Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Search results for: Maachou Dani El Kebir

27 A Behavioral Approach of Impulse Buying: Application to Algerian Food Stores

Authors: Amel Graa, Maachou Dani El Kebir


This paper investigates the impulse buying behavior of Algerian consumer. In that purpose, we try to better understand processes underlying impulsive buying experiences by examining the theoretical framework and using Mehrabian and Russell’s structure. A model is then proposed and tested on a sample of 1500 shoppers who were recruited among customers of food stores. This model aims to explain the role of some situational variables, personal variables, variables linked to the product characteristics and emotional states on the impulse buying behavior. Following to this empirical study, it was possible to conclude that Algerian consumer has a weak tendency toward impulse buying of food products. The results indicate that seller guidance has a significant impact on the impulse buying, whereas the price of the product was negatively related. According to the results; perception of crowding was associated with scarcity and it was positively linked with impulse buying behavior. This study can help marketers determine the in-store factors that impact purely spontaneous purchases of items that otherwise would not end up in the shopping cart. Our research findings offer important information for benchmarking managerial expectations with regard to product selection and merchandising decisions. As futures perspectives, we propose new research areas related to the impulse buying behavior such as studying different types of stores (for example supermarket), or other types of product (clothing), or studying consumption of food products in religious month of Muslims (Ramadan).

Keywords: impulse buying, situational variables, personal variables, emotional states, PAD model of Merhabian and Russell, Algerian consumer

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26 Impact of El-Matrouha Landfill on Oued El-Kebir (North East of Algeria)

Authors: Mohamed Djalil Zaafour, Samir Chekchaki, Mohamed Benslama


The Landfill of El Matrouha is located in El-Tarf town (extreme north east of Algeria), the Landfill is present as a gigantic wild dump. This waste dump occupies an area of over four hectares, tons of rubbish that is sent daily are scattered over kilometers, reaching farmland located west of the town, the landfill is close to a temporary Oued, which supply Oued Guergour the last tributary Oued El Kebir. The landfills are causing serious environmental damage, following the infiltration of leachates, which contribute to the degradation of water quality, in the context of this problem, the purpose of the work is focused on assessing the impact of this landfill on Oued El-Kebir, for this a series of sampling and analysis of the soil and water of this Oued was performed; The results show that the soil collected reveal the sandy texture facilitating infiltration and percolation of leachate from the landfill; the physicochemical analysis of the quality of the river water reveals high levels of sulfates in fact this element is one of the essential constituents of the mineral fraction of the waste presenting a risk of pollution by this element, The recorded values for nutrients are sub-standard, for trace elements analysis shows very low metal load on the river except for lead, which is present at high concentrations exceeding all standard.

Keywords: Algeria, landfill, leachates, Oued El-kebir

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25 Condition Monitoring for Controlling the Stability of the Rotating Machinery

Authors: A. Chellil, I. Gahlouz, S. Lecheb, A. Nour, S. Chellil, H. Mechakra, H. Kebir


In this paper, the experimental study for the instability of a separator rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor are developed. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the defects effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. Experimentally, the study of the rotor in the transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, frequency, finite element, specter

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24 Numerical Study for Structural Design of Composite Rotor with Crack Initiation

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H.Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir


In this paper, the numerical study for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good Stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

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23 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Samir Lecheb, Ahmed Chellil, Hamza Mechakra, Brahim Safi, Houcine Kebir


In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: blade, crack, frequency, material, SIF

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22 Fracture and Dynamic Behavior of Leaf Spring Suspension

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, S. Attou, H. Kebir


Although leaf springs are one of the oldest suspension components they are still frequently used, especially in commercial vehicles. Being able to capture the leaf spring characteristics is of significant importance for vehicle handling dynamics studies. The main function of leaf spring is not only to support vertical load but also to isolate road induced vibrations. It is subjected to millions of load cycles leading to fatigue failure. It needs to have excellent fatigue life. The objective of this work is its use of Abaqus software to locate the most stressed areas and predict the areas in which it occurs in fatigue and crack of leaf spring and calculate the stress and frequencies of this model.

Keywords: leaf spring, crack, stress, natural frequencies

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21 Preparation and in vitro Characterisation of Chitosan/Hydroxyapatite Injectable Microspheres as Hard Tissue Substitution

Authors: H. Maachou, A. Chagnes, G. Cote


The present work reports the properties of chitosan/hydroxyapatite (Cs/HA: 100/00, 70/30 and 30/70) composite microspheres obtained by emulsification processing route. The morphology of chitosane microspheres was observed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) which shows an aggregate of spherical microspheres with a particle size, determined by optical microscope, ranged from 4 to 10 µm. Thereafter, a biomimetic approach was used to study the in vitro biomineralization of these composites. It concerns the composites immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF) for different times. The deposited calcium phosphate was studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), FTIR spectroscopy and ICP analysis of phosphorus. In fact, the mineral formed on Cs/HA microspheres was a mixture of carbonated HA and β-TCP as showed by FTIR peaks at 1419,5 and 871,8 cm-1 and XRD peak at 29,5°. This formation was induced by the presence of HA in chitosan microspheres. These results are confirmed by SEM micrographs which chow the Ca-P crystals growth in form of cauliflowers. So, these materials are of great interest for bone regeneration applications due to their ability to nucleate calcium phosphates in presence of simulated body fluid (SBF).

Keywords: hydroxyapatite, chitosan, microsphere, composite, bone regeneration

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20 Dynamic Analysis and Instability of a Rotating Composite Rotor

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb, H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir


In this paper, the dynamic response for the instability of a composite rotor is presented, under dynamic loading response in the harmonic analysis condition. The analysis of the stress which operates the rotor is done. Calculations of different energies and the virtual work of the aerodynamic loads from the rotor blade is developed. The use of the composite material for the rotor, offers a good stability. Numerical calculations on the model develop of three dimensions prove that the damage effect has a negative effect on the stability of the rotor. The study of the composite rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, composite, damage, finite element, numerical

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19 Repair of Cracked Aluminum Plate by Composite Patch

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, A. Zeggane, H. Kebir


In this work, repaired crack in 6061-T6 aluminum plate with composite patches presented, firstly we determine the displacement, strain, and stress, also the first six mode shape of the plate, secondly we took the same model adding central crack initiation, which is located in the center of the plate, its size vary from 20 mm to 60 mm and we compare the first results with second. Thirdly, we repair various cracks with the composite patch (carbon/epoxy) and for (2 layers, 4 layers). Finally, the comparison of stress, strain, displacement and six first natural frequencies between un-cracked specimen, crack propagation and composite patch repair.

Keywords: composite patch repair, crack growth, aluminum alloy plate, stress

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18 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Rotor Dynamic Stability

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, A. Bouderba, H. Kebir


The study of the rotor dynamic in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to various excitations. This work presents a coupled gyroscopic effect in the defects of a rotor under dynamic loading. Calculations of different energies and virtual work from the various elements of the rotor are developed. To treat real systems a model of finite element was developed. This model of the rotor makes it possible to extract the frequencies and modal deformed, and to calculate the stresses in the critical zone. The study of the rotor in transient system allowed to determine the vibratory responses due to the unbalances, crack and various excitations.

Keywords: rotor, defect, finite element, numerical

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17 Mechanical Characteristics on Fatigue Crack Propagation in Aluminum Plate

Authors: A. Chellil, A. Nour, S. Lecheb , H. Mechakra, L. Addar, H. Kebir


This paper present a mechanical characteristics on fatigue crack propagation in Aluminium Plate based on strain and stress distribution using the abaqus software. The changes in shear strain and stress distribution during the fatigue cycle with crack growth is identified. In progressive crack in the strain distribution and the stress is increase in the critical zone. Numerical Modal analysis of the model developed, prove that the Eigen frequencies of aluminium plate were decreased after cracking, and this reduce is nonlinear. These results can provide a reference for analysts and designers of aluminium alloys in aeronautical systems. Therefore, the modal analysis is an important factor for monitoring the aeronautic structures.

Keywords: aluminum alloys, plate, crack, failure

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16 Behavior Fatigue Life of Wind Turbine Rotor with Longitudinal Crack Growth

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Tchina, H. Kebir


This study concerned the dynamic behavior of the wind turbine rotor. Before all, we have studied the loads applied to the rotor, which allows the knowledge their effect on the fatigue. We also studied the movement of the longitudinal cracked rotor in order to determine stress, strain and displacement. Moreover, to study the issues of cracks in the critical zone ABAQUS software is used, which based to the finite element to give the results. In the first we compared the first six modes shapes between cracking and uncracking of HAWT rotor. In the second part, we show the evolution of six first naturals frequencies with longitudinal crack propagation. Finally, we conclude that the residual change in the naturals frequencies can be used as in shaft crack diagnosis predictive maintenance.

Keywords: wind turbine rotor, natural frequencies, longitudinal crack growth, life time

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15 Object-Oriented Program Comprehension by Identification of Software Components and Their Connexions

Authors: Abdelhak-Djamel Seriai, Selim Kebir, Allaoua Chaoui


During the last decades, object oriented program- ming has been massively used to build large-scale systems. However, evolution and maintenance of such systems become a laborious task because of the lack of object oriented programming to offer a precise view of the functional building blocks of the system. This lack is caused by the fine granularity of classes and objects. In this paper, we use a post object-oriented technology namely software components, to propose an approach based on the identification of the functional building blocks of an object oriented system by analyzing its source code. These functional blocks are specified as software components and the result is a multi-layer component based software architecture.

Keywords: software comprehension, software component, object oriented, software architecture, reverse engineering

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14 Valorisation of a Bioflocculant and Hydroxyapatites as Coagulation-Flocculation Adjuvants in Wastewater Treatment of the Steppe in the Wilaya of Saida

Authors: Fatima Zohra Choumane, Belkacem Benguella, Bouhana Maachou, Nacera Saadi


Pollution caused by wastewater is a serious problem in Algeria. This pollution has certainly harmful effects on the environment. In order to reduce the bad effects of these pollutants, many wastewater treatment processes, mainly physicochemical, are implemented. This study consists in using two flocculants; the first one is a biodegradable natural bioflocculant, i.e. Cactaceaeou ficus-indica cactus juice, and the second is the synthetic hydroxyapatite, in a physico-chemical process through coagulation-flocculation, using two coagulants, i.e. ferric chloride and aluminum sulfate, to treat wastewater collected at the entrance of the treatment plant, in the town of Saida. The influence of various experimental parameters, such as the amounts of coagulants and flocculants used, pH, turbidity, COD and BOD5, was investigated. The coagulation - flocculation jar tests of wastewater reveal that ferric chloride, containing a mass of 0.3 g – hydroxyapatite, treated for 1 hour through calcination, is the most effective adjuvant in clarifying the wastewater, with turbidity equal to 98.16 %. In the presence of the two bioflocculants, Cactaceae juice and aluminum sulphate, with a dose of 0.2 g, flocculation is good, with turbidity equal to 95.61 %. Examination of the key reaction parameters, following the flocculation tests of wastewater, shows that the degree of pollution decreases. This is confirmed by the COD and turbidity values obtained. Examination of these results suggests the use of these flocculants in wastewater treatment.

Keywords: wastewater, cactus ficus-indica, hydroxyapatite, coagulation - flocculation

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13 Stress Intensity Factor for Dynamic Cracking of Composite Material by X-FEM Method

Authors: S. Lecheb, A. Nour, A. Chellil, H. Mechakra, N. Hamad, H. Kebir


The work involves develops attended by a numerical execution of the eXtend Finite Element Method premises a measurement by the fracture process cracked so many cracked plates an application will be processed for the calculation of the stress intensity factor SIF. In the first we give in statically part the distribution of stress, displacement field and strain of composite plate in two cases uncrack/edge crack, also in dynamical part the first six modes shape. Secondly, we calculate Stress Intensity Factor SIF for different orientation angle θ of central crack with length (2a=0.4mm) in plan strain condition, KI and KII are obtained for mode I and mode II respectively using X-FEM method. Finally from crack inclined involving mixed modes results, the comparison we chose dangerous inclination and the best crack angle when K is minimal.

Keywords: stress intensity factor (SIF), crack orientation, glass/epoxy, natural frequencies, X-FEM

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12 The Islamic Advertising Standardisation Revisited of Food Products

Authors: Nurzahidah Haji Jaapar, Anis Husna Abdul Halim, Mohd Faiz Mohamed Yusof, Mohd Dani Muhamad, Sharifah Fadylawaty Syed Abdullah


The growing size of Muslim is recognised with significant increasing of purchasing power in the market. The realm of trade and business has embedded religious values as the new market segments are emerging in offering food products to meet needs and demands of Muslim consumer. The emergence of new market in food industry, advertising is charged with all sort of negative effects includes promoting controversial unsafety and harmful products, wasteful spending and exploiting women and kids. Therefore, this research attempts to examine between previous examinations of advertising standardisation in ancient era and current practices in the market. This paper is based on content analysis of the literature. The results show that there are a bridge gap between the implementation of practices as the advent in industrial 4.0 in using digital advertising by food industry. Thus, this paper is able to recognize the differences between two era and significant in determining the best practices in advertising by following Islamic principles.

Keywords: Islamic advertising, unethical advertising, ethical advertising, Islamic principles

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11 Not so Street Theatre: Politics in Theatre of Roots

Authors: Dani Karmakar


In India, the journey of street theatre was started with Indian peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) as a tool for anti-establishment that was categorized as by the people and for the people. It has expressed common people’s feelings, problems, day to day life. It has brought a social change that is downtrodden. By its nature, it is based on communist ideology. Street theatre is a theatre of protest. In India, many folk theatres translate directly ‘Street Theatre’, those are Veedhi Natakam in Andhra Pradesh and Therukoothu in Tamil Nadu. But they do not covey to common definition of street theatre. There are different folk theatres of different regions in India. All folk theatres have individual characteristic, criteria, taste and flavor that can render distinctive each others. In festivals or special occasions, whole communities come together to enjoy collectively and express their feelings. The Veedhi Natakam means 'street theatre'. Theru koothu is a traditional street theatre in the northern districts of Tamilnadu. Folk theatre has potential to deliver strong messages. It has a socially significant role. At Veedhi Natakam, Vidhushaka takes part for social criticism. Gambhira is also a socio-political folk drama presentation in West Bengal.

Keywords: folk theatre, Gambhira, politics, street theatre

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10 A Data Mining Approach for Analysing and Predicting the Bank's Asset Liability Management Based on Basel III Norms

Authors: Nidhin Dani Abraham, T. K. Sri Shilpa


Asset liability management is an important aspect in banking business. Moreover, the today’s banking is based on BASEL III which strictly regulates on the counterparty default. This paper focuses on prediction and analysis of counter party default risk, which is a type of risk occurs when the customers fail to repay the amount back to the lender (bank or any financial institutions). This paper proposes an approach to reduce the counterparty risk occurring in the financial institutions using an appropriate data mining technique and thus predicts the occurrence of NPA. It also helps in asset building and restructuring quality. Liability management is very important to carry out banking business. To know and analyze the depth of liability of bank, a suitable technique is required. For that a data mining technique is being used to predict the dormant behaviour of various deposit bank customers. Various models are implemented and the results are analyzed of saving bank deposit customers. All these data are cleaned using data cleansing approach from the bank data warehouse.

Keywords: data mining, asset liability management, BASEL III, banking

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9 Indian Brands Speak Through Colors That Is ‘Culturally Vibrant’

Authors: Ranjana Dani


Brand communication narratives in India has evolved today to reflect the vibrant and intriguing tone of voice inspired by a rich cultural heritage while addressing the culturally alert attitude of the contemporary global Indian. Brands are strongly associated with the organization's values, vision, and mission and portray this through specific ‘look and feel’ and ‘tone of voice’. It is within the brand’s visual language that COLOUR has evolved to become a most powerful weapon in the designer’s arsenal. Color is big business in Brand Design! A brand is a ‘collection of perceptions’, meaningful brand connect is about striving to occupy head and heart space in consumers. The persona of the young Indian reflects a deep attachment to cultural roots as seen through the characteristic of ‘Indie Pride,’ blended with the ambitious, aspirational traits of a modern ‘global citizen’.Studies on ‘Color Perceptions’ indicate a trend that amplifies this, and hence brands reflect a GLOCAL palette, a Global and Local Blend. This paper establishes this through case studies that expand the inspirations, selection processes, and use of innovative color palettes crafted by some dynamic brand designers. This throws light on the role of color as it generates visual impact and recall for successful brands.

Keywords: colour palettes, brand design and business, cultural context, colour perceptions, glocal, contemporaneity

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8 A Two-Stage Adaptation towards Automatic Speech Recognition System for Malay-Speaking Children

Authors: Mumtaz Begum Mustafa, Siti Salwah Salim, Feizal Dani Rahman


Recently, Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems were used to assist children in language acquisition as it has the ability to detect human speech signal. Despite the benefits offered by the ASR system, there is a lack of ASR systems for Malay-speaking children. One of the contributing factors for this is the lack of continuous speech database for the target users. Though cross-lingual adaptation is a common solution for developing ASR systems for under-resourced language, it is not viable for children as there are very limited speech databases as a source model. In this research, we propose a two-stage adaptation for the development of ASR system for Malay-speaking children using a very limited database. The two stage adaptation comprises the cross-lingual adaptation (first stage) and cross-age adaptation. For the first stage, a well-known speech database that is phonetically rich and balanced, is adapted to the medium-sized Malay adults using supervised MLLR. The second stage adaptation uses the speech acoustic model generated from the first adaptation, and the target database is a small-sized database of the target users. We have measured the performance of the proposed technique using word error rate, and then compare them with the conventional benchmark adaptation. The two stage adaptation proposed in this research has better recognition accuracy as compared to the benchmark adaptation in recognizing children’s speech.

Keywords: Automatic Speech Recognition System, children speech, adaptation, Malay

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7 Steady and Spatio-Temporal Monitoring of Water Quality Feeding Area Southwest of Great Casablanca (Morocco)

Authors: Hicham Maklache, Rajae Delhi, Fatiha Benzha, Mohamed Tahiri


In Morocco, where semi-arid climate is dominant, the supply of industrial and drink water is provided primarily by surface water. Morocco has currently 118 multi-purpose dams. If the construction of these works was a necessity to ensure in all seasons, the water essential to our country, it is impartial to control and protect the quality of running water. -Most dam reservoir used are threatened by eutrophication due to increased terrigenous and anthropogenic pollutants, coming from an over-fertilization of water by phosphorus and nitrogen nutrients and accelerated by uncontrolled development of microalgae aging. It should also be noted that the daily practices of citizens with respect to the resource, an essential component involved in almost all human activities (agriculture, agro-industries, hydropower, ...), has contributed significantly to the deterioration of water quality despite its treatment in several plants. Therefore, the treated water, provides a legacy of bad tastes and odors unacceptable to the consumer. -The present work exhibits results of water quality watershed Oum Erbia used to supply drinking water to the whole terraced area connecting the city of Khenifra to the city of Azemmour. The area south west of Great Casablanca (metropolis of the kingdom with about 4 million inhabitants) supplied 50% of its water needs by sourcing Dam Sidi Said Maachou located, last anchor point of the watershed before the spill in the Atlantic Ocean. The results were performed in a spatio-temporal scale and helped to establish a history of monitoring water quality during the 2009-2011 cycles, the study also presents the development of quality according to the seasonal rhythmicity and rainfall. It gives also an overview on the concept of watershed stewardship.

Keywords: crude surface water quality, Oum Er Rbia hydraulic basin, spatio-temporal monitoring, Great Casablanca drink water quality, Morocco

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6 Changing Colours and Odours: Exploring Cues Used by Insect Pollinators in Two Brassicaceous Plants

Authors: Katherine Y. Barragan-Fonseca, Joop J. A. Van Loon, Marcel Dicke, Dani Lucas-Barbosa


Flowering plants use different traits to attract pollinators, which indicate flower location and reward quality. Visual and olfactory cues are among the most important floral traits exploited by pollinating insects. Pollination can alter physical and chemical cues of flowers, which can subsequently influence the behaviour of flower visitors. We investigated the main cues exploited by the syrphid fly Episyrphus balteatus and the butterfly Pieris brassicae when visiting flowers of Brassica nigra and Raphanus sativus plants. We studied post-pollination changes and their effects on the behaviour of flower visitors and flower volatile emission. Preference of pollinators was investigated by offering visual and olfactory cues simultaneously as well as separately in two-choice bioassays. We also assessed whether pollen is used as a cue by pollinating insects. In addition, we studied whether behavioural responses could be correlated with changes in plant volatile emission, by collecting volatiles from flower headspace. P. brassicae and E. balteatus did not use pollen as a cue in either of the two plant species studied. Interestingly, pollinators showed a strong bias for visual cues over olfactory cues when exposed to B. nigra plants. Flower visits by pollinators were influenced by post-pollination changes in B. nigra. In contrast, plant responses to pollination did not influence pollinator preference for R. sativus flowers. These results correlate well with floral volatile emission of B. nigra and R. sativus; pollination influenced the volatile profile of B. nigra flowers but not that of R. sativus. Collectively, our data show that different pollinators exploit different visual and olfactory traits when searching for nectar or pollen of flowers of two close related plant species. Although the syrphid fly consumes mostly pollen from brassicaceous flowers, it cannot detect pollen from a distance and likely associates other flower traits with quantity and quality of pollen.

Keywords: plant volatiles, pollinators, post-pollination changes, visual and odour cues

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5 Establishment and Aging Process Analysis in Dermal Fibroblast Cell Culture of Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas)

Authors: Yemima Dani Riani, Anggraini Barlian


Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) is one of well known long-lived turtle. Its age can reach 100 years old. Senescence in green turtle is an interesting process to study because until now no clear explanation has been established about senescence at cellular or molecular level in this species. Since 1999, green turtle announced as an endangered species. Hence, establishment of fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtle may be material for future study of senescence. One common marker used for detecting senescence is telomere shortening. Reduced telomerase activity, the reverse transcriptase enzyme which adds TTAGGG DNA sequence to telomere end, may also cause senescence. The purpose of this research are establish and identify green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture and also compare telomere length and telomerase activity from passage 5 and 14. Primary cell culture made with primary explant method then cultured in Leibovitz-15 (Sigma) supplemented by 10% Fetal Bovine Serum (Sigma) and 100 U/mL Penicillin/Streptomycin (Sigma) at 30 ± 1oC. Cells identified with Rabbit Anti-Vimentin Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) and Goat Polyclonal Antibody (Abcam) using confocal microscope (Zeiss LSM 170). Telomere length obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomere Length Assay (Roche) while telomerase activity obtained using TeloTAGGG Telomerase PCR ElisaPlus (Roche). Primary cell culture from green turtle skin had fibroblastic morphology and immunocytochemistry test with vimentin antibody proved the culture was fibroblast cell. Measurement of telomere length and telomerase activity showed that telomere length and telomerase activity of passage 14 was greater than passage 5. However, based on morphology, green turtle fibroblast skin cell culture showed senescent morphology. Based on the analysis of telomere length and telomerase activity, suspected fibroblast skin cell culture of green turtles is not undergo aging through telomere shortening.

Keywords: cell culture, chelonia mydas, telomerase, telomere, senescence

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4 Pathogenic Candida Biofilms Producers Involved in Healthcare Associated Infections

Authors: Ouassila Bekkal Brikci Benhabib, Zahia Boucherit Otmani, Kebir Boucherit, A. Seghir


The establishment of intravenous catheters in hospitalized patient is an act common in many clinical situations. These therapeutic tools, from their insertion in the body, represent gateways including fungal germs prone. The latter can generate the growth of biofilms, which can be the cause of fungal infection. Faced with this problem, we conducted a study at the University Hospital of Tlemcen in the neurosurgery unit and aims to isolate and identify Candida yeasts from intravenous catheters. Then test their ability to form biofilms. Materials and methods: 256 patient hospitalized in surgery of the hospital in west Algeria were submitted to this study. All samples were taken from peripheral venous catheters implanted for 72 hours or more days. A total of 31 isolates of Candida species were isolated. MIC and SMIC are determined at 80% inhibition by the test XTT tetrazolium measured at 490 nm. The final concentrations of antifungal agent being between 0.03 and 16 mg / ml for amphotericin B and from 0.015 to 8 mg / mL caspofungin. Results: 31 Candida species isolates from catheters including 14 Candida albicans and 17 Candida non albicans . 21 strains of all the isolates were able to form biofilms. In their form of Planktonic cells, all isolates are 100% susceptible to antifungal agents tested. However, in their state of biofilms, more isolates have become tolerant to the tested antifungals. Conclusion: Candida yeasts isolated from intravascular catheters are considered an important virulence factor in the pathogenesis of infections. Their involvement in catheter-related infections can be disastrous for their potential to generate biofilms. They survive high concentrations of antifungal where treatment failure. Pending the development of a therapeutic approach antibiofilm related to catheters, their mastery is going through: -The risk of infection prevention based on the training and awareness of medical staff, -Strict hygiene and maximum asepsis, and -The choice of material limiting microbial colonization.

Keywords: candida, biofilm, hospital, infection, amphotericin B, caspofungin

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3 The Effects of the New Silk Road Initiatives and the Eurasian Union to the East-Central-Europe’s East Opening Policies

Authors: Tamas Dani


The author’s research explores the geo-economical role and importance of some small and medium sized states, reviews their adaption strategies in foreign trade and also in foreign affairs in the course of changing into a multipolar world, uses international background. With these, the paper analyses the recent years and the future of ‘Opening towards Eastern foreign economic policies’ from East-Central Europe and parallel with that the ‘Western foreign economy policies’ from Asia, as the Chinese One Belt One Road new silk route plans (so far its huge part is an infrastructural development plan to reach international trade and investment aims). It can be today’s question whether these ideas will reshape the global trade or not. How does the new silk road initiatives and the Eurasian Union reflect the effect of globalization? It is worth to analyse that how did Central and Eastern European countries open to Asia; why does China have the focus of the opening policies in many countries and why could China be seen as the ‘winner’ of the world economic crisis after 2008. The research is based on the following methodologies: national and international literature, policy documents and related design documents, complemented by processing of international databases, statistics and live interviews with leaders from East-Central European countries’ companies and public administration, diplomats and international traders. The results also illustrated by mapping and graphs. The research will find out as major findings whether the state decision-makers have enough margin for manoeuvres to strengthen foreign economic relations. This work has a hypothesis that countries in East-Central Europe have real chance to diversify their relations in foreign trade, focus beyond their traditional partners. This essay focuses on the opportunities of East-Central-European countries in diversification of foreign trade relations towards China and Russia in terms of ‘Eastern Openings’. The effects of the new silk road initiatives and the Eurasian Union to Hungary’s economy with a comparing outlook on East-Central European countries and exploring common regional cooperation opportunities in this area. The essay concentrate on the changing trade relations between East-Central-Europe and China as well as Russia, try to analyse the effects of the new silk road initiatives and the Eurasian Union also. In the conclusion part, it shows how the cooperation is necessary for the East-Central European countries if they want to have a non-asymmetric trade with Russia, China or some Chinese regions (Pearl River Delta, Hainan, …). The form of the cooperation for the East-Central European nations can be Visegrad 4 Cooperation (V4), Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC16), 3 SEAS Cooperation (or BABS – Baltic, Adriatic, Black Seas Initiative).

Keywords: China, East-Central Europe, foreign trade relations, geoeconomics, geopolitics, Russia

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2 High Strain Rate Behavior of Harmonic Structure Designed Pure Nickel: Mechanical Characterization Microstructure Analysis and 3D Modelisation

Authors: D. Varadaradjou, H. Kebir, J. Mespoulet, D. Tingaud, S. Bouvier, P. Deconick, K. Ameyama, G. Dirras


The development of new architecture metallic alloys with controlled microstructures is one of the strategic ways for designing materials with high innovation potential and, particularly, with improved mechanical properties as required for structural materials. Indeed, unlike conventional counterparts, metallic materials having so-called harmonic structure displays strength and ductility synergy. The latter occurs due to a unique microstructure design: a coarse grain structure surrounded by a 3D continuous network of ultra-fine grain known as “core” and “shell,” respectively. In the present study, pure harmonic-structured (HS) Nickel samples were processed via controlled mechanical milling and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The present work aims at characterizing the mechanical properties of HS pure Nickel under room temperature dynamic loading through a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the underlying microstructure evolution. A stopper ring was used to maintain the strain at a fixed value of about 20%. Five samples (named B1 to B5) were impacted using different striker bar velocities from 14 m/s to 28 m/s, yielding strain rate in the range 4000-7000 s-1. Results were considered until a 10% deformation value, which is the deformation threshold for the constant strain rate assumption. The non-deformed (INIT – post-SPS process) and post-SHPB microstructure (B1 to B5) were investigated by EBSD. It was observed that while the strain rate is increased, the average grain size within the core decreases. An in-depth analysis of grains and grain boundaries was made to highlight the thermal (such as dynamic recrystallization) or mechanical (such as grains fragmentation by dislocation) contribution within the “core” and “shell.” One of the most widely used methods for determining the dynamic behavior of materials is the SHPB technique developed by Kolsky. A 3D simulation of the SHPB test was created through ABAQUS in dynamic explicit. This 3D simulation allows taking into account all modes of vibration. An inverse approach was used to identify the material parameters from the equation of Johnson-Cook (JC) by minimizing the difference between the numerical and experimental data. The JC’s parameters were identified using B1 and B5 samples configurations. Predictively, identified parameters of JC’s equation shows good result for the other sample configuration. Furthermore, mean rise of temperature within the harmonic Nickel sample can be obtained through ABAQUS and show an elevation of about 35°C for all fives samples. At this temperature, a thermal mechanism cannot be activated. Therefore, grains fragmentation within the core is mainly due to mechanical phenomena for a fixed final strain of 20%.

Keywords: 3D simulation, fragmentation, harmonic structure, high strain rate, Johnson-cook model, microstructure

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1 Application of Satellite Remote Sensing in Support of Water Exploration in the Arab Region

Authors: Eman Ghoneim


The Arabian deserts include some of the driest areas on Earth. Yet, its landforms reserved a record of past wet climates. During humid phases, the desert was green and contained permanent rivers, inland deltas and lakes. Some of their water would have seeped and replenished the groundwater aquifers. When the wet periods came to an end, several thousand years ago, the entire region transformed into an extended band of desert and its original fluvial surface was totally covered by windblown sand. In this work, radar and thermal infrared images were used to reveal numerous hidden surface/subsurface features. Radar long wavelength has the unique ability to penetrate surface dry sands and uncover buried subsurface terrain. Thermal infrared also proven to be capable of spotting cooler moist areas particularly in hot dry surfaces. Integrating Radarsat images and GIS revealed several previously unknown paleoriver and lake basins in the region. One of these systems, known as the Kufrah, is the largest yet identified river basin in the Eastern Sahara. This river basin, which straddles the border between Egypt and Libya, flowed north parallel to the adjacent Nile River with an extensive drainage area of 235,500 km2 and massive valley width of 30 km in some parts. This river was most probably served as a spillway for an overflow from Megalake Chad to the Mediterranean Sea and, thus, may have acted as a natural water corridor used by human ancestors to migrate northward across the Sahara. The Gilf-Kebir is another large paleoriver system located just east of Kufrah and emanates from the Gilf Plateau in Egypt. Both river systems terminate with vast inland deltas at the southern margin of the Great Sand Sea. The trends of their distributary channels indicate that both rivers drained to a topographic depression that was periodically occupied by a massive lake. During dry climates, the lake dried up and roofed by sand deposits, which is today forming the Great Sand Sea. The enormity of the lake basin provides explanation as to why continuous extraction of groundwater in this area is possible. A similar lake basin, delimited by former shorelines, was detected by radar space data just across the border of Sudan. This lake, called the Northern Darfur Megalake, has a massive size of 30,750 km2. These former lakes and rivers could potentially hold vast reservoirs of groundwater, oil and natural gas at depth. Similar to radar data, thermal infrared images were proven to be useful in detecting potential locations of subsurface water accumulation in desert regions. Analysis of both Aster and daily MODIS thermal channels reveal several subsurface cool moist patches in the sandy desert of the Arabian Peninsula. Analysis indicated that such evaporative cooling anomalies were resulted from the subsurface transmission of the Monsoonal rainfall from the mountains to the adjacent plain. Drilling a number of wells in several locations proved the presence of productive water aquifers confirming the validity of the used data and the adopted approaches for water exploration in dry regions.

Keywords: radarsat, SRTM, MODIS, thermal infrared, near-surface water, ancient rivers, desert, Sahara, Arabian peninsula

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