fasting blood sugar, HbA1c, thyroid function tests and CBC. All of the students were solely treated by vitamins or minerals therapy and/ or treatment of medical problem (such as hypothyroidism). After a few months, we came back to high schools and estimated the existence and severity of depression and anxiety in treated students. With comparing these results, the affectability of the system could be prof. Results: Totally, we operate this project in 1077 participants in 243 of participant, the lab examination test were performed. In girls high schools: the existence and severity of depression significantly deceased (P value= 0.018<0.05 & P value 0.004< 0.05), but results about anxiety was not significant. In boys high schools: the existence and severity of depression significantly decreased (P value= 0.023<0.05 & P value = 0.004< 0.05 & P value= 0.049< 0.05). In boys high schools: the existence and severity of anxiety significantly decreased (P value= 0.041<0.05 & P value = 0.046< 0.05 &) but in one high school results about anxiety was not significant. In high school in deprived area the students did not have any problem paying for participating in the project, but they could not pay for medical lab examination tests. Thus, operation of the system was not possible in deprived area without a sponsor. Conclusion: This online medical system was successful in creating medical and psychiatric profile without attending physician. It was successful in decreasing depression without using antidepressants, but it was partially successful in decreasing anxiety.

Keywords: depression, diabetes, online medicare, vitamin D deficiency

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1 The Effect of Information vs. Reasoning Gap Tasks on the Frequency of Conversational Strategies and Accuracy in Speaking among Iranian Intermediate EFL Learners

Authors: Hooriya Sadr Dadras, Shiva Seyed Erfani

Abstract:

Speaking skills merit meticulous attention both on the side of the learners and the teachers. In particular, accuracy is a critical component to guarantee the messages to be conveyed through conversation because a wrongful change may adversely alter the content and purpose of the talk. Different types of tasks have served teachers to meet numerous educational objectives. Besides, negotiation of meaning and the use of different strategies have been areas of concern in socio-cultural theories of SLA. Negotiation of meaning is among the conversational processes which have a crucial role in facilitating the understanding and expression of meaning in a given second language. Conversational strategies are used during interaction when there is a breakdown in communication that leads to the interlocutor attempting to remedy the gap through talk. Therefore, this study was an attempt to investigate if there was any significant difference between the effect of reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks on the frequency of conversational strategies used in negotiation of meaning in classrooms on one hand, and on the accuracy in speaking of Iranian intermediate EFL learners on the other. After a pilot study to check the practicality of the treatments, at the outset of the main study, the Preliminary English Test was administered to ensure the homogeneity of 87 out of 107 participants who attended the intact classes of a 15 session term in one control and two experimental groups. Also, speaking sections of PET were used as pretest and posttest to examine their speaking accuracy. The tests were recorded and transcribed to estimate the percentage of the number of the clauses with no grammatical errors in the total produced clauses to measure the speaking accuracy. In all groups, the grammatical points of accuracy were instructed and the use of conversational strategies was practiced. Then, different kinds of reasoning gap tasks (matchmaking, deciding on the course of action, and working out a time table) and information gap tasks (restoring an incomplete chart, spot the differences, arranging sentences into stories, and guessing game) were manipulated in experimental groups during treatment sessions, and the students were required to practice conversational strategies when doing speaking tasks. The conversations throughout the terms were recorded and transcribed to count the frequency of the conversational strategies used in all groups. The results of statistical analysis demonstrated that applying both the reasoning gap tasks and information gap tasks significantly affected the frequency of conversational strategies through negotiation. In the face of the improvements, the reasoning gap tasks had a more significant impact on encouraging the negotiation of meaning and increasing the number of conversational frequencies every session. The findings also indicated both task types could help learners significantly improve their speaking accuracy. Here, applying the reasoning gap tasks was more effective than the information gap tasks in improving the level of learners’ speaking accuracy.

Keywords: accuracy in speaking, conversational strategies, information gap tasks, reasoning gap tasks

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