Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Maliha A. Siddiqui

50 Wind Energy Potential of Southern Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

Abstract:

A study has been carried out to see the prospect of wind power potential of southern Sindh namely Karachi, Hawksbay, Norriabad, Hyderabad, Ketibander and Shahbander using local wind speed data. The monthly average wind speed for these area ranges from 4.5m/sec to 8.5m/sec at 30m height from ground. Extractable wind power, wind energy and Weibul parameter for above mentioned areas have been examined. Furthermore, the power output using fast and slow wind machine using different blade diameter along with the 4Kw and 20 Kw aero-generator were examined to see the possible use for deep well pumping and electricity supply to remote villages. The analysis reveals that in this wind corridor of southern Sindh Hawksbay, Ketibander and Shahbander belongs to wind power class-3 Hyderabad and Nooriabad belongs to wind power class-5 and Karachi belongs to wind power class-2. The result shows that the that higher wind speed values occur between June till August. It was found that considering maximum wind speed location, Hawksbay,Noriabad are the best location for setting up wind machines for power generation.

Keywords: wind energy generation, Southern Sindh, seasonal change, Weibull parameter, wind machines

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
49 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Lower Sindh, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of Lower Sindh, namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization for power generation in Sindh province. The results obtained show a large variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months in Lower Sindh (50% direct and 50% diffuse for Karachi and Hyderabad). In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low during the monsoon months, July and August. The KT value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky throughout almost the entire year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even during the monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential, whereas Karachi and Hyderabad have low solar potential. During the monsoon months the Lower part of Sindh can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 m/sec to 6.9 m/sec. A wind corridor exists near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in the monsoon months of July and August, wind speeds are higher in the Lower region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, lower Sindh, power generation, solar and wind energy potential

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48 Solar and Wind Energy Potential Study of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha A. Siddiqui, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface of southern sindh namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah were carried out using sunshine hour data of the area to asses the feasibility of solar Energy utilization at Sindh province for power generation. From the observation, result is derived which shows a drastic variation in the diffuse and direct component of solar radiation for summer and winter for Southern Sindh that is both contributes 50% for Karachi and Hyderabad. In Nawabshah area, the contribution of diffuse solar radiation is low in monsoon months, July and August. The Kᴛ value of Nawabshah indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. The percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 20%. In Nawabshah, the appearance of cloud is rare even in monsoon months. The estimated values indicate that Nawabshah has high solar potential whereas Karachi and Hyderabad has low solar potential. During the monsoon months, the southern part of Sind can utilize the hybrid system with wind power. Near Karachi and Hyderabad, the wind speed ranges between 6.2 to 6.9 m/sec. There exist a wind corridor near Karachi, Hyderabad, Gharo, Keti Bander and Shah Bander. The short fall of solar can be compensated by wind because in monsoon months July and August the wind speed are higher in the southern region of Sindh.

Keywords: hybrid power system, power generation, solar and wind energy potential, southern Sindh

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
47 Solar Energy Potential Studies of Sindh Province, Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Sidra A. Shaikh, Maliha Afshan Siddiqui

Abstract:

Solar radiation studies of Sindh province have been studied to evaluate the solar energy potential of the area. Global and diffuse solar radiation on horizontal surface over five cities namely Karachi, Hyderabad, Nawabshah, Chore and Padidan of Sindh province were carried out using sun shine hour data of the area to assess the feasibility of solar energy utilization. The result obtained shows a large variation of direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in winter and summer months. 50% direct and 50% diffuse solar radiation for Karachi and Hyderabad were observed and for Chore in summer month July and August the diffuse radiation is about 33 to 39%. For other areas of Sindh such as Nawabshah and Patidan the contribution of direct solar radiation is high throughout the year. The Kt values for Nawabshah and Patidan indicates a clear sky almost throughout the year. In Nawabshah area the percentage of diffuse radiation does not exceed more than 29%. The appearance of cloud is rare even in the monsoon months July and August whereas Karachi and Hyderabad and Chore has low solar potential during the monsoon months. During the monsoon period Karachi and Hyderabad can utilize hybrid system with wind power as wind speed is higher. From the point of view of power generation the estimated values indicate that Karachi and Hyderabad and chore has low solar potential for July and August while Nawabshah, and Padidan has high solar potential Throughout the year.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiation, province of Sindh, solar energy potential, solar radiation studies for power generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
46 A Detail Analysis of Solar Energy Potential of Provinces of Pakistan for Power Generation

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan

Abstract:

Solar energy potential of Capital city Islamabad and five major cities Peshawar, Lahore, Multan, Quetta and Karachi have been analyzed by using sun shine hour data of the area. Global and diffused solar radiation on horizontal surfaces has been assessed to see the feasibility of solar energy utilization. The result obtained shows 70% direct and 30% diffuse solar radiation for five cities throughout the year except Karachi which shows large variation in direct and diffuse component of solar radiation 57% direct and 43% diffuse in the month of July and August. The cloudiness index were also calculated which lies between 60 to 70% for all the cities except for Karachi which shows 37% clear sky in monsoon month July and August. All the cities show high solar potential throughout the year except Karachi which shows low solar potential during July and August months.

Keywords: global and diffuse solar radiations, Pakistan, power generation, solar potential, sunshine hour

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45 Estimation of Global and Diffuse Solar Radiation Studies of Islamabad, Capital City of Pakistan

Authors: M. Akhlaque Ahmed, Maliha Afshan, Adeel Tahir

Abstract:

Global and diffuse solar radiation studies have been carried out for the Capital city of Pakistan, Islamabad ( latitude 330 43’N and Longitude 370 71’E) to assess the solar potential of the area. The global and diffuse solar radiation were carried out using sunshine hour data for the above-mentioned area. Monthly total solar radiation is calculated through regression constants a and b through declination angle of the sun and sunshine hours and KT that is cloudiness index are used to calculate the diffuse solar radiation. Result obtained shows variation in the direct and diffuse component of solar radiation in summer and winter months for Islamabad. Diffuse solar radiation was found maximum in July, i.e., 32% whereas direct or beam radiation was found to be high in April to June, i.e., 73%. During July, August, and December, the sky was found cloudy. From the result, it appears that with the exception of monsoon month July and August the solar energy can be utilized very efficiently throughout the year in Islamabad.

Keywords: global radiation, Islamabad, diffuse radiation, sky condition, sunshine hour

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
44 Coding of RMAC and Its Theoretical and Simulation-Based Performance Comparison with SMAC

Authors: Hamida Qumber Ali, Waseem Muhammad Arain, Shama Siddiqui, Sayeed Ghani

Abstract:

We present an implementing of RMAC in TinyOS 1.x. RMAC is a cross layer and Duty-cycle MAC protocols that was proposed to provide energy efficient transmission services for wireless sensor networks. The protocol has a unique and efficient packet transmission scheduling mechanism that enables it to overcome delivery latency and overcome traffic congestion. Design details and implementation challenges are divulged. Experiments are conducted to show the correctness of our implementation with numerous assumptions. Simulations are performed to compare the performance of RMAC and SMAC. Our results show that RMAC outperforms SMAC in energy efficiency and delay.

Keywords: MAC protocol, performance, RMAC, wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
43 Friction Stir Welding Process as a Solid State Joining -A Review

Authors: Mohd Anees Siddiqui, S. A. H. Jafri, Shahnawaz Alam

Abstract:

Through this paper an attempt is made to review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining. Friction stir welding is used for joining of two plates which are applied compressive force by using fixtures over the work table. This is a non consumable type welding technique in which a rotating tool of cylindrical shape is used. Process parameters such as tool geometry, joint design and process speed are discussed in the paper. Comparative study of Friction stir welding with other welding techniques such as MIG, TIG & GMAW is also done. Some light is put on several major applications of friction stir welding in different industries. Quality and environmental aspects of friction stir welding is also discussed.

Keywords: friction stir welding (FSW), process parameters, tool, solid state joining processes

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42 Pharmacokinetic Study of Clarithromycin in Human Female of Pakistani Population

Authors: Atifa Mushtaq, Tanweer Khaliq, Hafiz Alam Sher, Asia Farid, Anila Kanwal, Maliha Sarfraz

Abstract:

The study was designed to assess the various pharmacokinetic parameters of a commercially available clarithromycin Tablet (Klaricid® 250 mg Abbot, Pakistan) in plasma sample of healthy adult female volunteers by applying a rapid, sensitive and accurate HPLC-UV analytical method. The human plasma samples were evaluated by using an isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system of Sykam consisted of a pump with a column C18 column (250×4.6mn, 5µm) UV-detector. The mobile phase comprises of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (50 mM, pH 6.8, contained 0.7% triethylamine), methanol and acetonitrile (30:25:45, v/v/v) was delivered with injection volume of 20µL at flow rate of 1 mL/min. The detection was performed at λmax 275 nm. By applying this method, important pharmacokinetic parameters Cmax, Tmax, Area under curve (AUC), half-life (t1/2), , Volume of distribution (Vd) and Clearance (Cl) were measured. The parameters of pharmacokinetics of clarithromycin were calculated by software (APO) pharmacological analysis. Maximum plasma concentrations Cmax 2.78 ±0.33 µg/ml, time to reach maximum concentration tmax 2.82 ± 0.11 h and Area under curve AUC was 20.14 h.µg/ml. The mean ± SD values obtained for the pharmacokinetic parameters showed a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters observed in previous literature which emphasizes the need for dose adjustment of clarithromycin in Pakistani population.

Keywords: Pharmacokinetc, Clarothromycin, HPLC, Pakistan

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41 Numerical Simulation of Diesel Sprays under Hot Bomb Conditions

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Zia R. Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, F. Noor, M. J. Rashid

Abstract:

It has experimentally been proved that the performance of compression ignition (CI) engine is spray characteristics related. In modern diesel engine the spray formation and the eventual combustion process are the vital processes that offer more challenges towards enhancing the engine performance. In the present work, the numerical simulation has been carried out for evaporating diesel sprays using Fluent software. For computational fluid dynamics simulation “Meshing” is done using Gambit software before transmitting it into fluent. The simulation is carried out using hot bomb conditions under varying chamber conditions such as gas pressure, nozzle diameter and fuel injection pressure. For comparison purpose, the numerical simulations the chamber conditions were kept the same as that of the experimental data. At varying chamber conditions the spray penetration rates are compared with the existing experimental results.

Keywords: evaporating diesel sprays, penetration rates, hot bomb conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
40 Flow of a Second Order Fluid through Constricted Tube with Slip Velocity at Wall Using Integral Method

Authors: Nosheen Zareen Khan, Abdul Majeed Siddiqui, Muhammad Afzal Rana

Abstract:

The steady flow of a second order fluid through constricted tube with slip velocity at wall is modeled and analyzed theoretically. The governing equations are simplified by implying no slip in radial direction. Based on Karman Pohlhausen procedure polynomial solution for axial velocity profile is presented. An expressions for pressure gradient, shear stress, separation and reattachment points and radial velocity are also calculated. The effect of slip and no slip velocity on velocity, shear stress, pressure gradient are discussed and depicted graphically. It is noted that when Reynolds number increases velocity of the fluid decreases in both slip and no slip conditions. It is also found that the wall shear stress, separation and reattachment points are strongly effected by Reynolds number.

Keywords: approximate solution, constricted tube, non-Newtonian fluids, Reynolds number

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39 Performance Evaluation of Task Scheduling Algorithm on LCQ Network

Authors: Zaki Ahmad Khan, Jamshed Siddiqui, Abdus Samad

Abstract:

The Scheduling and mapping of tasks on a set of processors is considered as a critical problem in parallel and distributed computing system. This paper deals with the problem of dynamic scheduling on a special type of multiprocessor architecture known as Linear Crossed Cube (LCQ) network. This proposed multiprocessor is a hybrid network which combines the features of both linear type of architectures as well as cube based architectures. Two standard dynamic scheduling schemes namely Minimum Distance Scheduling (MDS) and Two Round Scheduling (TRS) schemes are implemented on the LCQ network. Parallel tasks are mapped and the imbalance of load is evaluated on different set of processors in LCQ network. The simulations results are evaluated and effort is made by means of through analysis of the results to obtain the best solution for the given network in term of load imbalance left and execution time. The other performance matrices like speedup and efficiency are also evaluated with the given dynamic algorithms.

Keywords: dynamic algorithm, load imbalance, mapping, task scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
38 Establishment of the Regression Uncertainty of the Critical Heat Flux Power Correlation for an Advanced Fuel Bundle

Authors: L. Q. Yuan, J. Yang, A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

A new regression uncertainty analysis methodology was applied to determine the uncertainties of the critical heat flux (CHF) power correlation for an advanced 43-element bundle design, which was developed by Canadian Nuclear Laboratories (CNL) to achieve improved economics, resource utilization and energy sustainability. The new methodology is considered more appropriate than the traditional methodology in the assessment of the experimental uncertainty associated with regressions. The methodology was first assessed using both the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) and the Taylor Series Method (TSM) for a simple linear regression model, and then extended successfully to a non-linear CHF power regression model (CHF power as a function of inlet temperature, outlet pressure and mass flow rate). The regression uncertainty assessed by MCM agrees well with that by TSM. An equation to evaluate the CHF power regression uncertainty was developed and expressed as a function of independent variables that determine the CHF power.

Keywords: CHF experiment, CHF correlation, regression uncertainty, Monte Carlo Method, Taylor Series Method

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37 Development of Hydrophobic Coatings on Aluminum Alloy 7075

Authors: Nauman A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

High performance requirement of aircrafts and marines industry demands to cater major industrial problems like wetting, high-speed efficiency, and corrosion resistance. These problems can be resolved by producing the hydrophobic surfaces on the metal substrate. By anodization process, the surface of AA 7075 has been modified and achieved a rough surface with a porous aluminum oxide (Al2O3) structure at nano-level. This surface modification process reduces the surface contact energy and increases the liquid contact angle which ultimately enhances the anti-icing properties. Later the Silane and Polyurethane (PU) coatings on the anodized surface have produced a contact angle of 130°. The results showed a good water repellency and self-cleaning properties. Using SEM analysis, micrographs revealed the round nano-porous oxide structure on the substrate. Therefore this technique can help in increasing the speed efficiency by reducing the friction with the outer interaction and can also be declared as a green technique since it is user-friendly.

Keywords: AA 7075, hydrophobicity, silanes, polyurethane, anodization

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
36 The Flow Separation Delay on the Aircraft Wing

Authors: Ishtiaq A. Chaudhry, Z. R. Tahir, F. A. Siddiqui, Z. Anwar, F. Valenzuelacalva

Abstract:

A series of experiments involving the particle image velocimetry technique are carried out to analyse the quantitative effectiveness of the synthesized vortical structures towards actual flow separation control. The streamwise vortices are synthesized from the synthetic jet actuator and introduced into the attached and separating boundary layer developed on the flat plate surface. Two types of actuators with different geometrical set up are used to analyse the evolution of vortical structures in the near wall region and their impact towards achieving separation delay on the actual aircraft wing. Firstly a single circular jet is synthesized at varying actuator operating parameters and issued into the boundary layer to evaluate the dynamics of the interaction between the vortical structures and the near wall low momentum fluid in the separated region. Secondly, an array of jets has been issued into the artificially separated region to assess the effectiveness of various vortical structures towards achieving the reattachment of the separated flow in the streamwise direction.

Keywords: boundary layer, flow separation, streamwise vortices, synthetic jet actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
35 Time Overrun in Pre-Construction Planning Phase of Construction Projects

Authors: Hafiz Usama Imad, Muhammad Akram Akhund, Tauha Hussain Ali, Ali Raza Khoso, Fida Hussain Siddiqui

Abstract:

Construction industry plays a significant role in fulfilling the major requirements of the human being. It is one of the major constituents of every developed country. Although the construction industry of both the developing and developed countries encompasses a major part of the economy, and millions of rupees are utilized every year on various kinds of construction projects. But, this industry is facing numerous hurdles in terms of its budget and timely completion. Construction projects generally consist of several phases like planning, designing, execution, and finishing. This research study aims to determine the significant factors of time overrun in pre-construction planning (PCP) phase of construction projects in Pakistan. Questionnaires were distributed by various means and responses of respondents were compiled and collected data were then analyzed through a statistical technique using SPSS version 24. Major causes of time overrun in pre-construction planning phase; which is an extremely important phase of construction projects, were revealed. The research conclusion will provide a pathway for stakeholders to pay attention to the mentioned causes to overcome the major issue of time overrun.

Keywords: construction industry, Pakistan, pre-construction planning phase, time overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
34 Characterization of Onion Peels Extracts and Its Utilization in a Deep Fried Snack

Authors: Nabia Siddiqui, Tahira Mohsin Ali, Tanveer Abbas, Abid Hasnain

Abstract:

The present study proposed the use of different onion peel extracts in a South Asian snacks called ‘sew’. The polyphenols extracted from peels were initially analyzed for their antimicrobial potential and bioactive components following three different extraction systems. A relatively higher level of total phenolic content (TP), total flavonoid (TF) and antioxidant activity was observed for EWE (ethanol and water based) extracts followed by EAAE (ethanol and acetic acid) and WE (water extract) sample. Onion extracts showed ability to inhibit gram-positive as well as gram-negative bacteria. The incorporation of onion peel extracts in sew showed a marked increase in bioactive components. Besides bioactivity, sensory attributes, textural characteristics and storage stability of these snacks containing onion peel extract also significantly improved during the shelf study at ambient temperature for up to two months. Thus, these results justify the utilization of these plant polyphenols in fried snacks.

Keywords: onion peels extract, South Asian snacks, antioxidant capacity, bioactivity

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
33 Analysis of Wire Coating for Heat Transfer Flow of a Viscoelastic PTT Fluid with Slip Boundary Conditions

Authors: Rehan Ali Shah, A. M. Siddiqui, T. Haroon

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Slip boundary value problem in wire coating analysis with heat transfer is examined. The fluid is assumed to be viscoelastic PTT (Phan-Thien and Tanner). The rheological constitutive equation of PTT fluid model simulates various polymer melts. Therefore, the current consequences are valuable in a number of realistic situations. Effects of slip parameter γ as well as εDec^2 (viscoelastic index) on the axial velocity, shear stress, normal stress, average velocity, volume flux, thickness of coated wire, shear stress, force on the total wire and temperature distribution profiles have been investigated. A new direction is explored to analyze the flow with the slip parameter. The slippage at the boundaries plays an important role in thickness of coated wire. It is noted that as the slip parameter increases the flow rate and thickness of coated wire increases while, temperature distribution decreases. The results reduce to no slip when the slip parameter is vanished. Furthermore, we can obtain the results for Maxwell and viscous model by setting ε and λ equal to zero respectively.

Keywords: wire coating, straight annular die, PTT fluid, heat transfer, slip boundary conditions

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32 UI-Related KPIs That Are Most Sensitive to Gen Z User Satisfaction on E-Commerce Websites According to Machine Learning Algorithms

Authors: Mohammad Ahsan Siddiqui, Samima Khan, Muzaina Rahim, Afshan Ejaz

Abstract:

As the growth of the Internet allows more businesses to set up e-commerce stores, they face a new problem: ensuring customer retention and loyalty online. Producing a highly satisfying user experience via good website design is pivotal in tackling these challenges, so it is imperative for businesses and software developers to know which design metrics to focus on when developing their websites. This research answers the following question: which UI satisfaction metrics are of most importance in satisfying users of an e-commerce platform? Previous research has already examined how usability, efficiency and effectiveness affect user satisfaction, but the impact of a multitude of other design metrics remains unexplored. This research addresses this gap by using 15 design metrics and mouse usage data, both obtained from lab experiments, to identify the top 12 satisfaction metrics via machine learning techniques. The findings are obtained via the usage of 4 different machine learning models: decision tree, random forest, linear SVC, and logistic regression. The findings have implications for software developers, who can prioritize building those software features first, which are affected by these UI satisfaction metrics, leading to better Return on Investment (ROI) as user satisfaction on the website rises.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, human-computer interaction, machine learning, user satisfaction

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31 Architectural and Sedimentological Parameterization for Reservoir Quality of Miocene Onshore Sandstone, Borneo

Authors: Numair A. Siddiqui, Usman Muhammad, Manoj J. Mathew, Ramkumar M., Benjamin Sautter, Muhammad A. K. El-Ghali, David Menier, Shiqi Zhang

Abstract:

The sedimentological parameterization of shallow-marine siliciclastic reservoirs in terms of reservoir quality and heterogeneity from outcrop study can help improve the subsurface reservoir prediction. An architectural analysis has documented variations in sandstone geometry and rock properties within shallow-marine sandstone exposed in the Miocene Sandakan Formation of Sabah, Borneo. This study demonstrates reservoir sandstone quality assessment for subsurface rock evaluation, from well-exposed successions of the Sandakan Formation, Borneo, with which applicable analogues can be identified. The analyses were based on traditional conventional field investigation of outcrops, grain-size and petrographic studies of hand specimens of different sandstone facies and gamma-ray and permeability measurements. On the bases of these evaluations, the studied sandstone was grouped into three qualitative reservoir rock classes; high (Ø=18.10 – 43.60%; k=1265.20 – 5986.25 mD), moderate (Ø=17.60 – 37%; k=21.36 – 568 mD) and low quality (Ø=3.4 – 15.7%; k=3.21 – 201.30 mD) for visualization and prediction of subsurface reservoir quality. These results provided analogy for shallow marine sandstone reservoir complexity that can be utilized in the evaluation of reservoir quality of regional and subsurface analogues.

Keywords: architecture and sedimentology, subsurface rock evaluation, reservoir quality, borneo

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
30 Health Belief Model to Predict Sharps Injuries among Health Care Workers at First Level Care Facilities in Rural Pakistan

Authors: Mohammad Tahir Yousafzai, Amna Rehana Siddiqui, Naveed Zafar Janjua

Abstract:

We assessed the frequency and predictors of sharp injuries (SIs) among health care workers (HCWs) at first level care facilities (FLCF) in rural Pakistan. HCWs working at public clinic (PC), privately owned licensed practitioners’ clinic (LPC) and non-licensed practitioners’ clinic (NLC) were interviewed on universal precautions (UPs) and constructs of health belief model (HBM) to assess their association with SIs through negative-binomial regression. From 365 clinics, 485 HCWs were interviewed. Overall annual rate of Sis was 192/100 HCWs/year; 78/100 HCWs among licensed prescribers, 191/100 HCWs among non-licensed prescribers, 248/100 HCWs among qualified assistants, and 321/100 HCWs among non-qualified assistants. Increasing knowledge score about bloodborne pathogens (BBPs) transmission (rate-ratio (RR): 0.93; 95%CI: 0.89–0.96), fewer years of work experience, being a non-licensed prescriber (RR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.36–2.98) licensed (RR: 2.86; 9%CI: 1.81–4.51) or non-licensed assistant (RR: 2.78; 95%CI: 1.72–4.47) compared to a licensed prescriber, perceived barriers (RR: 1.06;95%CI: 1.03–1.08), and compliance with UPs scores (RR: 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87–0.97) were significant predictors of SIs. Improved knowledge about BBPs, compliance with UPs and reduced barriers to follow UPs could reduce SIs to HCWs.

Keywords: health belief model, sharp injuries, needle stick injuries, healthcare workers

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
29 PLC Based Automatic Railway Crossing System for India

Authors: Tapan Upadhyay, Aqib Siddiqui, Sameer Khan

Abstract:

Railway crossing system in India is a manually operated level crossing system, either manned or unmanned. The main aim is to protect pedestrians and vehicles from colliding with trains, which pass at regular intervals, as India has the largest and busiest railway network. But because of human error and negligence, every year thousands of lives are lost due to accidents at railway crossings. To avoid this, we suggest a solution, by using Programmable Logical Controller (PLC) based automatic system, which will automatically control the barrier as well as roadblocks to stop people from crossing while security warning is given. Often people avoid security warning, and pass two-wheelers from beneath the barrier, while the train is at a distance away. This paper aims at reducing the fatality and accident rate by controlling barrier and roadblocks using sensors which sense the incoming train and vehicles and sends a signal to PLC. The PLC in return sends a signal to barrier and roadblocks. Once the train passes, the barrier and roadblocks retrieve back, and the passage is clear for vehicles and pedestrians to cross. PLC’s are used because they are very flexible, cost effective, space efficient, reduces complexity and minimises errors. Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) is used to monitor the functioning.

Keywords: level crossing, PLC, sensors, SCADA

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28 Enrichment and Flux of Heavy Metals along the Coastal Sediments of Pakistan

Authors: Asmat Siddiqui, Noor Us Saher

Abstract:

Heavy metal contamination in the marine environment is a global issue, and in past decades, this problem has intensified due to an increase in urbanization and industrialization, especially in developing countries. Marine sediments act as a preliminary indicator of heavy metal contamination in the coastal and estuarine environment, which has adverse effects on biota as well as in the marine system. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the contamination status, enrichment, and flux of heavy metals in two monitoring years from coastal sediments of Pakistan. A total of 74 sediment samples were collected from seven coastal areas of Pakistan in two monitoring years, 2001-03 (MY-I) and 2011-13 (MY-II). The geochemical properties (grain size analysis, organic contents and eight heavy metals, i.e. Fe, Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Co, Pb, and Cd) of all sediment samples were analyzed. A significant increase in Fe, Ni and Cr concentrations detected between the years, whereas no significant differences were exhibited in Cu, Zn, Co, Pb and Cd concentrations. The extremely high enrichment (>50) of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were scrutinized in both monitoring years. The annual deposition flux of heavy metals ranged from 0.63 to 66.44 and 0.78 to 68.27 tons per year in MY-I and MY-II, respectively, with the lowest flux evaluated for Cd and highest for Zn in both monitoring years. A significant increase (p <0.05) was observed in the burial flux of Cr and Ni during the last decade in coastal sediments. The use of geo-indicators is helpful to assess the contamination analysis for management and conservation of the marine environment.

Keywords: coastal contamination, enrichment factor, geo-indicator, heavy metal flux

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
27 A Review on the Problems of Constructing a Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Amber Jamal, Imran Siddiqui, Syed Tanveer Iqbal

Abstract:

This review is aimed to shed some light on problems constructing a theory of spacetime and geometry in terms of all quantum degrees of freedom called ‘Quantum Gravity’. Such a theory, which is effective at all scales of distances and energies, describes the enigma of the beginning of the Universe, its possible end, and reducing to general relativity at large distances but in a semi-classical approximation. Furthermore, the theory of quantum gravity also describes the Universe as a whole and provides a description of most fundamental questions that have puzzled scientists for decades, such as: what is space, what is time, and what is the fundamental structure of the Universe, is the spacetime discrete, if it is, where does the continuum of spacetime come from at low energies and macroscopic scales and where does it emerge from its fundamentally discrete building blocks? Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is a framework which describes the microscopic properties and dynamics of the basic building blocks of any condensed matter system. In QFT, atoms are quanta of continuous fields. At smaller scales or higher energies, the continuum description of spacetime fails. Therefore, a new description is required in terms of microscopic constituents (atoms or molecules). The objective of this scientific endeavor is to discuss the above-mentioned problems rigorously and to discuss possible way-out of the problems.

Keywords: QFT, quantum degrees of freedom, quantum gravity, semi-classical approximation

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
26 To Design a Full Stack Online Educational Website Using HTML, CSS and Java Script

Authors: Yash Goyal, Manish Korde, Juned Siddiqui

Abstract:

Today online education has gained more popularity so that people can easily complete their curriculum on their own time. Virtual learning has been widely used by many educators, especially in higher education institutions due to its benefits to students and faculty. A good knowledge of teaching theory and instructional design systems is required to experience meaningful learning. However, most educational websites are not designed to adapt to all screen sizes. Making the website accessible on all screen sizes is our main objective, so we have created a website that is readily accessible across all screen sizes and accepts all types of payment methods. And we see generally educational websites interface is simple and unexciting. So, we have made a user interface attractive and user friendly. It is not enough for a website to be user-friendly, but also to be familiar to admins and to reduce the workload of the admin as well. We visited so many popular websites under development that they all had issues like responsiveness, simple interface, security measures, payment methods, etc. To overcome this limitation, we have created a website which has taken care of security issues that is why we have created only one admin id and it can be control from that only. And if the user has successfully done the payment, then the admin can send him a username and password through mail individually so there will no fraud in the payment of the course.

Keywords: responsive, accessible, attractive, interface, objective, security.

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25 Prioritizing the TQM Enablers and IT Resources in the ICT Industry: An AHP Approach

Authors: Suby Khanam, Faisal Talib, Jamshed Siddiqui

Abstract:

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a managerial approach that improves the competitiveness of the industry, meanwhile Information technology (IT) was introduced with TQM for handling the technical issues which is supported by quality experts for fulfilling the customers’ requirement. Present paper aims to utilise AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) methodology to priorities and rank the hierarchy levels of TQM enablers and IT resource together for its successful implementation in the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) industry. A total of 17 TQM enablers (nine) and IT resources (eight) were identified and partitioned into 3 categories and were prioritised by AHP approach. The finding indicates that the 17 sub-criteria can be grouped into three main categories namely organizing, tools and techniques, and culture and people. Further, out of 17 sub-criteria, three sub-criteria: Top management commitment and support, total employee involvement, and continuous improvement got highest priority whereas three sub-criteria such as structural equation modelling, culture change, and customer satisfaction got lowest priority. The result suggests a hierarchy model for ICT industry to prioritise the enablers and resources as well as to improve the TQM and IT performance in the ICT industry. This paper has some managerial implication which suggests the managers of ICT industry to implement TQM and IT together in their organizations to get maximum benefits and how to utilize available resources. At the end, conclusions, limitation, future scope of the study are presented.

Keywords: analytic hierarchy process, information technology, information and communication technology, prioritization, total quality management

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24 Characterization of Two Hybrid Welding Techniques on SA 516 Grade 70 Weldments

Authors: M. T. Z. Butt, T. Ahmad, N. A. Siddiqui

Abstract:

Commercially SA 516 Grade 70 is frequently used for the manufacturing of pressure vessels, boilers and storage tanks etc. in fabrication industry. Heat input is the major parameter during welding that may bring significant changes in the microstructure as well as the mechanical properties. Different welding technique has different heat input rate per unit surface area. Materials with large thickness are dealt with different combination of welding techniques to achieve required mechanical properties. In the present research two schemes: Scheme 1: SMAW (Shielded Metal Arc Welding) & GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) and Scheme 2: SMAW & SAW (Submerged Arc Welding) of hybrid welding techniques have been studied. The purpose of these schemes was to study hybrid welding effect on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the weldment, heat affected zone and base metal area. It is significant to note that the thickness of base plate was 12 mm, also welding conditions and parameters were set according to ASME Section IX. It was observed that two different hybrid welding techniques performed on two different plates demonstrated that the mechanical properties of both schemes are more or less similar. It means that the heat input, welding techniques and varying welding operating conditions & temperatures did not make any detrimental effect on the mechanical properties. Hence, the hybrid welding techniques mentioned in the present study are favorable to implicate for the industry using the plate thickness around 12 mm thick.

Keywords: grade 70, GTAW, hybrid welding, SAW, SMAW

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23 Pegylated Interferon in HCV Genotype 3 Relapser to Conventional Interferon in Pakistani Population

Authors: Saad Khalid Niaz, Arif Mahmood Siddiqui, Afzal Haqi

Abstract:

Background: Estimated prevalence of Hepatitis C in Pakistan is 5% of which 78 % are Genotype 3, in which Response to conventional interferon is reported to be 70%. Objective: To determine the efficacy of pegylated interferon 20 kDa (Unipeg) plus ribavirin (Ribazole) in HCV genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. Methods: This is an ongoing study of 20 enrolled patients. Pegylated interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg weekly with ribavirin, were administered for a period of 24 weeks. Virological Responses were measured by Qualitative HCV RNA at weeks 4, 12, 24 and 48 to determine Rapid Virological Response (RVR), Early Virological Response (EVR), End of Treatment (ETR) and Sustained Virological Response (SVR), respectively. EVR was done for those who didn’t achieve RVR. Results: Males were 12 (60%) and mean age was 38.5 ±7.62 years. Out of 20 recruited patients, all completed 4 weeks therapy; RVR was achieved in 8 (40%) patients. One patient was lost to follow up and one yet to visit at 12 weeks. From 10 patients, 8 (80%) patients achieved EVR. Out of intent-to-treat patients, 15 completed 24 weeks therapy, ETR was achieved in 14 (93%) patients and 9 patients completed post therapy follow-up, of which, 8 (89%) patients achieved SVR. Conclusion: Our interim data demonstrates that Pegylated Interferon alfa-2a 20 kDa 180 mcg (Unipeg) in combination with Ribavirin (Ribazole) has shown promising results in treating HCV Genotype 3 patients who relapsed to conventional interferon. We recommend use of Pegylated Interferon in Relapsers with Genotype 3 when financial constraints limit the use of oral antivirals.

Keywords: pegylated interferon (unipeg), hepatitis c, relapsers, Pakistan

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22 Depressive Trends in Children and Adolescents Suffering from Beta-Thalassemia

Authors: Sanober Khanum, Barerah Siddiqui, Asim Qidwai

Abstract:

Objective: To determine the risk factors and frequency of depressive trends in children and adolescents suffering from Beta-Thalassemia. Background: Thalassemia is a chronic disease affecting 10,000 people in 60 countries. Many studies show that prolonged medical conditions cause depression. Due to the invasive procedures and suffering, Beta-Thalassemia cause great psychological distress to both children and their caregivers. The study shows 14-24% prevalence of psychiatric problems in Thalassemic patients. Method: Sample consisted of 195 registered patients of A.M.T.F (Female=95 and Male=100). Based on age range the sample was divided into two groups, Group A = children (4-9 years) and Group B = adolescent (10-16 years). A detailed interview with a self-made screening measure was administered on parents to find out the level of depression in patients. Statistics: Chi-square and t-test was applied in order to analyze the data. Results show high prevalence of depression, depression n= 131(66.83%), no depression n=65(33.16%). Analyses reflect that age influences the level of depression Adolescent (71.05%) and Children (64.16%). The analysis also shows a difference in level of depression between both genders. (t=2.975, p < .05). Conclusion: There is a high possibility of developing depressive trend in children affected with Beta Thalassemia; especially females. Therefore, there is a dire need for psychological screening and appropriate treatment in order to improve physical; as well as mental health.

Keywords: childhood depression, chronic illness, psychopathology, Thalassemia

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21 The Climate Impact Due to Clouds and Selected Greenhouse Gases by Short Wave Upwelling Radiative Flux within Spectral Range of Space-Orbiting Argus1000 Micro-Spectrometer

Authors: Rehan Siddiqui, Brendan Quine

Abstract:

The Radiance Enhancement (RE) and integrated absorption technique is applied to develop a synthetic model to determine the enhancement in radiance due to cloud scene and Shortwave upwelling Radiances (SHupR) by O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4. This new model is used to estimate the magnitude variation for RE and SHupR over spectral range of 900 nm to 1700 nm by varying surface altitude, mixing ratios and surface reflectivity. In this work, we employ satellite real observation of space orbiting Argus 1000 especially for O2, H2O, CO2 and CH4 together with synthetic model by using line by line GENSPECT radiative transfer model. All the radiative transfer simulations have been performed by varying over a different range of percentages of water vapor contents and carbon dioxide with the fixed concentration oxygen and methane. We calculate and compare both the synthetic and real measured observed data set of different week per pass of Argus flight. Results are found to be comparable for both approaches, after allowing for the differences with the real and synthetic technique. The methodology based on RE and SHupR of the space spectral data can be promising for the instant and reliable classification of the cloud scenes.

Keywords: radiance enhancement, radiative transfer, shortwave upwelling radiative flux, cloud reflectivity, greenhouse gases

Procedia PDF Downloads 253