Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2221

Search results for: MARA junior science collage (MJSC)

2221 Physical Fitness Evaluation of MARA Junior Science Collage Rugby Player

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Athletes at the school should have good physical fitness to participate in tournament. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for MARA Junior Science Collage (MJSC). Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of rugby player at MJSC. A total of 62 samples (age 16.4 ± 0.75) among rugby players at MJSC were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for rugby players is 23.4 ± 4:51. Body mass index (BMI) of rugby players can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. BMI for rugby players was categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 7 and shuttle 5; average VO2max was 37.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of rugby players at MJSC is lower compared to the rugby junior athletes in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of rugby players must be improved to ensure the rugby players at MJSC could be performs better in the tournament.

Keywords: physical fitness, MARA junior science collage (MJSC), body mass index (BMI), bleep test

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2220 In Search of Sustainable Science Education at the Basic Level of Education in Ghana: The Unintended Consequences of Enacting Science Curriculum Reforms in Junior High Schools

Authors: Charles Deodat Otami

Abstract:

This paper documents an ongoing investigation which seeks to explore the consequences of repeated science curriculum reforms at basic level of education in Ghana. Drawing upon data collected through document analysis, semi-structured interviews and classroom observations linked with a study of teaching practices in Junior High Schools of educational districts that are well served with teachers and yet, produce poor students’ achievements in science in the national Basic Education Certificate Examinations. The results emanating from the investigation highlight that the repeated science curriculum reforms at the basic level of education have led to the displacement of scientific knowledge in junior high schools in Ghana, a very critical level of education where the foundation for further science education to the highest level is laid. Furthermore, the results indicate that the enactment of centralised curriculum reforms in Ghana has produced some unpleasant repercussions. For instance, how the teachers interpret and implement the curriculum is directly related to their own values and practices as well as students feedback. This is contrary to the perception that external impetus received from donor agencies holds the key to strengthening reforms made. Thus, it is argued that without the right of localised management, curriculum reforms themselves are inadequate to ensure the realisation of the desired effects. This paper, therefore, draws the attention of stakeholders to the fact that the enactment of School Science Curriculum reform goes beyond just simple implementation to more complex dynamics which may change the original reform intents.

Keywords: basic education, basic education certificate examinations, curriculum reforms, junior high school, educational districts, teaching practices

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2219 Induction and Mentorship of Junior Faculty Members: A Managerial Challenge in the Institutions of Higher Education in Eritrea

Authors: Zecarias Zemichael Woldu

Abstract:

Cultivation of professionalism and dispositional values in junior faculty members in institutions of higher education (IHE) is a global challenge. Junior faculty members complain of the managerial inefficiency and lack of modeling in their career development. This paper explored how Graduate Teaching Assistants (GTAs) are inducted into the system and mentored at work in the IHE in Eritrea. It assesses the institutional significance and challenges of mentoring junior faculty members in IHE. The research was conducted in 7 IHE involving 165 participants. Quantitative and qualitative data were gathered through Likert scale questionnaire and in-depth interviews. A One-Way ANOVA was used to assess the GTAs’ knowledge of assigned duties and responsibilities, access to institutional information and resources, the quality of guidance and support provided and above all the mentoring state of affairs across the colleges. Results revealed that junior faculty shoulder vital responsibilities but they receive poor induction and mentoring at individual and institutional levels. A large number of junior faculty members revealed a need of serious professional molding to effectively shoulder more responsibilities in the colleges.

Keywords: induction, mentoring, junior faculty members, Eritrea

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2218 Engaging Girls in 'Learn Science by Doing' as Strategy for Enhanced Learning Outcome at the Junior High School Level in Nigeria

Authors: Stella Y. Erinosho

Abstract:

In an attempt to impact on girls’ interest in science, an instructional package on ‘Learn Science by Doing (LSD)’ was developed to support science teachers in teaching integrated science at the junior secondary level in Nigeria. LSD provides an instructional framework aimed at actively engaging girls in beginners’ science through activities that are discovery-oriented and allow for experiential learning. The goal of this study was to show the impact of application of LSD on girls’ performance and interest in science. The major hypothesis that was tested in the study was that students would exhibit higher learning outcomes (achievement and attitude) in science as effect of exposure to LSD instructional package. A quasi-experimental design was adopted, incorporating four all-girls schools. Three of the schools (comprising six classes) were randomly designated as experimental and one as the control. The sample comprised 357 girls (275 experimental and 82 control) and nine science teachers drawn from the experimental schools. The questionnaire was designed to gather data on students’ background characteristics and their attitude toward science while the cognitive outcomes were measured using tests, both within a group and between groups, the girls who had exposure to LSD exhibited improved cognitive outcomes and more positive attitude towards science compared with those who had conventional teaching. The data are consistent with previous studies indicating that interactive learning activities increase student performance and interest.

Keywords: active learning, school science, teaching and learning, Nigeria

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2217 Analysis of Basic Science Curriculum as Correlates of Secondary School Students' Achievement in Science Test in Oyo State

Authors: Olubiyi Johnson Ezekiel

Abstract:

Basic science curriculum is an on-going effort towards developing the potential of manner to produce individuals in a holistic and integrated person, who are intellectually, spiritually, emotionally and physically balanced and harmonious. The main focus of this study is to determine the relationship between students’ achievement in junior school certificate examination (JSCE) and senior school basic science achievement test (SSBSAT) on the basis of all the components of basic science. The study employed the descriptive research of the survey type and utilized junior school certificate examination and senior school basic science achievement test(r = .87) scores as instruments. The data collected were subjected to Pearson product moment correlation, Spearman rank correlation, regression analysis and analysis of variance. The result of the finding revealed that the mean effects of the achievement in all the components of basic science on SSBSAT are significantly different from zero. Based on the results of the findings, it was concluded that the relationship between students’ achievement in JSCE and SSBSAT was weak and to achieve a unit increase in the students’ achievement in the SSBSAT when other subjects are held constant, we have to increase the learning of: -physics by 0.081 units; -chemistry by 0.072 units; -biology by 0.025 units and general knowledge by 0.097 units. It was recommended among others, that general knowledge aspect of basic science should be included in either physics or chemistry aspect of basic science.

Keywords: basic science curriculum, students’ achievement, science test, secondary school students

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2216 Physical Fitness Evaluation of Physical Education Teachers in Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM)

Authors: Mohamad Nizam Asmuni, Ahmad Naszeri Salleh, Yunus Adam, Azhar Yaacob, Mohd Hafiz Rosli, Muhamad Nazrul Hakim Abdullah

Abstract:

Physical Education teacher at the school should have good physical fitness to educate and guide students in the school. Currently, there are no standards for the level of physical fitness for teachers who teaches physical education at the school. Therefore, this research is to determine the level of physical fitness of teacher of Physical Education at Maktab Rendah Sains MARA (MRSM). A total of 28 samples (18 men and 10 women, age 33 ± 4.91), teachers of physical education at MRSM, were randomly selected to participate in this study. Height, weight, body fat percentage, body mass index (BMI) and other physical testing are measured and recorded. The results showed that the average of body mass index (BMI) for teachers of Physical Education is 25.9 ± 4:57. Body mass index (BMI) of teachers can be categorized as pre-obese based on World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Body fat percentage for male (age; 34.3 ± 5.13) and female (age; 30.9 ± 3.81) teachers is 24.7% ± 6.54 and 30.6% ± 6.28, respectively. Male teachers were categorized as overfat, however, female teachers were categorized as healthy based on body fat ranges for standard adults at NY Obesity Research Center. Bleep test results show that the average Bleep test is level 4 and shuttle 2; average VO2max was 27.5 ± 5.94 L/min. Physical fitness and performance of physical education teachers at MRSM is much lower compared to the rugby junior athlete in University Putra Malaysia (UPM). Therefore, physical fitness of teachers must be improved to ensure the physical education classes at MRSM could be done better.

Keywords: physical fitness, BMI, bleep test, obesity

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2215 A Study of Parental Acceptance: Avoidance Attitude and Adjustment of Urban and Rural Junior College Students

Authors: Ramesh K. Adsul, V. R. Shinde, S. S. Jadhav

Abstract:

The main aim of the present study was to explore the effect of various levels of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude on various areas of adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. It was hypothesized that 1. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental acceptance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 2. There exists no significant effect of various levels of parental avoidance attitude on adjustment of urban and rural junior college students. 3. There would be no significant difference between urban and rural Junior College students on various areas of (home, health, social, and emotional) adjustment. The 847 students (427 boys and 420 girls) studying in 11th class of various Junior colleges in Sangli ,Satara and Kolhapur districts of Maharashtra State, India were selected by random sampling method. Study was conducted by using two psychological tests namely 1. Family Relationship Inventory. 2.Bell’s Adjustment Inventory. One way ANOVA was employed to find out the effect of parental acceptance – avoidance attitude and adjustment in various areas of urban and rural junior college students. ‘t’ test was used to find out the difference between urban and rural students on various areas of adjustment. The results of the study indicate that (1) It is observed that three groups of parental acceptance attitude (PA) are significantly varied on home and social adjustment. It means that PA affects home and social adjustment of adolescents. High PA creates excellent adjustment and low PA creates poor adjustment in adolescents. (2) Study revealed that PV significantly affects adjustment of adolescents. High PV significantly creates poor adjustment in adolescents than average and low PV. (3) There is significant difference between urban and rural adolescents on adjustment. Urban adolescents have better adjustment than rural adolescents.

Keywords: parental acceptance, avoidance attitude, adjustment, urban-rural student

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2214 Nursing and Allied Health Perception of Desirable Junior Doctor Attributes for Effective Collaboration and Teamwork

Authors: Maneka Marianne Britto, Hansraj Riteesh Bookun

Abstract:

The ability of a junior doctor to deliver complex multi-disciplinary care to patients in a paradigm of respect and collaboration requires a multitude of interpersonal skills and competencies. A short survey was used to explore the perspective of allied health staff on the desirable attributes of a junior doctor which are conducive to good teamwork. 23 allied health professionals (14 nurses, 4 physiotherapists, 2 dietitians, 1 occupational therapist, 1 speech therapist and 1 audiologist) responded to this 17-item survey. There were 17 females. The mean age of the respondents was 34.9 ± 10.1 years. The salient findings of our survey are that 95% of our respondents rated friendliness and non-clinical small talk with average importance or greater. 45% of them viewed these 2 items as very important or absolutely essential. A single respondent viewed these 2 items with little importance. The other criteria which were rated with high levels of importance were the acknowledgment of allied health suggestions and good ward organizational skills. Training these collaborative skills is challenging, and an enhanced understanding of interprofessional perspectives will help a junior doctor to achieve better clinical outcomes. It is hoped that this paper will further stimulate discussion in this area and will encourage junior doctors to engage in non-clinical conversations with allied health staff in the spirit of promoting effective teamwork.

Keywords: allied health, collaboration, doctor, medicine, surgery

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2213 Moderating Effects of Future Career Interest in Science and Gender on Students' Achievement in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Segun Jacob Ogunkunle

Abstract:

The study examined the moderating effects of future career interest in science and gender on achievement in basic science of students taught in a simulated laboratory and enriched laboratory guide material environments. It adopted the pretest-posttest control group quasi experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. A total of 277 (130 males, 147 females; ± 17 years) junior secondary three students randomly selected from six purposively selected secondary schools based on availability of functional computer and physics laboratories participated in the study. Data were collected using achievement test in basic science (r=0.87) and future career interest in science (r=0.99) while analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means were used to test three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study show that future career interest in science had significant effect on students’ achievement in basic science whereas gender did not. The interaction effect of future career interest in science and gender on students’ achievement in basic science was not significant. It is therefore recommended that prior knowledge of students’ future career interest in science could be used to improve participation in basic science practical in order to enhance achievement in biology, chemistry, and physics at the post-basic education level in Nigeria.

Keywords: future career interest in science, basic science, simulated laboratory, enriched laboratory guide materials, achievement in science

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2212 A Study of Some Selected Anthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers

Authors: Parwinder Singh, Ashok Kumar

Abstract:

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between selected Anthropometric and physical fitness variables of Junior Free Style Wrestlers. Method: one hundred fifty (N = 150) male Junior Free Style Wrestlers were selected as subjects, and they were categorized into five groups according to their weight categories; each group was comprised of 30 wrestlers. Body Mass Index can be considered according to the World Health Organization. Body fat percentage was assessed by using Durnin and Womersley equation, and Bodyweight was checked with a weighing machine. Cardiovascular endurance was checked by the Havard Step test of junior freestyle wrestlers. Results: A statistically positive significant correlation was found between Body Weight and Body Mass Index, skinfold thickness, and Percentage Body Fat. Fitness index was observed as negatively significant relationship related with Body Weight, Percent Body Fat, and Body Mass Index. Conclusion: It is concluded that freestyle wrestling is a weight classified sport and physical fitness is the most important factor in freestyle wrestling; therefore, the correlation of the fitness index of the wrestlers with body composition is important. The results of the present study also demonstrated the effect of Age, Body Height, Body Weight, Body Mass Index, and percentage body fat of the aerobic fitness of junior freestyle wrestlers.

Keywords: aerobic fitness, anthropometry, fat percentage, free style wrestling, skinfold, strength

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2211 Enhancing Students’ Performance in Basic Science and Technology in Nigeria Using Moodle LMS

Authors: Olugbade Damola, Adekomi Adebimbo, Sofowora Olaniyi Alaba

Abstract:

One of the major problems facing education in Nigeria is the provision of quality Science and Technology education. Inadequate teaching facilities, non-usage of innovative teaching strategies, ineffective classroom management, lack of students’ motivation and poor integration of ICT has resulted in the increase in percentage of students who failed Basic Science and Technology in Junior Secondary Certification Examination for National Examination Council in Nigeria. To address these challenges, the Federal Government came up with a road map on education. This was with a view of enhancing quality education through integration of modern technology into teaching and learning, enhancing quality assurance through proper monitoring and introduction of innovative methods of teaching. This led the researcher to investigate how MOODLE LMS could be used to enhance students’ learning outcomes in BST. A sample of 120 students was purposively selected from four secondary schools in Ogbomoso. The experimental group was taught using MOODLE LMS, while the control group was taught using the conventional method. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and t-test. The result showed that MOODLE LMS was an effective learning platform in teaching BST in junior secondary schools (t=4.953, P<0.05). Students’ attitudes towards BST was also enhanced through MOODLE LMS (t=15.632, P<0.05). The use of MOODLE LMS significantly enhanced students’ retention (t=6.640, P<0.05). In conclusion, the Federal Government efforts at enhancing quality assurance through integration of modern technology and e-learning in Secondary schools proved to have yielded good result has students found MOODLE LMS to be motivating and interactive. Attendance was improved.

Keywords: basic science and technology, MOODLE LMS, performance, quality assurance

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2210 Ezra Pound and James Joyce: Two Different Approaches to the Relation between Literature and Visual Arts

Authors: Espen Gronlie

Abstract:

This paper will suggest that Ezra Pound and James Joyce are paradigmatic for two different approaches to literature and visual arts. Both authors are infamous for being difficult, but this does not mean that their works are similar. Pound famously promoted Joyce’s Ulysses and was instrumental in getting the work published in literary reviews. However, Pound did not appreciate Joyce’s artistic development in his so-called Work in Progress, which was published in 1939 under the title Finnegans Wake. Pound and Joyce will be read as representing two different approaches to literature and other forms of art. Pound can be seen as essentially influenced by cubism and modernist techniques such as collage and montage. While many critics have used these notions to describe The Cantos, this paper will suggest reading Pound’s opus magnum in relation to Finnegans Wake. The latter work shows how Joyce remained tied to an idea of the literary work as sound, as something which may – or perhaps even should – be read aloud. In contrast, Pound’s The Cantos show clear signs of being influenced by experiments in the visual arts. The paper will argue that Pound intended to develop his work in order to bring literature 'up to date' with the development in visual arts, while Joyce stuck to a more classical understanding of the literary work as composed for oral presentation.

Keywords: collage, conceptualism, montage, literature and visual arts

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2209 The Student Care: The Influence of Family’s Attention toward the Student of Junior High Schools in Physics Learning Achievements

Authors: Siti Rossidatul Munawaroh, Siti Khusnul Khowatim

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This study is determined to find how is the influence of family attention of students in provides guidance of the student learning. The increasing of student’s learning motivation can be increased made up in various ways, one of them are through students social guidance in their relation with the family. The family not only provides the matter and the learning time but also be supervise for the learning time and guide his children to overcome a learning disability. The character of physics subject in their science experiences at junior high schools has demanded that student’s ability is to think symbolically and understand something in a meaningful manner. Therefore, the reinforcement of the physics learning motivation is clearly necessary not only by the school are related, but the family environment and the society. As for the role of family which includes maintenance, parenting, coaching, and educating both of physically and spiritually, this way is expected to give spirit impulsion in studying physics subject in order to increase student learning achievements.

Keywords: physics subject, the influence of family attention, learning motivation, the Student care

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2208 Development of Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) for Mobile Learning Implementation in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

Abstract:

Mobile learning (m-learning) is a new method in teaching and learning process which combines technology of mobile device with learning materials. It can enhance student's engagement in learning activities and facilitate them to access the learning materials at anytime and anywhere. In Kolej Poly-Tech Mara (KPTM), this method is seen as an important effort in teaching practice and to improve student learning performance. The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of m-learning application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) to be implemented for Electric and Electronic Fundamentals course using Flash, XML (Extensible Markup Language) and J2ME (Java 2 micro edition). System Development Life Cycle (SDLC) was used as an application development approach. It has three modules in this application such as notes or course material, exercises and video. MEELFS development is seen as a tool or a pilot test for m-learning in KPTM.

Keywords: flash, mobile device, mobile learning, teaching and learning, SDLC, XML

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2207 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Musculoskeletal Disorders among Physical Therapist's Seniors versus Internship Students

Authors: A. H. Bekhet, N. Helmy

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Background: Physical therapists are knowledgeable in treatment and prevention of musculoskeletal injuries; however, they have occupational musculoskeletal injuries because Physical therapy profession requires effort that may lead to work-related musculoskeletal disorders. No previous studies among physical therapists have been reported in Egypt. We aim to assess the prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal disorders among physical therapist’s seniors versus internship students. Method: We conducted a cross-sectional study in faculty of physical therapy Cairo university Prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal injuries were assessed using self-administered questionnaire with closed-ended questions. Seniors therapist was defined as a physical therapist with more than 5 years of work experience. Data were analyzed using SPSS 22.0 for Windows. Results: The study included 106 physical therapists (Junior = 72; senior = 34), the mean age of senior therapists was 30.1 (SD 6.3) years and junior therapists were 22.8 (SD 2.4). Female subjects constituted 83.9% of the studied sample. The mean hours of contact with patients was higher among junior therapists 6.4 (SD 2.6) vs. 5.7 (SD 2.1) among senior therapists. The prevalence of a musculoskeletal injury, once or more in their lifetime, was significantly higher among senior therapists (86% vs. 66.7%; p = 0.04). The highest risk factor in increasing the symptoms of the injury among junior therapists was maintaining a position for a prolonged period of time at 28% while performing manual therapy techniques was the highest risk factor among senior therapists at 32%. 53% of senior therapists have limited their patient contact time as a result of their injury in comparison to 25% of junior therapists (p = 0.09). Conclusion: the presented study shows that the prevalence of musculoskeletal injuries, once or more in their lifetime, is significantly higher among senior therapists.

Keywords: musculoskeletal injuries, occupational injuries, physical therapists, work related disorders

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
2206 Enhancement of Learning Style in Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) via Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS)

Authors: M. E. Marwan, A. R. Madar, N. Fuad

Abstract:

Mobile communication provides access to the outside world without borders everywhere and at any time. The learning method that related to mobile communication technology is known as mobile learning (M-learning). It is a method that communicates learning materials with mobile device technology. The purpose of this method is to increase the interest in learning among students and assist them in obtaining learning materials at Kolej Poly-Tech MARA (KPTM) in order to improve the student’s performance in their study and to encourage educators to diversify the teaching practices. This paper discusses the student’s awareness for enhancement of learning style using mobile technologies and their readiness to apply the elements of mobile learning in learning to improve performance and interest in learning among students. An application called Mobile EEF Learning System (MEEFLS) has been developed as a tool to be used as a pilot test in KPTM.

Keywords: awareness, mobile learning, MEEFLS, teaching and learning, readiness

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2205 Undergraduates Learning Preferences: A Comparison of Science, Technology and Social Science Academic Disciplines in Relations to Teaching Designs and Strategies

Authors: Salina Budin, Shaira Ismail

Abstract:

Students learn effectively in a learning environment with a suitable teaching approach that matches their learning preferences. The main objective of the study is to examine the learning preferences amongst the students in the Science and Technology (S&T), and Social Science (SS) fields of study at the Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM), Pulau Pinang. The measurement instrument is based on the Dunn and Dunn Learning Styles which measure five elements of learning styles; environmental, sociological, emotional, physiological and psychological. Questionnaires are distributed amongst undergraduates in the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Faculty of Business Management. The respondents comprise of 131 diploma students of the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and 111 degree students of the Faculty of Business Management. The results indicate that, both S&T and SS students share a similar learning preferences on the environmental aspect, emotional preferences, motivational level, learning responsibility, persistent level in learning and learning structure. Most of the S&T students are concluded as analytical learners and the majority of SS students are global learners. Both S&T and SS students are concluded as visual learners, preferred to be in an active mobility in a relaxing and enjoying mode with some light of refreshments during the learning process and exhibited reflective characteristics in learning. Obviously, the S&T students are considered as left brain dominant, whereas the SS students are right brain dominant. The findings highlighted that both categories of students exhibited similar learning preferences except on psychological preferences.

Keywords: learning preferences, Dunn and Dunn learning style, teaching approach, science and technology, social science

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2204 Modeling Spatio-Temporal Variation in Rainfall Using a Hierarchical Bayesian Regression Model

Authors: Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Joseph Ogutu, Gundula Bartzke, Hans-Peter Piepho

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Rainfall is a critical component of climate governing vegetation growth and production, forage availability and quality for herbivores. However, reliable rainfall measurements are not always available, making it necessary to predict rainfall values for particular locations through time. Predicting rainfall in space and time can be a complex and challenging task, especially where the rain gauge network is sparse and measurements are not recorded consistently for all rain gauges, leading to many missing values. Here, we develop a flexible Bayesian model for predicting rainfall in space and time and apply it to Narok County, situated in southwestern Kenya, using data collected at 23 rain gauges from 1965 to 2015. Narok County encompasses the Maasai Mara ecosystem, the northern-most section of the Mara-Serengeti ecosystem, famous for its diverse and abundant large mammal populations and spectacular migration of enormous herds of wildebeest, zebra and Thomson's gazelle. The model incorporates geographical and meteorological predictor variables, including elevation, distance to Lake Victoria and minimum temperature. We assess the efficiency of the model by comparing it empirically with the established Gaussian process, Kriging, simple linear and Bayesian linear models. We use the model to predict total monthly rainfall and its standard error for all 5 * 5 km grid cells in Narok County. Using the Monte Carlo integration method, we estimate seasonal and annual rainfall and their standard errors for 29 sub-regions in Narok. Finally, we use the predicted rainfall to predict large herbivore biomass in the Maasai Mara ecosystem on a 5 * 5 km grid for both the wet and dry seasons. We show that herbivore biomass increases with rainfall in both seasons. The model can handle data from a sparse network of observations with many missing values and performs at least as well as or better than four established and widely used models, on the Narok data set. The model produces rainfall predictions consistent with expectation and in good agreement with the blended station and satellite rainfall values. The predictions are precise enough for most practical purposes. The model is very general and applicable to other variables besides rainfall.

Keywords: non-stationary covariance function, gaussian process, ungulate biomass, MCMC, maasai mara ecosystem

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2203 Antarctica, Global Change and Deaf Education in Brazil

Authors: Luiz Antonio Da Costa Rodrigues, Mara Aparecida De Castilho Lopes, Alexandre Santos Alencar

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Teaching of science must transcend simple transmission of fundamental concepts and allow scientific literacy, as a process for understanding the human being as an integral part of a complex and interdependent whole. In this context, approaching the theme ‘Antarctica’ in deaf education is an important advance for teaching, considering that that continent has direct interactions with the climatic and environmental system of the planet. Therefore, textbooks can be important tools to enable the Deaf Community to access the discussion about the natural environment. A specific script was used to analyze textbooks adopted by schools in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Region. Results show that none of the 14 analyzed books have a specific chapter on the theme, some presents images of the continent without reference to their environmental importance, and the complementary texts present in the analyzed material do not address the theme either. It is concluded that the study on Antarctica and global changes in elementary education is still incipient and the material used by most Brazilian public schools does not contemplate that subject in an accessible way for the deaf person. This fact represents the distance between deaf students and their environment, denoting the need for actions to promote that and other neglected themes in Science teaching.

Keywords: Antarctica, deaf education, science teaching, textbook

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2202 Implementation of the Science Curriculum of the Colleges of Education: Successes and Challenges

Authors: Cecilia Boakye, Joseph Ghartey Ampiah

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In this study, we present a case study in which we explored how the 2007 science curriculum of the colleges of education in Ghana was implemented at W College of Education. Purposive sampling was used to select 13 participants, comprising 2 tutors and 6 teacher trainees from W College of Education and, 5 newly qualified Junior High School (JHS) science teachers who were products of W College. Interviews, observations and content analysis were used to collect data. Using the deductive and inductive analytic approaches, the findings showed that although upgraded laboratories have provided for teaching authentic science at W College of Education, they are rather used to accommodate large classes at the expense of practical activities. The teaching and learning methods used by the tutors do not mirror effectively the objectives of the 2007 science curriculum of the colleges of education. There are challenges such as: (a) lack/inadequate equipment and materials, (b) time constraint, and (c) an examination- oriented curriculum that influence the implementation of the curriculum. Some of the suggestions that were made are that: (a) equipment and materials should be supplied to the colleges to facilitate the proper implementation of the curriculum, and (b) class sizes should be reduced to provide enough room for practical activities.

Keywords: class size, teaching, curriculum implementation, examination-oriented curriculum, teaching and time-constraint

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2201 Pilot Program for the Promotion of Normal Childbirth in the North, Northeast and Midwest of Brazil

Authors: Natália Bruno Chaves, Richardes Caúla, Roosevelt do Vale, Daniela Toneti, Rafaela Carvalho, Renata Silva Lopes, Antônio Carlos Júnior, Adner Nobre, Viviane Santiago, Yara Alana Caldato, Estefania Rodriguez Urrego, André Buarque Lemos, Catarina Nucci Stetner, Marcos Mauro Barreto, Stefany Moreira Lima, Mara Cavalcante, Ticiane Ribeiro

Abstract:

The Well Born (Nascer Bem – in Portuguese) Program was created in the Hapvida health network with the aim of improving access to safe and quality prenatal care for users. In addition to offering a line of prenatal care, the inclusion of obstetric nursing and the decentralization of childbirth, bring security that professionals did not indicate the route of delivery for professional convenience. The introduction of the nursing consultation came to reinforce the care to our users, strengthening their bond and reception. In 2021, the program maintained an average of 40% of normal births in the north, northeast and central-west regions of Brazil, an average above that observed in the rest of the country's private health systems, around 20%. In addition, the neonatal hospitalization rate of this population remained around 5.1%, a figure below the national average. With these data, the “Nascer Bem” program is affirmed as a safe and effective strategy for the promotion of safe normal birth.

Keywords: quality, safe, prenatal, obstetric nursing

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2200 Efficacy of Computer Mediated Power Point Presentations on Students' Learning Outcomes in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Sunmaila Oyetunji Raimi, Olufemi Akinloye Bolaji, Abiodun Ezekiel Adesina

Abstract:

The lingering poor performance of students in basic science spells doom for a vibrant scientific and technological development which pivoted the economic, social and physical upliftment of any nation. This calls for identifying appropriate strategies for imparting basic science knowledge and attitudes to the teaming youths in secondary schools. This study, therefore, determined the impact of computer mediated power point presentations on students’ achievement in basic science in Oyo State, Nigeria. A pre-test, posttest, control group quazi-experimental design adopted for the study. Two hundred and five junior secondary two students selected using stratified random sampling technique participated in the study. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. Two evaluative instruments – Students’ Basic Science Attitudes Scale (SBSAS, r = 0.91); Students’ Knowledge of Basic Science Test (SKBST, r = 0.82) were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation and inferential statistics of ANCOVA, scheffe post-hoc test were used to analyse the data. The results indicated significant main effect of treatment on students cognitive (F(1,200)= 171.680; p < 0.05) and attitudinal (F(1,200)= 34.466; p < 0.05) achievement in Basic science with the experimental group having higher mean gain than the control group. Gender has significant main effect (F(1,200)= 23.382; p < 0.05) on students cognitive outcomes but not significant for attitudinal achievement in Basic science. The study therefore recommended among others that computer mediated power point presentations should be incorporated into curriculum methodology of Basic science in secondary schools.

Keywords: basic science, computer mediated power point presentations, gender, students’ achievement

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2199 Investigation of the Influence of Student’s Characteristics on Mathematics Achievement in Junior Secondary School in Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Babatunde Kasim Oladele

Abstract:

This current study investigated students’ characteristics as factors that influence Mathematics Achievement of junior secondary school students. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. The population of the study was one hundred and twenty-three (123) JSS students of secondary schools in Ibadan North Local Government in Oyo State. A Mathematics achievement test and three questionnaires on student’s self-efficacy belief, attitude, and learning style were the instruments used. Prior to the administration of the constructed mathematics achievement test, 100-item mathematics was subjected to the expert review, and items analysis was carried out. Fifty items were retained. The Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficients of the instruments were 0.71, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. Collected data were analysed using the frequency count, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Path Analysis in Amos SPSS Version 20. Students characteristics: gender, age, self-efficacy, attitude and learning style had positive direct effects on students’ achievement in Mathematics as indicated by their respective beta weights (β = 0.36, 0.203, 0.92, 0.079, 0.69 p < 0.05). Consequently, the study concluded that student’s characteristics (Age, gender, and learning style) explained a significant part of the variability in students’ achievement in Mathematics.

Keywords: mathematics achievement, students’ characteristics, junior secondary school, Ibadan

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2198 Features of Annual Junior Men's Kayak Training Loads in China

Authors: Liu Haitao, Wang Hengyong

Abstract:

This paper attempts to kayak, Zhaoqing City, the annual training program for young men, the deconstruction and analysis, describe the characteristics of their training load, Young people to extract the key issues for training kayak, kayak training young people to clarify in Zhaoqing City, and the cause of the bottlenecks. On one hand, scientifically arranging for the coaches to adjust training load and provide the basis for periodic structure, for young people to provide practical reference kayak athletes. On the other hand, through their training load research, enrich the theoretical system kayak training project for junior kayak athletes to provide a theoretical basis.

Keywords: juniors, kayak, training programs, full year

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2197 The Provision of a Safe Face-to-Face Teaching Program for Final Year Medical Students during the COVID-19 Pandemic

Authors: Rachel Byrne

Abstract:

Background: Due to patient and student safety concerns, combined with clinical teachers being redeployed to clinical practice, COVID-19 has resulted in a reduction in face-to-face teaching sessions for medical students. Traditionally such sessions are particularly important for final year medical students, especially in preparing for their final practical exams. A reduced student presence on the wards has also resulted in fewer opportunities for junior doctors to provide teaching sessions. This has implications for junior doctors achieving their own curriculum outcomes for teaching, as well as potentially hindering the development of a future interest in medical education. Aims: The aims of the study are 1) To create a safe face-to-face teaching environment during COVID-19 which focussed on exam preparation for final year medical students, 2) To provide a platform for doctors to gain teaching experience, 3 ) to enable doctors to gain feedback or assessments on their teaching, 4) To create beginners guide to designing a new teaching program for future junior doctors. Methods: We created a program of timed clinical stations consisting of four sessions every five weeks during the student’s medicine attachment. Each session could be attended by 6 students and consisted of 6 stations ran by junior doctors, with each station following social distancing and personal protective equipment requirements. Junior doctors were asked to design their own stations. The sessions ran out-of-hours on weekday evenings and were optional for the students. Results: 95/95 students and 20/40 doctors involved in the programme completed feedback. 100% (n=95) of students strongly agreed/agreed that sessions were aimed at an appropriate level and provided constructive feedback. 100% (n=95) of students stated they felt more confident in their abilities and would recommend the session to peers. 90% (n=18) of the teachers strongly agreed/agreed that they felt more confident in their teaching abilities and that the sessions had improved their own medical knowledge. 85% (n=17) of doctors had a teaching assessment completed, and 83% (n=16) said the program had made them consider a career in medical education. The difficulties of creating such a program were highlighted throughout, and a beginner’s guide was created with the hopes of helping future doctors who are interested in teaching address the common obstacles.

Keywords: COVID-19, education, safety, medical

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2196 A Flexible Bayesian State-Space Modelling for Population Dynamics of Wildlife and Livestock Populations

Authors: Sabyasachi Mukhopadhyay, Joseph Ogutu, Hans-Peter Piepho

Abstract:

We aim to model dynamics of wildlife or pastoral livestock population for understanding of their population change and hence for wildlife conservation and promoting human welfare. The study is motivated by an age-sex structured population counts in different regions of Serengeti-Mara during the period 1989-2003. Developing reliable and realistic models for population dynamics of large herbivore population can be a very complex and challenging exercise. However, the Bayesian statistical domain offers some flexible computational methods that enable the development and efficient implementation of complex population dynamics models. In this work, we have used a novel Bayesian state-space model to analyse the dynamics of topi and hartebeest populations in the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem of East Africa. The state-space model involves survival probabilities of the animals which further depend on various factors like monthly rainfall, size of habitat, etc. that cause recent declines in numbers of the herbivore populations and potentially threaten their future population viability in the ecosystem. Our study shows that seasonal rainfall is the most important factors shaping the population size of animals and indicates the age-class which most severely affected by any change in weather conditions.

Keywords: bayesian state-space model, Markov Chain Monte Carlo, population dynamics, conservation

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2195 Predictive Factors of Exercise Behaviors of Junior High School Students in Chonburi Province

Authors: Tanida Julvanichpong

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Exercise has been regarded as a necessary and important aspect to enhance physical performance and psychology health. Body weight statistics of students in junior high school students in Chonburi Province beyond a standard risk of obesity. Promoting exercise among Junior high school students in Chonburi Province, essential knowledge concerning factors influencing exercise is needed. Therefore, this study aims to (1) determine the levels of perceived exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived barriers to exercise, perceived benefits of exercise, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, feelings associated with exercise behavior, influence of the family to exercise, influence of friends to exercise, and the perceived influence of the environment on exercise. (2) examine the predicting ability of each of the above factors while including personal factors (sex, educational level) for exercise behavior. Pender’s Health Promotion Model was used as a guide for the study. Sample included 652 students in junior high schools, Chonburi Provience. The samples were selected by Multi-Stage Random Sampling. Data Collection has been done by using self-administered questionnaires. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient, Eta, and stepwise multiple regression analysis. The research results showed that: 1. Perceived benefits of exercise, influence of teacher, influence of environmental, feelings associated with exercise behavior were at a high level. Influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise and influence of friends were at a moderate level. Perceived barriers to exercise were at a low level. 2. Exercise behavior was positively significant related to perceived benefits of exercise, influence of the family to exercise, exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, influence of friends, influence of teacher, influence of environmental and feelings associated with exercise behavior (p < .01, respectively) and was negatively significant related to educational level and perceived barriers to exercise (p < .01, respectively). Exercise behavior was significant related to sex (Eta = 0.243, p=.000). 3. Exercise behavior in the past, influence of the family to exercise significantly contributed 60.10 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in male students (p < .01). Exercise behavior in the past, perceived self-efficacy to exercise, perceived barriers to exercise, and educational level significantly contributed 52.60 percent of the variance to the prediction of exercise behavior in female students (p < .01).

Keywords: predictive factors, exercise behaviors, Junior high school, Chonburi Province

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2194 The Analysis of Education Sector and Poverty Alleviation with Benefit Incidence Analysis Approach Budget Allocation Policy in East Java

Authors: Wildan Syafitri

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The main purpose of the development is to embody public welfare. Its indication is shown by the increasing of the public prosperity in which it will be related to the consumption level as a consequence of the increasing of public income. One of the government’s efforts to increase public welfare is to create development equity in order to alleviate poor people. Poverty’s problem is not merely about the number and percentage of the poor people, but also it includes the gap and severity of poverty.the analysis method used is Benefit Incidence Analysis (BIA) that is an analysis method used to disclose the impact of government policy or individual access based on the income distribution in society. Further, the finding of the study revealed is that the highest number of the poor people in the village is those who are unemployed and have family members who are still in the Junior High School. The income distribution calculation shows a fairly good budget allocation applied with good mass ratio that is 0.31. In addition, the finding of this study also discloses that Indonesian Government policy to subsidize education cost for Elementary and Junior High School students has reached the right target. It is indicated by more benefits received by Elementary and Junior High School students who are poor and very poor than other income group.

Keywords: benefit incidence analysis, budget allocation, poverty, education

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2193 The Effects of Smoking Prevention Intervention on Smoking Knowledge, Attitudes and Anti-Smoking Self-Efficiency among Adolescent Students

Authors: Yi-Ying Lin, Su-Guo, Chia-Hao, Ming-Szu Hong

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Objectives: Smoking is a common addictive behavior in teenagers. Long-term smoking is hazardous to health, causes family and social expenditure, and is an important topic that should not be overlooked by academia or the government. The aims of this study are to examine the effectiveness of these courses in terms of teenagers’ knowledge and attitudes towards the hazards of smoking and the effectiveness of their self-efficacy in rejecting smoking. Methods: This study adopted a pre-test post-test design and selected 7th, 8th, 10th, and 11th graders from two junior high schools. Total of 1073 valid questionnaires were collected. The self-completed questionnaire included background information, smoking status of relatives staying with the subject, attitudes of parents towards child smoking, knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, and anti-smoking self-efficacy. Results and clinical applications: Subjects in the experimental group underwent course interventions, which are 'smoking prevention courses,' in the semester. After course intervention, it was found that the intervention showed significant efficacy in terms of knowledge and self-efficacy in rejecting smoking in senior high school students but no efficacy in junior high school. We recommend that this course can be used in normal senior high schools. With regards to junior high schools, smoking prevention courses should be designed to be gamified, or combined with activities with both anti-smoking messages and entertainment at the same time, so that knowledge, attitudes, and self-efficacy can be subconsciously cultivated.

Keywords: adolescent students, smoking knowledge, attitudes, anti-smoking self-efficiency, smoking prevention intervention

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2192 The Knowledge and Attitude of Doping among Junior Athletes and Coaches in Sri Lanka

Authors: Mahadula I. P. Kumari, Kasturiratne A., De Silva AP

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Doping refers to an athlete's use of banned substances as a method to improve training and performance in sports. It is known that some young athletes use banned substances in Sri Lanka without knowing their side effects and associated health risks. The main objective of this study was to describe the level of knowledge and attitude among junior athletes and coaches on doping in sports. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Four individual sports and six team sports were taken into the study. Schools were selected considering the results of the all-island school sports competitions 2017. Two hundred sixty-two female athletes, 290 male athletes and 30 coaches representing all sports counted into this study. The data collection method was a self-administered questionnaire and SPSS Version 21 was used for the data analysis. According to the result, 79% of athletes have heard of the term "doping," and 21% have never heard of it. This means these children have not been educated on doping. A number of questions were asked to study the level of knowledge of the coaches and players. Those who answered the questions correctly were given a mark. According to the marks, it is evident that the level of knowledge of the players and coaches is very low. All athletes and coaches do not accept the use of banned substances. This shows that athletes and coaches have a good attitude about winning without cheating. It was evident that athletes in athletics, weightlifting, rugby, and badminton had some level of knowledge about banned substances. All coaches stated that school athletes and coaches do not have sufficient knowledge of banned substances. And they should be made aware of it. This study has revealed that school/Junior athletes and coaches have limited knowledge of banned substances. School children and coaches need to be educated about banned substances and their harmful effects.

Keywords: attitude, doping, knowledge, Sri Lanka

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