Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 138

Search results for: Marc J. Louise Caballes

138 Development of a Feedback Control System for a Lab-Scale Biomass Combustion System Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: Samuel O. Alamu, Seong W. Lee, Blaise Kalmia, Marc J. Louise Caballes, Xuejun Qian

Abstract:

The application of combustion technologies for thermal conversion of biomass and solid wastes to energy has been a major solution to the effective handling of wastes over a long period of time. Lab-scale biomass combustion systems have been observed to be economically viable and socially acceptable, but major concerns are the environmental impacts of the process and deviation of temperature distribution within the combustion chamber. Both high and low combustion chamber temperature may affect the overall combustion efficiency and gaseous emissions. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop a control system which measures the deviations of chamber temperature from set target values, sends these deviations (which generates disturbances in the system) in the form of feedback signal (as input), and control operating conditions for correcting the errors. In this research study, major components of the feedback control system were determined, assembled, and tested. In addition, control algorithms were developed to actuate operating conditions (e.g., air velocity, fuel feeding rate) using ladder logic functions embedded in the Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). The developed control algorithm having chamber temperature as a feedback signal is integrated into the lab-scale swirling fluidized bed combustor (SFBC) to investigate the temperature distribution at different heights of the combustion chamber based on various operating conditions. The air blower rates and the fuel feeding rates obtained from automatic control operations were correlated with manual inputs. There was no observable difference in the correlated results, thus indicating that the written PLC program functions were adequate in designing the experimental study of the lab-scale SFBC. The experimental results were analyzed to study the effect of air velocity operating at 222-273 ft/min and fuel feeding rate of 60-90 rpm on the chamber temperature. The developed temperature-based feedback control system was shown to be adequate in controlling the airflow and the fuel feeding rate for the overall biomass combustion process as it helps to minimize the steady-state error.

Keywords: air flow, biomass combustion, feedback control signal, fuel feeding, ladder logic, programmable logic controller, temperature

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
137 Characteristic of Ta Alloy Coating Films on Near-Net Shape with Different Current Densities Using MARC Process

Authors: Young Jun Lee, Tae Hyuk Lee, Kyoung Tae Park, Jong Hyeon Lee

Abstract:

The harsh atmosphere of the sulfur-iodine process used for producing hydrogen requires better corrosion resistance and mechanical properties that is possible to obtain with pure tantalum. Ta-W alloy is superior to pure tantalum but is difficult to alloy due to its high melting temperature. In this study, substrates of near-net shape (Swagelok® tube ISSG8UT4) were coated with Ta-W using the multi-anode reactive alloy coating (MARC) process in molten salt (LiF-NaF-K2TaF7) at different current densities (1, 2 and 4mA/cm2). Ta-4W coating films of uniform coating thicknesses, without any entrapped salt, were successfully deposited on Swagelok tube by electrodeposition at 1 mA/cm2. The resulting coated film with a corrosion rate of less than 0.011 mm/year was attained in hydriodic acid at 160°C, and hardness up to 12.9 % stronger than pure tantalum coated film. The alloy coating films also contributed to significant enhancement of corrosion resistance.

Keywords: tantalum, tantalum alloy, tungsten alloy, electroplating

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
136 Stability of Total Phenolic Concentration and Antioxidant Capacity of Extracts from Pomegranate Co-Products Subjected to In vitro Digestion

Authors: Olaniyi Fawole, Umezuruike Opara

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Co-products obtained from pomegranate juice processing contain high levels of polyphenols with potential high added values. From value-addition viewpoint, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of polyphenolic concentrations in pomegranate fruit co-products in different solvent extracts and assess the effect on the total antioxidant capacity using the FRAP, DPPH˙ and ABTS˙+ assays during simulated in vitro digestion. Pomegranate juice, marc and peel were extracted in water, 50% ethanol (50%EtOH) and absolute ethanol (100%EtOH) and analysed for total phenolic concentration (TPC), total flavonoids concentration (TFC) and total antioxidant capacity in DPPH˙, ABST˙+ and FRAP assays before and after in vitro digestion. Total phenolic concentration (TPC) and total flavonoid concentration (TFC) were in the order of peel > marc > juice throughout the in vitro digestion irrespective of the extraction solvents used. However, 50% ethanol extracted 1.1 to 12-fold more polyphenols than water and ethanol solvents depending on co-products. TPC and TFC increased significantly in gastric digests. In contrast, after the duodenal, polyphenolic concentrations decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared to those obtained in gastric digests. Undigested samples and gastric digests showed strong and positive relationships between polyphenols and the antioxidant activities measured in DPPH, ABTS and FRAP assays, with correlation coefficients (r2) ranging between 0.930 – 0.990 whereas, the correlation between polyphenols (TPC and TFC) and radical cation scavenging activity (in ABTS) were moderately positive in duodenal digests. Findings from this study also showed that the concentration of pomegranate polyphenols and antioxidant thereof during in vitro gastro-intestinal digestion may not reflect the pre-digested phenolic concentration. Thus, this study highlights the need to provide biologically relevant information on antioxidants by providing data reflecting their stability and activity after in vitro digestion.

Keywords: by-product, DPPH, polyphenols, value addition

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
135 Effect of High-Pressure and Thermal Treatments on Quality Markers of Strawberry Nectars

Authors: Karen Louise Lacey, Dario Javier Pavon Vargas, Massimiliano Rinaldi, Luca Cattani, Sara Rainieri

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The effects of high-pressure processing (HPP) and thermal treatments (TT) on quality markers of strawberry nectar (12 °Brix, 3,3 pH) was studied before and after treatments. TT and HPP treatments ensured a 3-log aerobic bacteria inactivation. No significant difference was detected in terms of pH and °Brix. TT samples were less red (a* less positive) than all HPP treated samples, while all samples were less red than the control. Apparent viscosity was significantly increased in all the HPP treatments, at 10 1/s shear rate, control was 79.04±7.94 mPa•s and the 600 MPa-20 min treatment were 327.10±1.64 mPa•s. This work suggests that HPP treatments may maintain the quality markers of strawberry nectar better.

Keywords: HPP, strawberry nectar, colour , viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
134 Net Neutrality and Asymmetric Platform Competition

Authors: Romain Lestage, Marc Bourreau

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In this paper we analyze the interplay between access to the last-mile network and net neutrality in the market for Internet access. We consider two Internet Service Providers (ISPs), which act as platforms between Internet users and Content Providers (CPs). One of the ISPs is vertically integrated and provides access to its last-mile network to the other (non-integrated) ISP. We show that a lower access price increases the integrated ISP's incentives to charge CPs positive termination fees (i.e., to deviate from net neutrality), and decreases the non-integrated ISP's incentives to charge positive termination fees.

Keywords: net neutrality, access regulation, internet access, two-sided markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
133 Processing Mild versus Strong Violations in Music: A Pilot Study Using Event-Related Potentials

Authors: Marie-Eve Joret, Marijn Van Vliet, Flavio Camarrone, Marc M. Van Hulle

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Event-related potentials (ERPs) provide evidence that the human brain can process and understand music at a pre-attentive level. Music-specific ERPs include the Early Right Anterior Negativity (ERAN) and a late Negativity (N5). This study aims to further investigate this issue using two types of syntactic manipulations in music: mild violations, containing no out-of-key tones and strong violations, containing out-of-key tones. We will examine whether both manipulations will elicit the same ERPs.

Keywords: ERAN ERPs, Music, N5, P3, ERPs, Music, N5 component, P3 component

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
132 Role of Discrete Event Simulation in the Assessment and Selection of the Potential Reconfigurable Manufacturing Solutions

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Arne Bilberg, Thomas Ditlev Brunø, Ann-Louise Andersen, Filip SKärin

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Shifting from a dedicated or flexible manufacturing system to a reconfigurable manufacturing system (RMS) requires a significant amount of time, money, and effort. Therefore, it is vital to verify beforehand that the potential reconfigurable solution will be able to achieve the organizational objectives. Discrete event simulation offers the opportunity of assessing several reconfigurable alternatives against the set objectives. This study signifies the importance of using discrete-event simulation as a tool to verify several reconfiguration options. Two different industrial cases have been presented in the study to elaborate on the role of discrete event simulation in the implementation methodology of RMSs. The study concluded that discrete event simulation is one of the important tools to consider in the RMS implementation methodology.

Keywords: reconfigurable manufacturing system, discrete event simulation, Tecnomatix plant simulation, RMS

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131 Detection and Tracking Approach Using an Automotive Radar to Increase Active Pedestrian Safety

Authors: Michael Heuer, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Alexander Rain, Marc-Michael Meinecke

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Vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians, have a high impact on fatal accident numbers. To reduce these statistics, car manufactures are intensively developing suitable safety systems. Hereby, fast and reliable environment recognition is a major challenge. In this paper we describe a tracking approach that is only based on a 24 GHz radar sensor. While common radar signal processing loses much information, we make use of a track-before-detect filter to incorporate raw measurements. It is explained how the Range-Doppler spectrum can help to indicated pedestrians and stabilize tracking even in occultation scenarios compared to sensors in series.

Keywords: radar, pedestrian detection, active safety, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
130 Identification of Configuration Space Singularities with Local Real Algebraic Geometry

Authors: Marc Diesse, Hochschule Heilbronn

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We address the question of identifying the configuration space singularities of linkages, i.e., points where the configuration space is not locally a submanifold of Euclidean space. Because the configuration space cannot be smoothly parameterized at such points, these singularity types have a significantly negative impact on the kinematics of the linkage. It is known that Jacobian methods do not provide sufficient conditions for the existence of CS-singularities. Herein, we present several additional algebraic criteria that provide the sufficient conditions. Further, we use those criteria to analyze certain classes of planar linkages. These examples will also show how the presented criteria can be checked using algorithmic methods.

Keywords: linkages, configuration space-singularities, real algebraic geometry, analytic geometry

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
129 Potential Biosorption of Rhodococcus erythropolis, an Isolated Strain from Sossego Copper Mine, Brazil

Authors: Marcela dos P. G. Baltazar, Louise H. Gracioso, Luciana J. Gimenes, Bruno Karolski, Ingrid Avanzi, Elen A. Perpetuo

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In this work, bacterial strains were isolated from environmental samples from a copper mine and three of them presented potential for bioremediation of copper. All the strains were identified by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-Biotyper) and grown in three diferent media supplemented with 100 ppm of copper chloride in flasks of 500mL and it was incubated at 28 °C and 180 rpm. Periodically, samples were taken and monitored for cellular growth and copper biosorption by spectrophotometer UV-Vis (600 nm) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES), respectively. At the end of exponential phase of cellular growth, the biomass was utilized to construct a correlation curve between absorbance and dry mass of the cells. Among the three isolates with potential for biorremediation, 1 strain exhibit capacity the most for bioremediation of effluents contaminated by copper being identified as Rhodococcus erythropolis.

Keywords: bioprocess, bioremediation, biosorption, copper

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
128 Assessment of Online Web-Based Learning for Enhancing Student Grades in Chemistry

Authors: Ian Marc Gealon Cabugsa, Eleanor Pastrano Corcino, Gina Lapaza Montalan

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This study focused on the effect of Online Web-Learning (OWL) in the performance of the freshmen Civil Engineering Students of Ateneo de Davao University in their Chem 12 subject. The grades of the students that were required to use OWL were compared to students without OWL. The result of the study suggests promising result for the use of OWL in increasing the performance rate of students taking up Chem 12. Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between the final grade and OWL grade of the students that had OWL. While the majority of the students find OWL to be helpful in supporting their chemistry knowledge needs, most of them still prefer to learn using the traditional face-to-face instruction.

Keywords: chemistry education, enhanced performance, engineering chemistry, online web-based learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
127 A Quantitative Structure-Adsorption Study on Novel and Emerging Adsorbent Materials

Authors: Marc Sader, Michiel Stock, Bernard De Baets

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Considering a large amount of adsorption data of adsorbate gases on adsorbent materials in literature, it is interesting to predict such adsorption data without experimentation. A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) is developed to correlate molecular characteristics of gases and existing knowledge of materials with their respective adsorption properties. The application of Random Forest, a machine learning method, on a set of adsorption isotherms at a wide range of partial pressures and concentrations is studied. The predicted adsorption isotherms are fitted to several adsorption equations to estimate the adsorption properties. To impute the adsorption properties of desired gases on desired materials, leave-one-out cross-validation is employed. Extensive experimental results for a range of settings are reported.

Keywords: adsorption, predictive modeling, QSAR, random forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
126 Polyphenols from Winery Wastes as Potential Source of Antioxidants

Authors: Lucia Gharwalova, Irena Kolouchova, Jan Masak

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A large amount of waste products is generated throughout the whole winemaking process as well as during work in the vineyard. This waste is as a source of phenolic compounds, such as resveratrol and polydatin, which possess a strong antioxidant capacity. Changes in the amounts of phenols were compared depending on the growing conditions and wine variety. Wastes (grape stems, marc and shoots) from two wineries in the Czech Republic were analyzed. Phenols from these samples were extracted by 40% ethanol. The amount of polyphenols in these extracts was determined by HPLC and their antioxidant capacity by DPPH. We compared changes in the amounts of phenols depending on the type of waste and the wine variety. The most significant source of stilbenoids was waste from pruning (shoots). These results show that winery waste could be further reused thanks to their antioxidant content.

Keywords: antioxidants, polyphenols, resveratrol, winery waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 261
125 The World Heritage List: A Big Data Spatial Econometrics Approach to Sites Promoting the Brand

Authors: David Wuepper, Marc Patry

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UNESCO’s World Heritage program requests the inscribed locations to promote the World Heritage brand by clearly presenting information about it on-site. Based on feedback from over 319,000 visitors at 791 locations, we create an index that shows how much the World Heritage sites actually brand themselves as such. We find great heterogeneity throughout the list and explain this econometrically mostly with the economic benefit for the sites but also with cultural brand preferences, which are highest in Asia, followed by Europe and North America. We also find a positive relationship between World Heritage branding and conservation status and a U-shaped relationship between visitor numbers and WH branding. Based on our findings, we recommend to make clear World Heritage branding mandatory for all sites.

Keywords: UNESCO World Heritage, collective brand, cultural tourism, heritage conservation, brand equity, spatial econometrics

Procedia PDF Downloads 429
124 Effect of Edta in the Phytoextraction of Copper by Terminalia catappa (Talisay) Linnaeus

Authors: Ian Marc G. Cabugsa, Zarine M. Hermita

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Phytoextraction capability of T. catappa in contaminated soils was done in the improvised greenhouse. The plant samples were planted to the soil which contained different concentrations of copper. Chelating agent EDTA was added to observe the uptake and translocation of copper in the plant samples. Results showed a significant increase of copper accumulation with the addition of EDTA at 250 and 1250 mgˑkg-1 concentration of copper in the contaminated soils (p<0.05). While translocation of copper was observed in all treatments, translocation of copper is not significantly enhanced by the addition of EDTA (p>0.05). Uptake and translocation were not directly affected the presence of EDTA. Furthermore, this study suggests that the T. catappa is not a hyperaccumulator of copper, and there is no relationship observed between the length of the plant and the copper uptake in all treatments.

Keywords: chelating agent EDTA, hyperaccumulator, phytoextraction, phytoremediation, terminalia catappa

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
123 Cryptocurrencies: Business Students’ Awareness and Universities’ Adoption Readiness and Compatibility of Use Considering the Mediation of Attitudes

Authors: Eric S. Parilla, Marc Edward Abadilla

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The study aims to determine the effect of awareness of business students towards cryptocurrencies and the readiness of universities and colleges to accept cryptocurrencies as a medium of exchange, considering the mediation of business students’ attitudes. The research used partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) and deployed a questionnaire attuned to the awareness and attitudes of business students towards cryptocurrencies and readiness and compatibility of use in universities and colleges in Ilocos Norte. The output of the investigation revealed that awareness of business students is not correlated to the readiness of universities and colleges, which means that even though students understand cryptocurrencies, it is not an assurance that universities and colleges are ready to accept them as the medium of exchange. The study proposes that training and seminars for business students and professionals should be conducted to expand understanding and acceptance of cryptocurrencies.

Keywords: cryptocurrencies, awareness, readiness, attitudes

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122 Valorization of Natural Vegetable Substances from Tunisia: Purification of Two Food Additives, Anthocyanins and Locust Bean Gum

Authors: N. Bouzouita, A. Snoussi , H. Ben Haj Koubaier, I. Essaidi, M. M. Chaabouni, S. Zgoulli, P. Thonart

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Color is one of the most important quality attributes for the food industry. Grape marc, a complex lignocellulosic material is one of the most abundant and worth less byproduct, generated after the pressing process. The development of the process of purification by micro filtration, ultra filtration, nano filtration and drying by atomization of the anthocyanins of Tunisian origin is the aim of this work. Locust bean gum is the ground endosperm of the seeds of carob fruit; owing to its remarkable water-binding properties, it is widely used to improve the texture of food and largely employed in food industry. The purification of LGB causes drastically reduced ash and proteins contents but important increase for galactomannan.

Keywords: Carob, food additives, grape pomace, locust bean gum, natural colorant, nano filtration, thickener, ultra filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
121 O.MG- It’s a Cyber-Enabled Fraud

Authors: Damola O. Lawal, David W. Gresty, Diane E. Gan, Louise Hewitt

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This paper investigates the feasibility of using a programmable USB such as the O.MG Cable to perform a file tampering attack. Here, the O.MG Cable, an apparently harmless mobile device charger, is used in an unauthorized way to alter the content of a file (accounts record-January_Contributions.xlsx). The aim is to determine if a forensics analyst can reliably determine who has altered the target file; the O.MG Cable or the user of the machine. This work highlights some of the traces of the O.MG Cable left behind on the target computer itself, such as the Product ID (PID) and Vendor ID (ID). Also discussed is the O.MG Cable’s behavior during the experiments. We determine if a forensics analyst could identify if any evidence has been left behind by the programmable device on the target file once it has been removed from the computer to establish if the analyst would be able to link the traces left by the O.MG Cable to the file tampering. It was discovered that the forensic analyst might mistake the actions of the O.MG Cable for the computer users. Experiments carried out in this work could further the discussion as to whether an innocent user could be punished for the unauthorized changes made by a programmable device.

Keywords: O.MG cable, programmable USB, file tampering attack, digital evidence credibility, miscarriage of justice, cyber fraud

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
120 Identification of Soft Faults in Branched Wire Networks by Distributed Reflectometry and Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Soumaya Sallem, Marc Olivas

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This contribution presents a method for detecting, locating, and characterizing soft faults in a complex wired network. The proposed method is based on multi-carrier reflectometry MCTDR (Multi-Carrier Time Domain Reflectometry) combined with a multi-objective genetic algorithm. In order to ensure complete network coverage and eliminate diagnosis ambiguities, the MCTDR test signal is injected at several points on the network, and the data is merged between different reflectometers (sensors) distributed on the network. An adapted multi-objective genetic algorithm is used to merge data in order to obtain more accurate faults location and characterization. The proposed method performances are evaluated from numerical and experimental results.

Keywords: wired network, reflectometry, network distributed diagnosis, multi-objective genetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
119 Towards Better Quality in Healthcare and Operations Management: A Developmental Literature Review

Authors: Marc Dorval, Marie-Hélène Jobin

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This work presents the various perspectives, dimensions, components and definitions given to quality in the operations management (OM) and healthcare services (HCS) literature in time, highlighting gaps and learning opportunities between the two disciplines through a thorough search into their rich and distinct body of knowledge. Greater and new insights about the general nature of quality are obtained with findings such as in OM, quality has been approached in six fairly distinct paradigms (excellence, value, conformity to specifications, attributes, satisfaction and meeting or exceeding customer expectations), whereas in HCS, two approaches are prominent (Donabedian’s structure, process and outcomes model and Lohr and Schroeder’s circumscribed definition). The two disciplines views on quality seem to have progressed much in parallel with little cross-learning from each other. This work then proposes an encompassing definition of quality as a lever and suggests further research and development avenues for a better use of the concept of quality by academics and practitioners alike toward the goals of greater organizational performance and improved management in healthcare and possibly other service domains.

Keywords: healthcare, management, operations, quality, services

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
118 Corporate Social Responsibility Practices and Financial Performance: The Case of French Unlisted SMEs

Authors: Zineb Abidi, Marc-Arthur Diaye

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There exists a large empirical literature concerning the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and corporate financial performance. This literature, however, applies mainly to large corporations and/or listed firms. To the best of our knowledge, the question of whether meeting CSR requirements impacts the financial performance of small and medium-sized unlisted SMEs has not so far been analyzed. This paper aims to analyze, for the first time, the effect of CSR on the financial performance of SMEs. Using an original database including 5,257 French SMEs, we show that adopting CSR practices has a positive but weak effect on a firm’s financial performance. To develop this further, we analyzed CSR practices interactions assessing the best combination of CSR components that positively influence SME financial performance. Our results show that French SMEs benefit more from their pro-social behavior when they choose a combination of CSR components best adapted to their individual characteristics.

Keywords: corporate social responsibility, financial performance, unlisted firms, SMEs

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
117 Educating Children Who Are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in Southern Africa: Challenges and Triumphs

Authors: Emma Louise McKinney

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There is a global move to integrate children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired into regular classrooms with their hearing peers with an inclusive education framework. This paper examines the current education situation for children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in South Africa, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Qualitative data for this paper was obtained from the author’s experiences working as the Southern African Education Advisor for an international organization funding disability projects. It examines some of the challenges facing these children and their teachers relating to education. Challenges include cultural stigma relating to disability and deafness, a lack of hearing screening and early identification of deafness, schools in rural areas, special schools, specialist teacher training, equipment, understanding of how to implement policy, support, appropriate teaching methodologies, and sign language training and proficiency. On the other hand, in spite of the challenges some teachers are able to provide quality education to children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired. This paper examines both the challenges as well as what teachers are doing to overcome these.

Keywords: education of children who are deaf and hearing impaired, Southern African experiences, challenges, triumphs

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
116 Improving Cyber Resilience in Mobile Field Hospitals: Towards an Assessment Model

Authors: Nasir Baba Ahmed, Nicolas Daclin, Marc Olivaux, Gilles Dusserre

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The Mobile field hospital is critical in terms of managing emergencies in crisis. It is a sub-section of the main hospitals and the health sector, tasked with delivering responsive, immediate, and efficient medical services during a crisis. With the aim to prevent further crisis, the assessment of the cyber assets follows different methods, to distinguish its strengths and weaknesses, and in turn achieve cyber resiliency. The work focuses on assessments of cyber resilience in field hospitals with trends growing in both the field hospital and the health sector in general. This creates opportunities for the adverse attackers and the response improvement objectives for attaining cyber resilience, as the assessments allow users and stakeholders to know the level of risks with regards to its cyber assets. Thus, the purpose is to show the possible threat vectors which open up opportunities, with contrast to current trends in the assessment of the mobile field hospitals’ cyber assets.

Keywords: assessment framework, cyber resilience, cyber security, mobile field hospital

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
115 Regulation of PKA-Dependent Calcineurin as a Switch in Cell Secretion

Authors: Hani M. M. Alothaid, Louise Robson, Richmond Muimo

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This study will investigate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) dependent calcineurin (Cn), known as protein phosphatase 2 B (PP2B) as well, regulation of chloride ion (Cl⁻) secretion and the release of pro-inflammatory molecules in immune cells such as cytokines. THP-1-derived monocytes, primary human monocytes and the bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) were used in this study. The 16HBE14o- cells were chosen as positive control. Hence, to further confirm the expression of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), calcium binding protein (S100A10), annexin A2 (AnxA2) and calcineurin A subunit (CnA) in all three cell types, cell lysate was probed against corresponding primary antibodies by immunoblotting. Western blot analyses show the expression of CFTR, AnxA2, CnA and S100A10 in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes. In conclusion, CFTR, S100A10, CnA and AnxA2 are expressed in THP-1-derived monocytes and primary human monocytes and regulate Cl⁻ secretion. Also, they may play a role in the pro-inflammatory molecules release. The ongoing work will confirm interaction between these proteins in the cell lines.

Keywords: annexin A2, calcineurin, CFTR, chloride, monocytes, pro-inflammatory molecules, S100A10

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
114 Understanding Health-Related Properties of Grapes by Pharmacokinetic Modelling of Intestinal Absorption

Authors: Sophie N. Selby-Pham, Yudie Wang, Louise Bennett

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Consumption of grapes promotes health and reduces the risk of chronic diseases due to the action of grape phytochemicals in regulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation (OSI). The bioefficacy of phytochemicals depends on their absorption in the human body. The time required for phytochemicals to achieve maximal plasma concentration (Tₘₐₓ) after oral intake reflects the time window of maximal bioefficacy of phytochemicals, with Tₘₐₓ dependent on physicochemical properties of phytochemicals. This research collated physicochemical properties of grape phytochemicals from white and red grapes to predict their Tₘₐₓ using pharmacokinetic modelling. The predicted values of Tₘₐₓ were then compared to the measured Tₘₐₓ collected from clinical studies to determine the accuracy of prediction. In both liquid and solid intake forms, white grapes exhibit a shorter Tₘₐₓ range (0.5-2.5 h) versus red grapes (1.5-5h). The prediction accuracy of Tₘₐₓ for grape phytochemicals was 33.3% total error of prediction compared to the mean, indicating high prediction accuracy. Pharmacokinetic modelling allows prediction of Tₘₐₓ without costly clinical trials, informing dosing frequency for sustained presence of phytochemicals in the body to optimize the health benefits of phytochemicals.

Keywords: absorption kinetics, phytochemical, phytochemical absorption prediction model, Vitis vinifera

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
113 Development of an Efficient Algorithm for Cessna Citation X Speed Optimization in Cruise

Authors: Georges Ghazi, Marc-Henry Devillers, Ruxandra M. Botez

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Aircraft flight trajectory optimization has been identified to be a promising solution for reducing both airline costs and the aviation net carbon footprint. Nowadays, this role has been mainly attributed to the flight management system. This system is an onboard multi-purpose computer responsible for providing the crew members with the optimized flight plan from a destination to the next. To accomplish this function, the flight management system uses a variety of look-up tables to compute the optimal speed and altitude for each flight regime instantly. Because the cruise is the longest segment of a typical flight, the proposed algorithm is focused on minimizing fuel consumption for this flight phase. In this paper, a complete methodology to estimate the aircraft performance and subsequently compute the optimal speed in cruise is presented. Results showed that the obtained performance database was accurate enough to predict the flight costs associated with the cruise phase.

Keywords: Cessna Citation X, cruise speed optimization, flight cost, cost index, and golden section search

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
112 Iron Extraction from Bog Iron Ore in Early French Colonial America

Authors: Yves Monette, Brad Loewen, Louise Pothier

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This study explores the first bog iron ore extraction activities which took place in colonial New France. Archaeological excavations carried on the founding site of Montreal in the last ten years have revealed the remains of Fort Ville-Marie erected in 1642. In a level related to the fort occupation between 1660 and 1680, kilos of scories, a dozen of half-finished iron artefacts and a light yellow clayey ore material have recovered that point to extractive metallurgy activities at the fort. Examples of scories, artefacts and of a possible bog iron ore were submitted to SEM-EDS analysis. The results clearly indicate that iron was extracted from local limonite ores in a bloomery. We discovered that the gangue material could be traced from the ore to the scories. However, some lime silicates and some accessory minerals found in the scories, like barite and celestine for example, were absent from the ore but present in dolomite fragments found in the same archaeological context. The tracing of accessory minerals suggests that the ironmaster introduced a lime flux in the bloomery charge to maximize the separation of the iron ore. Before the introduction of the blast furnace in Western Europe during the first half of the 18th Century, the use of fluxes in iron bloomery was not a common practice.

Keywords: bog iron ore, extractive metallurgy, French colonial America, Montreal, scanning electron microscopy (SEM)

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
111 Trash Dash: An Educational Android Game Application for Proper Waste Segregation

Authors: Marylene S. Eder, Dorothy M. Jao, Paolo Marc Nicolas S. Laspiñas, Pukilan A. Malim, Sarah Jean D. Raterta

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Trash Dash is an android game application developed to serve as an alternative tool to practice proper waste segregation for children ages 3 years old and above. The researchers designed the application using Unity 3D and developed the text file that served as the database of the game application. An observation of a pre-school teacher shows that children know how to throw their garbage but they do not know yet how to segregate wastes. After launching the mobile application to K-2 pupils 4 – 5 years of age, the researchers have noticed that children within this age are active and motivated to learn the difference between biodegradable and non-biodegradable. Based on the result of usability test conducted, it was concluded that the game is easy to use and children will most likely use this application frequently. Furthermore, the children may need assistance from their parents and teachers when playing the game. An actual testing of the application has been conducted to different devices as well as functionality test by Thwack Application and it can be concluded that the mobile application can be launched and installed on a device with a minimum API requirement of Gingerbread (2.3.1).

Keywords: waste segregation, android application, biodegradable, non-biodegradable

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110 Come Play with Me: An Exploration of Rough-and-Tumble Play Interactions in Australian Families

Authors: Erin Louise Robinson, Emily Elsa Freeman

Abstract:

Rough-and-tumble play (RTP) is a physical and competitive type of play that parents engage in with their children. While past research has reported RTP to be the preferred play type for western fathers, the frequency of these interactions in Australian families have not been explored. With parental perceptions of play importance playing a major role in the frequency of activity engagement, the present study investigated how perceptions and parent gender impact on RTP play frequency. By utilising child gender in our approach, we also examined the historical trend of boys receiving more physical play interactions with their parents. Three hundred and seventy-nine respondents completed the study with their 0–10-year-old children. The results indicated that, in line with past research, parents engaged more frequently in RTP with their sons than their daughters. While, both mothers and fathers participated in RTP with their children, fathers perceived RTP to be of greater important to their child’s development than mothers did. Moreover, supporting previous findings, this more positive perception of the play was related to greater frequency of RTP in these father-child dyads. Although RTP literature remains heavily focussed on fathers, the fact that mothers are engaging in these interactions as well, establishes the need to explore maternal influences in future research.

Keywords: parenting, play, child development, family, Australia

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109 Sensitivity Studies for a Pin Homojunction a-Si:H Solar Cell

Authors: Leila Ayat, Afak Meftah

Abstract:

Amorphous-silicon alloys have great promise as low cost solar cell materials. They have excellent photo-conductivity and high optical absorption to sunlight. Now PIN a-Si:H based solar cells are widely used in power generation modules. However, to improve the performance of these cells further, a better fundamental under-standing of the factors limiting cell performance in the homo junction PIN structure is necessary. In this paper we discuss the sensitivity of light J-V characteristics to various device and material parameters in PIN homo junction solar cells. This work is a numerical simulation of the output parameters of a PIN a-Si:H solar cell under AM1.5 spectrum. These parameters are the short circuit current (Jsc), the open circuit voltage (Voc), the fill factor (FF), the conversion efficiency. The simulation was performed with SCAPS-1D software version 3.3 developed at ELIS in Belgium by Marc Burgelman et al. The obtained results are in agreement with experiment. In addition, the effect of the thickness, doping density, capture cross sections of the gap states and the band microscopic mobilities on the output parameters of the cell are also presented.

Keywords: amorphous silicon p-i-n junctions, thin film, solar cells, sensitivity

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