Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 127

Search results for: Malik Maaza

67 Treatment of Pharmaceutical Industrial Effluent by Catalytic Ozonation in a Semi-Batch Reactor: Kinetics, Mass Transfer and Improved Biodegradability Studies

Authors: Sameena Malik, Ghosh Prakash, Sandeep Mudliar, Vishal Waindeskar, Atul Vaidya

Abstract:

In this study, the biodegradability enhancement along with COD color and toxicity removal of pharmaceutical effluent by O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺, O₃/nZVI processes has been evaluated. The nZVI particles were synthesized and characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. Kinetic model was reasonably developed to select the ozone doses to be applied based on the ozonation kinetic and mass transfer coefficient values. Nano catalytic ozonation process (O₃/nZVI) effectively enhanced the biodegradability (BI=BOD₅/COD) of pharmaceutical effluent up to 0.63 from 0.18 of control with a COD, color and toxicity removal of 62.3%, 93%, and 75% respectively compared to O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ pretreatment processes. From the GC-MS analysis, 8 foremost organic compounds were predominantly detected in the pharmaceutical effluent. The disappearance of the corresponding GC-MS spectral peaks during catalyzed ozonation process indicated the degradation of the effluent. The changes in the FTIR spectra confirms the transformation/destruction of the organic compounds present in the effluent to new compounds. Subsequent aerobic biodegradation of pretreated effluent resulted in biodegradation rate enhancement by 5.31, 2.97, and 1.22 times for O₃, O₃/Fe²⁺ and O₃/nZVI processes respectively.

Keywords: Kinetics, mass transfer, iron nanoparticles, ozonation, pharmaceutical effluent

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
66 Use of Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the Determination of Organochlorine Pesticides in Various Aqueous and Juice Samples

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Ashok Kumar Malik

Abstract:

Fabric Phase Sorptive Extraction (FPSE) combined with Gas chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GCMS) has been developed for the determination of nineteen organochlorine pesticides in various aqueous samples. The method consolidates the features of sol-gel derived microextraction sorbents with rich surface chemistry of cellulose fabric substrate which could directly extract sample from complex sample matrices and incredibly improve the operation with decreased pretreatment time. Some vital parameters such as kind and volume of extraction solvent and extraction time were examinedand optimized. Calibration curves were obtained in the concentration range 0.5-500 ng/mL. Under the optimum conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were in the range 0.033 ng/mL to 0.136 ng/mL. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for extraction of 10 ng/mL 0f OCPs were less than 10%. The developed method has been applied for the quantification of these compounds in aqueous and fruit juice samples. The results obtained proved the present method to be rapid and feasible for the determination of organochlorine pesticides in aqueous samples.

Keywords: organochlorine pesticides, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, fabric phase sorptive extraction, sample pretreatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
65 An Overview of Bioclimatic Design Strategies for Energy Efficient Buildings: A Case Study of Semi-Arid Climate, Lahore

Authors: Beenish Mujahid, Sana Malik

Abstract:

Bioclimatic design Strategies plays a dynamic role in construction of Sustainable Buildings. This approach leads to reduction in the mechanical cooling of building which provides comfort to the occupants in sustainable manner. Such bioclimatic measures provide a complete framework of building design through responding to climatic features of particular site. The featured Passive cooling techniques for hot climatic region provides comfortable indoor temperature with ecological and financial benefits. The study is based on highlighting this approach to produce energy efficient buildings for Semi-Arid climate like Lahore, Pakistan. Being part of developing country, energy savings in Lahore city would help the Power Sector and resolves the World Issues of Global Warming and Ozone Layer Depletion. This article reviews the bioclimatic design strategies and their critical analysis to drive guidelines for Sustainable buildings in Lahore. The study shows that the demand for mechanical cooling systems including air conditioning, fans, and air coolers can be reduced through regional climatic design.

Keywords: Buildings, Energy Efficient, bioclimatic design, Lahore, comfort

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
64 Causes of Terrorism: Perceptions of University Students of Teacher Training Institutions

Authors: Saghir Ahmad, Ayesha Batool, Abid Hussain Ch, Misbah Malik

Abstract:

Terrorism is the marvel in which dreadful circumstance is made by a gathering of individuals who view themselves as abused by society. Terrorism is the unlawful utilization of power or viciousness by a man or a sorted out gathering by the general population or property with the aim of intimidation or compulsion of social orders or governments frequently for ideological or political reasons. Terrorism is as old as people. The main aim of the study was to find out the causes of terrorism through the perceptions of the universities students of teacher training institutions. This study was quantitative in nature. Survey method was used to collect data. A sample of two hundred and sixty seven students was selected from public universities. A five point Likert scale was used to collect data. Mean, Standard deviation, independent sample t-test, and One Way ANOVA were applied to analyze the data. The major findings of the study indicated that students perceived the main causes of terrorism are poverty, foreign interference, wrong concept of Islamization, and social injustice. It is also concluded that mostly, students think that drone attacks are promoting the terrorist activities. The education is key to eliminate the terrorism. There is need to educate the people and specially youngsters to bring the peace in the world.

Keywords: Power, Terrorism, Governments, students, dreadful circumstance

Procedia PDF Downloads 420
63 Flow Analysis of Viscous Nanofluid Due to Rotating Rigid Disk with Navier’s Slip: A Numerical Study

Authors: Khalil Ur Rehman, M. Y. Malik, Usman Ali

Abstract:

In this paper, the problem proposed by Von Karman is treated in the attendance of additional flow field effects when the liquid is spaced above the rotating rigid disk. To be more specific, a purely viscous fluid flow yield by rotating rigid disk with Navier’s condition is considered in both magnetohydrodynamic and hydrodynamic frames. The rotating flow regime is manifested with heat source/sink and chemically reactive species. Moreover, the features of thermophoresis and Brownian motion are reported by considering nanofluid model. The flow field formulation is obtained mathematically in terms of high order differential equations. The reduced system of equations is solved numerically through self-coded computational algorithm. The pertinent outcomes are discussed systematically and provided through graphical and tabular practices. A simultaneous way of study makes this attempt attractive in this sense that the article contains dual framework and validation of results with existing work confirms the execution of self-coded algorithm for fluid flow regime over a rotating rigid disk.

Keywords: Chemical Reaction, Navier’s condition, Newtonian fluid model, heat source/sink

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
62 Vitamin A Status and Its Correlation with the Dietary Intake of Young Females of Lahore, Pakistan

Authors: Sarah Fatima, Ahmad A. Malik, Saima Sadaf

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to assess the dietary record and vitamin A status of young females of Lahore. A total sample of 376 consisted of 16 – 20 years of unmarried college going females. Three main tools were adopted: questionnaire, 3-day food diary and serum retinol test. The anthropometric measurements showed that a total of 32.6% of the sample was underweight (BMI < 18.5) and 54.5% had a healthy weight (BMI 18.5 – 22.9). The average Vitamin A intake of the sample was 257.95 µg/day while the RDA for the selected age group was 700 µg/day. The mean energy intake of the adolescents was 1153.64 kcal/ day, whereas the Estimated Energy Requirement (EER) for this age group was 2368 kcal/day. The mean serum Vitamin A level was 24.81µg/dL. 69.6% of the sample was deficient in serum Vitamin A i.e. serum retinol < 24 µg/dL. 30.4% had serum retinol in normal limit (24 – 84 µg/dL) from which 25.3% lied in lower limit (24 – 44 µg/dL) and only 5.1% had serum retinol in 44 – 64 µg/dL range. A slightly negative correlation (r = - 0.21, 95% confidence interval) was found between dietary intake of Vitamin A and serum Vitamin A It was concluded that the dietary intake of major nutrients and vitamin A is not adequate in the selected group. This is also confirmed by the lower serum retinol levels. Hence, vitamin An intake and status are generally inadequate, and vitamin deficiency is prevalent in the unmarried young females of Lahore.

Keywords: Lahore, vitamin A, young Females, vitamin deficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 145
61 Curriculum Change and Innovation Viewed from Two Different Lenses

Authors: Muqaddas Butt, Allah Bakhsh Malik

Abstract:

The changing educational environment, the diverse educational needs of students, the high expectations from the public, and the policy reports demand a strong change & innovation in the curriculum. Effective change and innovation could not be possible without the involvement of two major tenants i.e. teachers and educational managers. Thus, the locus of this research was to explore the secondary school principals and teachers priorities regarding change and innovation in curriculum. The main research objectives were included to explore the secondary school teachers’ and principals’ views about existing Humanities group curriculum; to identify their priorities regarding change and innovation in curriculum and to make a comparison between the priorities of both (the teachers & principals). A total sample of 150 Secondary school teachers and 24 principals from Federal Government Secondary Schools was drawn. The data was obtained through a five point Likert scale questionnaire. The findings indicated a huge difference between principals and teachers priorities. Related to prevailed curriculum, teachers showed more satisfactory views than principals. It was also found that the principals in comparison with teachers showed more inclination towards change and innovation and emphasized on an interdisciplinary, practical and ICT Integrated curriculum. Inclusion of local environmental issues; creativity based and practical activities based curriculum; and orientation to citizenship education into curriculum were some of the aspects highly prioritized by both teachers and principals.

Keywords: Curriculum Innovation, curriculum change, humanities curriculum, curriculum priorities

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
60 Studies on the Mechanical Behavior of Bottom Ash for a Sustainable Environment

Authors: B. A. Mir, Asim Malik

Abstract:

Bottom ash is a by-product of the combustion process of coal in furnaces in the production of electricity in thermal power plants. In India, about 75% of total power is produced by using pulverized coal. The coal of India has a high ash content which leads to the generation of a huge quantity of bottom ash per year posing the dual problem of environmental pollution and difficulty in disposal. This calls for establishing strategies to use this industry by-product effectively and efficiently. However, its large-scale utilization is possible only in geotechnical applications, either alone or with soil. In the present investigation, bottom ash was collected from National Capital Power Station Dadri, Uttar Pradesh, India. Test samples of bottom ash admixed with 20% clayey soil were prepared and treated with different cement content by weight and subjected to various laboratory tests for assessing its suitability as an engineered construction material. This study has shown that use of 10% cement content is a viable chemical additive to enhance the mechanical properties of bottom ash, which can be used effectively as an engineered construction material in various geotechnical applications. More importantly, it offers an interesting potential for making use of an industrial waste to overcome challenges posed by bottom ash for a sustainable environment.

Keywords: Environmental Pollution, Sustainable Environment, Solid Waste, Waste Utilization, bottom ash

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
59 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 561
58 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat, Abdu Qayyum

Abstract:

Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 527
57 Image Segmentation Using Active Contours Based on Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Shafiullah Soomro

Abstract:

Active contour is one of the image segmentation techniques and its goal is to capture required object boundaries within an image. In this paper, we propose a novel image segmentation method by using an active contour method based on anisotropic diffusion feature enhancement technique. The traditional active contour methods use only pixel information to perform segmentation, which produces inaccurate results when an image has some noise or complex background. We use Perona and Malik diffusion scheme for feature enhancement, which sharpens the object boundaries and blurs the background variations. Our main contribution is the formulation of a new SPF (signed pressure force) function, which uses global intensity information across the regions. By minimizing an energy function using partial differential framework the proposed method captures semantically meaningful boundaries instead of catching uninterested regions. Finally, we use a Gaussian kernel which eliminates the problem of reinitialization in level set function. We use several synthetic and real images from different modalities to validate the performance of the proposed method. In the experimental section, we have found the proposed method performance is better qualitatively and quantitatively and yield results with higher accuracy compared to other state-of-the-art methods.

Keywords: Partial Differential Equations, anisotropic diffusion, level-set, active contours

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
56 Seepage Modelling of Jatigede Dam Towards Cisampih Village Based on Analysis Soil Characteristic Using Method Soil Reaction to Water, West Java Indonesia

Authors: Diemas Purnama Muhammad Firman Pratama, Denny Maulana Malik

Abstract:

Development of Jatigede Dam that was the mega project in Indonesia, since 1963. Area of around Jatigede Dam is complex, it has structural geology active fault, and as possible can occur landslide. This research focus on soil test. The purpose of this research to know soil quality Jatigede Dam which caused by water seepage of Jatigede Dam, then can be made seepage modelling around Jatigede Dam including Cisampih Village. Method of this research is SRW (Soil Reaction to Water). There are three samples are taken nearby Jatigede Dam. Four paramaters to determine water seepage such as : V ( velocity of soil to release water), Dl (Ability of soil to release water), Ds (Ability of soil to absorb water), Dt (Ability of soil to hold water). meanwhile, another proscess of interaction beetween water and soil are produced angle, which is made of water flow and vertikal line. Called name SIAT. SIAT has two type is na1 and na2. Each samples has a value from the first sample is 280,333(degree), the second 270 (degree) and the third 270 (degree). The difference na1 is, water interaction towards Dt value angle, while na2 is water interaction towards Dl and Ds value angle. Result of calculating SRW method, first till third sample has a value 7, 11,5 and 9. Based on data, interpreted in around teritory of Jatigede Dam, will get easier impact from water seepage because, condition soil reaction too bad so, it can not hold water.

Keywords: Soil Quality, water Seepage, Jatigede Dam, Cisampih village

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
55 An Assessment of the Temperature Change Scenarios Using RS and GIS Techniques: A Case Study of Sindh

Authors: Saad Malik, Jan Muhammad, Fadia W. Al-Azawi, Ali Imran

Abstract:

In the era of climate variability, rising temperatures are the most significant aspect. In this study PRECIS model data and observed data are used for assessing the temperature change scenarios of Sindh province during the first half of present century. Observed data from various meteorological stations of Sindh are the primary source for temperature change detection. The current scenario (1961–1990) and the future one (2010-2050) are acted by the PRECIS Regional Climate Model at a spatial resolution of 25 * 25 km. Regional Climate Model (RCM) can yield reasonably suitable projections to be used for climate-scenario. The main objective of the study is to map the simulated temperature as obtained from climate model-PRECIS and their comparison with observed temperatures. The analysis is done on all the districts of Sindh in order to have a more precise picture of temperature change scenarios. According to results the temperature is likely to increases by 1.5 - 2.1°C by 2050, compared to the baseline temperature of 1961-1990. The model assesses more accurate values in northern districts of Sindh as compared to the coastal belt of Sindh. All the district of the Sindh province exhibit an increasing trend in the mean temperature scenarios and each decade seems to be warmer than the previous one. An understanding of the change in temperatures is very vital for various sectors such as weather forecasting, water, agriculture, and health, etc.

Keywords: Arc GIS, PRECIS Model, real observed data, interpolation techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
54 Financial Risk Tolerance and Its Impact on Terrorism-Tourism Relation in Pakistan

Authors: Sania Sana, Afnan Nasim, Usman Malik, Maroof Tahir

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to scrutinize the interdependent relationship between terrorism and behavioral changes in the tourism activities in Pakistan with the moderating impact of a unique variable titled 'Financial Risk Tolerance'. The article looks at the inter-reliant relationship with the alleged political and economic aspects and behavioral changes in the tourists and the consumers by these variables over time. The researchers used many underlying theories like the catastrophe theory by (Svyantek, Deshon and Siler 1991), information integration theory (Anderson 1981, 1982) and prospect theory (Kahneman and Tversky 1979) to shape the study’s framework as per tourist decision making model. A sample of around 110 locals was used for this purpose and the data was gathered by convenience sampling. The responses were analyzed using regression analysis. The results exhibited how terrorism along with the influence of financial risk tolerance had inclined a behavioral shift in the travelling patterns and vacation destination choice of the local tourists. Lastly, the paper proposes a number of suggestive measures for the tourism industry and the legislative bodies to ensure the safety of travelers and to boost the tourist activities in the vacation industry of Pakistan.

Keywords: Tourism, Terrorism, destination choice, financial risk tolerance, tourist decision-making

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
53 The Rise of Halal Banking and Financial Products in Post-Soviet Central Asia: A Study of Causative Factors

Authors: Bilal Ahmad Malik

Abstract:

With the fall of Soviet Union in 1991 the whole Central Asian region saw a dramatic rise in Muslim identity, a call back to Islamic legacy. Today, many Central Asian Muslims demand, what Islam has termed legal (Halal) and, avoid what Islam has termed illegal (Haram). The process of Islamic resurgence kicked off very quickly soon after the integration of Central Asian republics with other Muslim geographies through the membership of Organization of Islamic Conference (OIC) and other similar organizations. This interaction proved to be a vital push factor to the already existing indigenous reviving trends and sentiments. As a result, along with many other requirements, Muslim customer demand emerged as navel trend in the market in general and in banking and financial sector in particular. To get this demand fulfilled, the governments of CIS states like Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Azerbaijan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan introduced Halal banking and financial products in the market. Firstly, the present paper would briefly discuss the core composition of Halal banking and financial products. Then, coming to its major theme, it would try to identify and analyze the causes that lead to the emergence of Islamic banking and finance industry in the Muslim majority Post-Soviet CIS States.

Keywords: Central Asia, causes, interest-free banking, Islamic Revival

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
52 E-Vet Smart Rapid System: Detection of Farm Disease Based on Expert System as Supporting to Epidemic Disesase Control

Authors: Malik Abdul Jabbar Zen, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Azisya Amalia Karimasari, Novita Priandini

Abstract:

Zoonos is as an infectiontransmitted froma nimals to human sand vice versa currently having increased in the last 20 years. The experts/scientists predict that zoonosis will be a threat to the community in the future since it leads on 70% emerging infectious diseases (EID) and the high mortality of 50%-90%. The zoonosis’ spread from animal to human is caused by contaminated food known as foodborne disease. One World One Health, as the conceptual prevention toward zoonosis, requires the crossed disciplines cooperation to accelerate and streamlinethe handling ofanimal-based disease. E-Vet Smart Rapid System is an integrated innovation in the veterinary expertise application is able to facilitate the prevention, treatment, and educationagainst pandemic diseases and zoonosis. This system is constructed by Decision Support System (DSS) method provides a database of knowledge that is expected to facilitate the identification of disease rapidly, precisely, and accurately as well as to identify the deduction. The testingis conducted through a black box test case and questionnaire (N=30) by validity and reliability approach. Based on the black box test case reveals that E-Vet Rapid System is able to deliver the results in accordance with system design, and questionnaire shows that this system is valid (r > 0.361) and has a reliability (α > 0.3610).

Keywords: Diagnosis, Livestock, Disease, Expert Systems, Zoonosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
51 Hybrid Localization Schemes for Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Muhammad Tahir, Fatima Babar, Majid I. Khan, Malik Najmus Saqib

Abstract:

This article provides range based improvements over a well-known single-hop range free localization scheme, Approximate Point in Triangulation (APIT) by proposing an energy efficient Barycentric coordinate based Point-In-Triangulation (PIT) test along with PIT based trilateration. These improvements result in energy efficiency, reduced localization error and improved localization coverage compared to APIT and its variants. Moreover, we propose to embed Received signal strength indication (RSSI) based distance estimation in DV-Hop which is a multi-hop localization scheme. The proposed localization algorithm achieves energy efficiency and reduced localization error compared to DV-Hop and its available improvements. Furthermore, a hybrid multi-hop localization scheme is also proposed that utilize Barycentric coordinate based PIT test and both range based (Received signal strength indicator) and range free (hop count) techniques for distance estimation. Our experimental results provide evidence that proposed hybrid multi-hop localization scheme results in two to five times reduction in the localization error compare to DV-Hop and its variants, at reduced energy requirements.

Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Localization, trilateration, triangulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
50 Impact of Islamic Hr Practices on Job Satisfaction: An Empirical Study of Banking Sector in Pakistan

Authors: Naheed Malik, Waheed Akhtar

Abstract:

An introduction to the Islamic move towards the managing human resource is a preliminary attempt to provide managers with a useful way of managing and accepting employees. This knowledge would be helpful to even non-Muslim managers. Muslim managers are required not to know only the Islamic HR but also it is expected from them to apply the Islamic approach in managing the employees. Human resource is considered the most substantial asset of organizations. Studies have recommended that successful human resource management (HRM) leads to positive attitudes and behaviors at the workplace. On the contrary, unproductive use of human resources results in negative penalty in the form of lower job satisfaction, lower commitment, or even high employee turnover and even poor workforce quality.The study examined the Impact of Islamic HR practices on job satisfaction. Islamic HR variables encompass the aspects of performance appraisal, training and development, selection and recruitment. Data was obtained via self –administered questionnaires distributed among the employees of Banks in Pakistan which are practicing Islamic Banking. The sampling method employed was purposive sampling.Based on 240 responses obtained ,the study revealed that Islamic HRM deliberates the 40per cent of the variances in Job satisfaction .All variables excluding recruitment were found to be substantially pertinent to the dependent variable. The study also meditated the implications for future studies.

Keywords: Pakistan, Job Satisfaction, islamic HRM, islamic and conventional banks

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
49 A Quantitative Survey Research on the Development and Assessment of Attitude toward Mathematics Instrument

Authors: Soofia Malik

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop an instrument to measure undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics (MAT) and to assess the data collected from the instrument for validity and reliability. The instrument is developed using five subscales: anxiety, enjoyment, self-confidence, value, and technology. The technology dimension is added as the fifth subscale of attitude toward mathematics because of the recent trend of incorporating online homework in mathematics courses as well as due to heavy reliance of higher education on using online learning management systems, such as Blackboard and Moodle. The sample consists of 163 (M = 82, F = 81) undergraduates enrolled in College Algebra course in the summer 2017 semester at a university in the USA. The data is analyzed to answer the research question: if and how do undergraduate students’ attitudes toward mathematics load using Principal Components Analysis (PCA)? As a result of PCA, three subscales emerged namely: anxiety/self-confidence scale, enjoyment, and value scale. After deleting the last five items or the last two subscales from the initial MAT scale, the Cronbach’s alpha was recalculated using the scores from 20 items and was found to be α = .95. It is important to note that the reliability of the initial MAT form was α = .93. This means that employing the final MAT survey form would yield consistent results in repeated uses. The final MAT form is, therefore, more reliable as compared to the initial MAT form.

Keywords: PCA, principal components analysis, college algebra, Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient, technology in mathematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 14
48 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdelazim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Protection, rock, Stabilization, slope, Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
47 Comparative Study of Traditional Classroom Learning and Distance Learning in Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal Malik

Abstract:

Traditional Learning & Distance based learning are the two systems prevailing in Pakistan. These systems affect the level of education standard. The purpose of this study was to compare the traditional classroom learning and distance learning in Pakistan: (a) To explore the effectiveness of the traditional to Distance learning in Pakistan; (b) To identify the factors that affect traditional and distance learning. This review found that, on average, students in traditional classroom conditions performed better than those receiving education in and distance learning. The difference between student outcomes for traditional Classroom and distance learning classes —measured as the difference between treatment and control means, divided by the pooled standard deviation— was larger in those studies contrasting conditions that blended elements of online and face-to-face instruction with conditions taught entirely face-to-face. This research was conducted to highlight the impact of distance learning education system on education standard. The education standards were institutional support, course development, learning process, student support, faculty support, evaluation and assessment. A well developed questionnaire was administered and distributed among 26 faculty members of GCET, H-9 and Virtual University of Pakistan from each. Data was analyzed through correlation and regression analysis. Results confirmed that there is a significant relationship and impact of DLE system on education standards. This will also provide baseline for future research. It will add value to the existing body of knowledge.

Keywords: Higher Education, Student Performance, distance learning education, education standards

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
46 Major Depressive Disorder: Diagnosis based on Electroencephalogram Analysis

Authors: Aamir Saeed Malik, Wajid Mumtaz, Syed Saad Azhar Ali, Mohd Azhar Mohd Yasin

Abstract:

In this paper, a technique based on electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis is presented, aiming for diagnosing major depressive disorder (MDD) among a potential population of MDD patients and healthy controls. EEG is recognized as a clinical modality during applications such as seizure diagnosis, index for anesthesia, detection of brain death or stroke. However, its usability for psychiatric illnesses such as MDD is less studied. Therefore, in this study, for the sake of diagnosis, 2 groups of study participants were recruited, 1) MDD patients, 2) healthy people as controls. EEG data acquired from both groups were analyzed involving inter-hemispheric asymmetry and composite permutation entropy index (CPEI). To automate the process, derived quantities from EEG were utilized as inputs to classifier such as logistic regression (LR) and support vector machine (SVM). The learning of these classification models was tested with a test dataset. Their learning efficiency is provided as accuracy of classifying MDD patients from controls, their sensitivities and specificities were reported, accordingly (LR =81.7 % and SVM =81.5 %). Based on the results, it is concluded that the derived measures are indicators for diagnosing MDD from a potential population of normal controls. In addition, the results motivate further exploring other measures for the same purpose.

Keywords: Major Depressive Disorder, diagnosis based on EEG, EEG derived features, CPEI, inter-hemispheric asymmetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
45 Akt: Isoform-Specific Regulation of Cellular Signaling in Cancer

Authors: Bhumika Wadhwa, Fayaz Malik

Abstract:

The serine/threonine protein kinase B (PKB) also known as Akt, is one of the multifaceted kinase in human kinome, existing in three isoforms. Akt plays a vital role in phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) mediated oncogenesis in various malignancies and is one of the attractive targets for cancer drug discovery. The functional significance of an individual isoform of Akt is not redundant in cancer cell proliferation and metastasis instead Akt isoforms play distinct roles during metastasis; thereby regulating EMT. This study aims to determine isoform specific functions of Akt in cancer. The results obtained suggest that Akt1 restrict tumor invasion, whereas Akt2 promotes cell migration and invasion by various techniques like MTT, wound healing and invasion assay. Similarly, qRT-PCR also revealed that Akt3 has shown promising results in promoting cancer cell migration. Contrary to pro-oncogenic properties attributed to Akt, it is to be understood how various isoforms of Akt compensates each other in the regulation of common pathways during cancer progression and drug resistance. In conclusion, this study aims to target selective isoforms which is essential to inhibit cancer. However, the question now is whether, and how much, Akt inhibition will be tolerated in the clinic remains to be answered and the experiments will have to address the question of which combinations of newly devised Akt isoform specific inhibitors exert a favourable therapeutic effect in in vivo models of cancer to provide the therapeutic window with minimal toxicity.

Keywords: Cancer, Drug Resistance, Akt isoforms, epithelial mesenchymal transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
44 Rendering of Indian History: A Study Based on Select Graphic Novels

Authors: Akhila Sara Varughese

Abstract:

In the postmodern society, visual narratives became an emerging genre in the field of literature. Graphic literature focuses on the literal and symbolic layer of interpretation. The most salient feature of graphic literature is its exploration of the public history of events and life narratives. The Indian graphic literature re-interprets the canon, style and the form of texts in Indian Writing in English and it demands a new literacy and the structure of the English literature. With the help of visual-verbal language, the graphic narratives discuss various facets of contemporary India. Graphic novels have firmly identified itself with the art of storytelling because of its capability of expressing human experiences to the most. In the textual novels, the author usually deserts the imagination of the readers, but in the case of graphic narratives, due to the presence of visual elements, the interpretation becomes simpler. India is the second most populous country in the world with a long tradition of history and culture. Indian literature always tries to reconstruct Indian history in various modes of representation. The present paper focuses on the fictional articulation of Indian history through the graphic narratives and analyses how some historical events in India portrays. The paper also traces the differences in rendering the history in graphic novels with that of textual novels. The paper discusses how much the blending of words and images helps in represent the Indian history by analyzing the graphic novels like Kashmir Pending by Naseer Ahmed, Delhi Calm by Vishwajyoti Ghosh and Munnu by Malik Sajad.

Keywords: Representation, graphic novels, Indian history, visual-verbal literacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
43 Investigation of Effects of Geomagnetic Storms Produced by Different Solar Sources on the Total Electron Content (TEC)

Authors: Purushottam Bhawre, P. K. Purohit, Azad A. Mansoori, Parvaiz A. Khan, Sharad C. Tripathi, A. M. Aslam, Malik A. Waheed, Shivangi Bhardwaj, A. K. Gwal

Abstract:

The geomagnetic storm represents the most outstanding example of solar wind-magnetospheric interaction, which causes global disturbances in the geomagnetic field as well as the trigger ionospheric disturbances. We study the behaviour of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) during the geomagnetic storms. For the present investigation we have selected 47 intense geomagnetic storms (Dst ≤ -100nT) that were observed during the solar cycle 23 i.e. during 1998-2006. We then categorized these storms into four categories depending upon their solar sources like Magnetic Cloud (MC), Co-rotating Interaction Region (CIR), SH+ICME and SH+MC. We then studied the behaviour of ionospheric TEC at a mid latitude station Usuda (36.13N, 138.36E), Japan during these storm events produced by four different solar sources. During our study we found that the smooth variations in TEC are replaced by rapid fluctuations and the value of TEC is strongly enhanced during the time of these storms belonging to all the four categories. However, the greatest enhancements in TEC are produced during those geomagnetic storms which are either caused by sheath driven magnetic cloud (SH+MC) or sheath driven ICME (SH+ICME). We also derived the correlation between the TEC enhancements produced during storms of each category with the minimum Dst. We found the strongest correlation exists for the SH+ICME category followed by SH+MC, MC and finally CIR. Since the most intense storms were either caused by SH+ICME or SH+MC while the least intense storms were caused by CIR, consequently the correlation was the strongest with SH+ICME and SH+MC and least with CIR.

Keywords: GPS, Geomagnetic Storm, TEC, sheath driven magnetic cloud

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
42 Investing the Employees Higher Quitting Intention at the Call Centers of Pakistan: A Reality or a Myth: A Case Study of Pakistan Telecommunication Sector

Authors: Naheed Malik, Marisa Smith

Abstract:

This study has been undertaken as an attempt to explore the underlying reasons that cause higher employee turnover rates at the call centers of Pakistan. This research also aimed to examine the relationship among the job related variables such as job satisfaction, organizational commitment, supervisor support, self-esteem, organizational stressors (work overload, role ambiguity and work family conflict) and quitting inclination. A total of 340 call centers respondents filled the survey questionnaire. The data was analyzed through SPSS 19.0. Results reveal the significant relationship among the study variables and stress level contributing more towards employee penchant to leave the job. A significant amount of call centers employee have proclivity to quit from their jobs as soon as they would be able to find some other jobs with attractive compensation. The majority of the respondents were found to be unhappy and dissatisfied due to hectic schedule and imbalance between family and work. This research also highlighted the specific areas in which call centre management needs to emphasize deliberately that affect more sharply on employee leaving aptitude. This study also suggests some useful strategies for the well being of employees that can minimize their tendency of quitting and retention in the long run.

Keywords: stress, Job Satisfaction, organizational commitment, self esteem, call centers, supervisor’s support, employee turnover, employees’ intention to quit, customer service representative (CSRs)

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
41 Experimental Studies on Fly Ash-Waste Sludge Mix Reinforced with Geofibres

Authors: Malik Shoeb Ahmad

Abstract:

The aim of the present study is to carry out investigations on Class F fly ash obtained from NTPC thermal power plant, Dadri, U.P. (India) and electroplating waste sludge from Aligarh, U.P. (India) along with geofibre for its subsequent utilization in various geotechnical and highway engineering applications. The experimental studies such as California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were carried out to evaluate the strength of plain fly ash as well as fly ash-waste sludge mix reinforced with geofibre, as the CBR value is the vital parameters used in the design of flexible and rigid pavements. Results of the study show that the strength of the mix is highly dependent on the curing period and the sludge and geofibre content. The CBR values were determined for mix containing fly ash (83.5-93.5%), waste sludge (5-15%) and 1-2% geofibre. However, out of the various combinations of mixes the CBR value of the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%GF at 28 days of curing was found to be 53.52% when compared with the strength of plain fly ash. It has been observed that the fibre inclusion increases the strength of the plain fly ash and fly ash-waste sludge specimens by changing their brittle to ductile behavior. The TCLP leaching test was also conducted to determine the heavy metal concentration in the optimized mix. The results of TCLP test show that the heavy metal concentration in the mix 88.5%FA+10%S+1.5%G at 28 days of curing reduced substantially from 24 to 98% when compared with the concentration of heavy metals in the waste sludge collected from source. It has also been observed that the pH of the leachate of this mix is between 9-11, which ensures the proper stabilization of the heavy metals present in the mix. Hence, this study will certainly help in mass scale utilization of two industrial wastes viz., electroplating waste and fly ash, which are causing pollution to the environment to a great extent.

Keywords: CBR, Dadri fly ash, geofibre, electroplating waste sludge, TCLP

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
40 Learning and Practising Assessment in Pre-Service Teacher Education Program: Bridging Gap between Theory and Practice

Authors: Ghulam Behlol Malik

Abstract:

Discoveries in the field of cognitive science have brought revolutionary changes in learning and assessment practices and replaced traditional testing and examination practices (paper and pencil) by student-centered, authentic, and active learning approaches. This paper presents an analysis of data addressing two research questions as part of a wider study: 1) How do prospective teachers learn about assessment in a pre-service teacher education program? 2) How do cooperative teachers and university teachers support prospective teachers on teaching practicum to learn about how to use assessment for bridging the gap between theory and practice? A sequential mixed method design was applied to collect data in three phases: content analysis of the course 'method of teaching', followed by a survey about the opinions of Prospective Teachers and observations of classes in both teacher education and teaching practicum contexts were completed along with indepth interviews of University teachers and Cooperative Teachers. It is concluded that Prospective Teachers face difficulties in applying student-centred assessment practices because of limited modelling both in the teacher education and school practicum settings, large class sizes, and limited opportunities to use technology in school settings in Pakistan. It is recommended that in Pakistan, a new assessment policy is needed which allows examinations to be expanded beyond covering knowledge recall to include competency assessment.

Keywords: Learning, Assessment, Theory and practice, practising, preservice teacher education program

Procedia PDF Downloads 1
39 An Introduction to the Current Epistemology of Ethical Philosophy of Islamic Banking

Authors: Mohd Iqbal Malik

Abstract:

Ethical philosophy of Quran pinnacled virtue and economics as the part and parcel of human life. Human beings are to be imagined by the sign of morals. Soul and morality are both among the essences of human personality. Islam lays the foundation of ethics by installation of making a momentous variance between virtue and vice. It suggests for the distribution of wealth in-order to terminate accumulation of economic resources. Quran claims for the ambiguous pavement to attain virtue by saying, ‘Never will you attain the good (reward) until you spend (in the way of Allah) from that which you love. And whatever you spend indeed, Allah knows of it.’ The essence of Quran is to eliminate all the deep-seated approaches through which the wealth of nations is being accumulated within few hands. The paper will study the Quranic Philosophy Of Islamic Economic System. In recent times, to get out of the human resource development mystery of Muslims, Ismail Al-Raji Faruqi led the way in the so-called ‘Islamization’ of knowledge. Rahman and Faruqi formed opposite opinions on this project. Al-Faruqi thought of the Islamization of knowledge in terms of introducing Western learning into received Islamic values and vice versa. This proved to be a mere peripheral treatment of Islamic values in relation to Western knowledge. It is true that out of the programme of Islamization of knowledge arose Islamic universities in many Muslim countries. Yet the academic programmes of these universities were not founded upon a substantive understanding and application of the tawhidi epistemology.

Keywords: Islamic Banking, ethical philosophy, modern Islamic finance, knowledge of finance

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
38 Comparing Pathogen Inhibition Effect of Different Preparations of Probiotic L. reuteri Strains

Authors: Tejinder Pal Singh, Ravinder Kumar Malik, Gurpreet Kaur

Abstract:

Adhesion is key factor for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract and the ability of probiotic strains to inhibit pathogens. Therefore, the adhesion ability is considered as a suitable biomarker for the selection of potential probiotic. In the present study, eight probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri strains were evaluated as viable, LiCl treated or heat-killed forms and compared with probiotic reference strains (L. reuteri ATCC55730). All strains investigated were able to adhere to Caco-2 cells. All probiotic L. reuteri strains tested were able to inhibit and displace (P < 0.05) the adhesion of Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Salmonella typhi NCDC113, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC53135 and Enterococcus faecalis NCDC115. The probiotic strain L. reuteri LR6 showed the strongest adhesion and pathogen inhibition ability among the eight L. reuteri strains tested. In addition, the abilities to inhibit and to displace adhered pathogens depended on both the probiotic and the pathogen strains tested suggesting the involvement of various mechanisms. The adhesion and antagonistic potential of the probiotic strains were significantly decreased upon exposure to 5M LiCl, showing that surface molecules, proteinaceous in nature, are involved. The heat-killed forms of the probiotic L. reuteri strains also inhibited the attachment of selected pathogens to Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, in vitro assays showed that L. reuteri strains, as viable or heat-killed forms, are adherent to Caco-2 cell line model and are highly antagonistic to selected pathogens in which surface molecules, proteinaceous molecules in particular, plays an important role.

Keywords: Probiotics, Adhesion, Lactobacillus reuteri, Caco-2 cells

Procedia PDF Downloads 124