Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 35

Search results for: M. Udaya Bhaskar

35 Analysis of Different Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for a Five-Phase Inverter

Authors: K. A. Chinmaya, M. Udaya Bhaskar

Abstract:

Multiphase motor drives are now a day considered for numerous applications due to the advantages that they offer when compared to their three-phase counterparts. Proper modeling of inverters and motors are important in devising an appropriate control algorithm. This paper develops a complete modeling of a five-phase inverter and five-phase space vector modulation schemes which can be used for five-phase motor drives. A novel modified algorithm is introduced which enables the sinusoidal output voltages up to certain voltage value. The waveforms of phase to neutral voltage are compared with the different modulation techniques and also different modulation indexes in terms of Low-order Harmonic (LH) voltage of 3rd and 7th present. A detailed performance evolution of existing and newly modified schemes is done in terms of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

Keywords: multi-phase drives, space vector modulation, voltage source inverter, low order harmonic voltages, total harmonic distortion

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34 Isolation and Synthesis of 1’-S-1’-Acetoxycavicol Acetate as Potent Antidandruff Agent

Authors: M. Vijaya Bhaskar Reddy

Abstract:

The air-dried and powdered methanol solvent extraction of the rhizomes of Alpinia galangal is subjected to bio-assay guided fractionation and isolation yielded a known compound namely, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1). The isolated known compound has been identified based on the physical, spectral data (IR, ¹H, ¹³C, NMR and mass spectroscopy) and comparison with an authentic sample. Finally isolated 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate (1) was confirmed by synthesis. The crude methanol extract and identified known compound (1) were tested for antidandruff property against Malassezia furfur showed with MIC 1000 µg/mL and 7.81 µg/mL, respectively.

Keywords: Alpinia galanga, isolation, 1'-S-1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, antidandruff activity, Malassezia furfur

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33 Automatic Segmentation of Lung Pleura Based On Curvature Analysis

Authors: Sasidhar B., Bhaskar Rao N., Ramesh Babu D. R., Ravi Shankar M.

Abstract:

Segmentation of lung pleura is a preprocessing step in Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) which helps in reducing false positives in detection of lung cancer. The existing methods fail in extraction of lung regions with the nodules at the pleura of the lungs. In this paper, a new method is proposed which segments lung regions with nodules at the pleura of the lungs based on curvature analysis and morphological operators. The proposed algorithm is tested on 06 patient’s dataset which consists of 60 images of Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) and the results are found to be satisfactory with 98.3% average overlap measure (AΩ).

Keywords: curvature analysis, image segmentation, morphological operators, thresholding

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32 An Experimental Study of Iron Smelting Techniques Used in the South East Rajasthan, with Special Reference to Nathara-Ki-Pal, Udaipur

Authors: Udaya Kumar

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to discuss recent research conducted in experimental studies related to the process of the iron smelting. The paper will discuss issues related to the selection of iron ore, structure of furnace, making of tuyeres, fashioning of blowers and firing temperatures through experiments conducted recently and scientific analyses of experimental work. Experiments were conducted in order to investigate iron smelting techniques used at the Early Historic site of Nathara-Ki-Pal. (73°47’E; 24°16N is located about 70 km south-east of Udaipur city). Geographically, Nathara-Ki-Pal has located the foot hills of Aravalli’s. Iron ore and iron slag can be seen on the surface of the site. The remains of 4 broken furnaces were recovered during excavations (2007 and 2008) and the site was excavated by Prof. Pandey from the Department of Archaeology of the Institute of Rajasthan studies, Rajasthan Vidyapeeth University. This shows that the site of Nathara-Ki-Pal was a center of iron smelting. Results of experiments performed both in the field reconstruction of a bloomery furnace and in the laboratory are discussed.

Keywords: experimental studies, furnace, smelting techniques, making of tuyeres

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31 Mind Your Product-Market Strategy on Selecting Marketing Inputs: An Uncertainty Approach in Indian Context

Authors: Susmita Ghosh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

Market is an important factor for start-ups to look into during decision-making in product development and related areas. Emerging country markets are more uncertain in terms of information availability and institutional supports. The literature review of market uncertainty reveals the need for identifying factors representing the market uncertainty. This paper identifies factors for market uncertainty using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and confirms the number of factor retention using an alternative factor retention criterion, ‘Parallel Analysis’. 500 entrepreneurs, engaged in start-ups from all over India participated in the study. This paper concludes with the factor structure of ‘market uncertainty’ having dimensions of uncertainty in industry orientation, uncertainty in customer orientation and uncertainty in marketing orientation.

Keywords: uncertainty, market, orientation, competitor, demand

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30 In Silico Studies on Selected Drug Targets for Combating Drug Resistance in Plasmodium Falcifarum

Authors: Deepika Bhaskar, Neena Wadehra, Megha Gulati, Aruna Narula, R. Vishnu, Gunjan Katyal

Abstract:

With drug resistance becoming widespread in Plasmodium falciparum infections, development of the alternative drugs is the desired strategy for prevention and cure of malaria. Three drug targets were selected to screen promising drug molecules from the GSK library of around 14000 molecules. Using an in silico structure-based drug designing approach, the differences in binding energies of the substrate and inhibitor were exploited between target sites of parasite and human to design a drug molecule against Plasmodium. The docking studies have shown several promising molecules from GSK library with more effective binding as compared to the already known inhibitors for the drug targets. Though stronger interaction has been shown by several molecules as compare to reference, few molecules have shown the potential as drug candidates though in vitro studies are required to validate the results.

Keywords: plasmodium, malaria, drug targets, in silico studies

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29 Medical Image Watermark and Tamper Detection Using Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum Watermarking

Authors: Peter U. Eze, P. Udaya, Robin J. Evans

Abstract:

Data hiding can be achieved by Steganography or invisible digital watermarking. For digital watermarking, both accurate retrieval of the embedded watermark and the integrity of the cover image are important. Medical image security in Teleradiology is one of the applications where the embedded patient record needs to be extracted with accuracy as well as the medical image integrity verified. In this research paper, the Constant Correlation Spread Spectrum digital watermarking for medical image tamper detection and accurate embedded watermark retrieval is introduced. In the proposed method, a watermark bit from a patient record is spread in a medical image sub-block such that the correlation of all watermarked sub-blocks with a spreading code, W, would have a constant value, p. The constant correlation p, spreading code, W and the size of the sub-blocks constitute the secret key. Tamper detection is achieved by flagging any sub-block whose correlation value deviates by more than a small value, ℇ, from p. The major features of our new scheme include: (1) Improving watermark detection accuracy for high-pixel depth medical images by reducing the Bit Error Rate (BER) to Zero and (2) block-level tamper detection in a single computational process with simultaneous watermark detection, thereby increasing utility with the same computational cost.

Keywords: Constant Correlation, Medical Image, Spread Spectrum, Tamper Detection, Watermarking

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28 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami

Abstract:

A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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27 Traffic Sign Recognition System Using Convolutional Neural NetworkDevineni

Authors: Devineni Vijay Bhaskar, Yendluri Raja

Abstract:

We recommend a model for traffic sign detection stranded on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). We first renovate the unique image into the gray scale image through with support vector machines, then use convolutional neural networks with fixed and learnable layers for revealing and understanding. The permanent layer can reduction the amount of attention areas to notice and crop the limits very close to the boundaries of traffic signs. The learnable coverings can rise the accuracy of detection significantly. Besides, we use bootstrap procedures to progress the accuracy and avoid overfitting problem. In the German Traffic Sign Detection Benchmark, we obtained modest results, with an area under the precision-recall curve (AUC) of 99.49% in the group “Risk”, and an AUC of 96.62% in the group “Obligatory”.

Keywords: convolutional neural network, support vector machine, detection, traffic signs, bootstrap procedures, precision-recall curve

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26 Heat Transfer Process Parameter Optimization in SI/Ge Using TAGUCHI Method

Authors: Evln Ranga Charyulu, S. P. Venu Madhavarao, S. Udaya kumar, S. V. S. S. N. V. G. Krishna Murthy

Abstract:

With the advent of new nanometer process technologies, it is possible to integrate billion transistors on a single substrate. When more and more functionality included there is the possibility of multi-million transistors switching simultaneously consuming more power and dissipating more power along with more leakage of current into the substrate of porous silicon or germanium material. These results in substrate heating and thermal noise generation coupled to signals of interest. The heating process is represented by coupled nonlinear partial differential equations in porous silicon and germanium. By identifying heat sources and heat fluxes may results in designing of ultra-low power circuits. The PDEs are solved by finite difference scheme assuming that boundary layer equations in porous silicon and germanium. Local heat fluxes along the vertical isothermal surface immersed in porous SI/Ge are considered. The parameters considered for optimization are thermal diffusivity, thermal expansion coefficient, thermal diffusion ratio, permeability, specific heat at constant temperatures, Rayleigh number, amplitude of wavy surface, mass expansion coefficient. The diffusion of heat was caused by the concentration gradient. Thermal physical properties are homogeneous and isotropic. By using L8, TAGUCHI method the parameters are optimized.

Keywords: heat transfer, pde, taguchi optimization, SI/Ge

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25 Gut Metabolite Profiling of the Ethnic Groups from Assam, India

Authors: Madhusmita Dehingia, Supriyo Sen, Bhuwan Bhaskar, Tulsi Joishy, Mojibur R. Khan

Abstract:

Human gut microbes and their metabolites are important for maintaining homeostasis in the gut and are responsible for many metabolic and immune mediated diseases. In the present study, we determined the profiles of the gut metabolites of five different ethnic groups (Bodo, Tai-Phake, Karbi, Tea tribe and Tai-Aiton) of Assam. Fecal metabolite profiling of the 39 individuals belonging to the ethnic groups was carried out using Gas chromatography – Mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and comparison was performed among the tribes for common and unique metabolites produced within their gut. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) of the metabolites suggested that the individuals grouped according to their ethnicity. Among the 66 abundant metabolites, 12 metabolites were found to be common among the five ethnic groups. Additionally, ethnicity wise some unique metabolites were also detected. For example, the tea tribe of Assam contained the tea components, Aniline and Benzoate more in their gut in comparison to others. Metabolites of microbial origin were also correlated with the already published metagenomic data of the same ethnic group and functional analysis were carried out based on human metabolome database.

Keywords: ethnicity, gut microbiota, GC-MS, metabolites

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24 Empirical Study on Grassroots Innovation for Entrepreneurship Development with Microfinance Provision as Moderator

Authors: Sonal H. Singh, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

The research hypothesis formulated in this paper examines the importance of microfinance provision for entrepreneurship development by engendering a high level of entrepreneurial orientation among the grassroots entrepreneurs. A theoretically well supported empirical framework is proposed to identify the influence of financial services and non-financial services provided by microfinance institutes in strengthening the impact of grassroots innovation on entrepreneurial orientation under resource constraints. In this paper, Grassroots innovation is perceived in three dimensions: new learning practice, localized solution, and network development. The study analyzes the moderating effect of microfinance provision on the relationship between grassroots innovation and entrepreneurial orientation. The paper employed structural equation modelling on 400 data entries from the grassroots entrepreneurs in India. The research intends to help policymakers, entrepreneurs and microfinance providers to promote the innovative design of microfinance services for the well-being of grassroots entrepreneurs and to foster sustainable entrepreneurship development.

Keywords: entrepreneurship development, grassroots innovation, India, structural equation model

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23 Tetra Butyl Ammonium Cyanate Mediated Selective Synthesis of Sulfonyltriuret and Their Investigation towards Trypsin Protease Modulation

Authors: Amarjyoti Das Mahapatra, Umesh Kumar, Bhaskar Datta

Abstract:

A pseudo peptide can mimic the biological or structural properties of natural peptides. They have become an increasing attention in medicinal chemistry because of their interesting advantages like more bioavailability and less biodegradation than compare to the physiologically active native peptides which increase their therapeutic applications. Many biologically active compounds contain urea as functional groups, and they have improved pharmacokinetic properties because of their bioavailability and metabolic stability. Recently we have reported a single-step synthesis of sulfonyl urea and sulfonyltriuret from sulfonyl chloride and sodium cyanate. But the yield of sulfonyltriuret was less around 40-60% because of the formation of other products like sulfonamide and sulfonylureas. In the present work, we mainly focused on the selective synthesis of sulfonyltriuret using tetrabutylammonium cyanate and sulfonyl chloride. More precisely, we are interested in the controlled synthesis of oligomeric urea mainly sulfonyltriuret as a new class of pseudo peptide and their application as protease modulators. The distinctive architecture of these molecules in the form of their pseudo-peptide backbone offers promise as a potential pharmacophore. The synthesized molecules have been screened on trypsin enzyme, and we observed that these molecules are the efficient modulator of trypsin enzyme.

Keywords: pseudo peptide, pharmacophore, sulfonyltriuret, trypsin

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22 Hybrid Treatment Method for Decolorization of Mixed Dyes: Rhodamine-B, Brilliant Green and Congo Red

Authors: D. Naresh Yadav, K. Anand Kishore, Bhaskar Bethi, Shirish H. Sonawane, D. Bhagawan

Abstract:

The untreated industrial wastewater discharged into the environment causes the contamination of soil, water and air. Advanced treatment methods for enhanced wastewater treatment are attracting substantial interest among the currently employed unit processes in wastewater treatment. The textile industry is one of the predominant in wastewater production at current industrialized situation. The refused dyes at textile industry need to be treated in proper manner before its discharge into water bodies. In the present investigation, hybrid treatment process has been developed for the treatment of synthetic mixed dye wastewater. Photocatalysis and ceramic nanoporous membrane are mainly used for process integration to minimize the fouling and increase the flux. Commercial semiconducting powders (TiO2 and ZnO) has used as a nano photocatalyst for the degradation of mixed dye in the hybrid system. Commercial ceramic nanoporous tubular membranes have been used for the rejection of dye and suspended catalysts. Photocatalysis with catalyst has shown the average of 34% of decolorization (RB-32%, BG-34% and CR-36%), whereas ceramic nanofiltration has shown the 56% (RB-54%, BG-56% and CR-58%) of decolorization. Integration of photocatalysis and ceramic nanofiltration has shown 96% (RB-94%, BG-96% and CR-98%) of dye decolorization over 90 min of operation.

Keywords: photocatalysis, ceramic nanoporous membrane, wastewater treatment, advanced oxidation process, process integration

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21 Energy Policy of India: An Assessment of Its Impacts and Way Forward

Authors: Mrinal Saurabh Bhaskar, Rahul E Ravindranathan, Priyangana Borah

Abstract:

Energy plays a key role and as a driving force for economic and social growth for any country. To manage the energy sources and its efficient utilization in different economic sectors, energy policy of a country is critical. The energy performance of a country is measured in Energy Intensity and India’s Energy Intensity due to several policies interventions has reduced from 0.53 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2000 to 0.38 toe/1000USD (2010) in the year 2014, which is about 28 per cent reduction. The Government of India has taken several initiates to manage their increasing energy demand and meet the climate change goals defined by them. The major policy milestones in India related to energy are (i) Enactment of Energy Conservation (EC) Act 2001 (ii) Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency 2001 (iii) National Action Plan on Climate Change (iv) Launch of Demand Side Management schemes (v) Amendment of EC Act 2010 (vi) Launch of Perform Achieve and Trade scheme 2012. Through a critical review, this paper highlights the key energy policy interventions by India, its benefits and impact, challenges faced and efforts of the Government to overcome such challenges. Such take away would be helpful for other countries who are proposing to prepare or amend their energy policy for their different economic sectors.

Keywords: energy, efficiency, climate, policy

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20 Stochastic Modeling for Parameters of Modified Car-Following Model in Area-Based Traffic Flow

Authors: N. C. Sarkar, A. Bhaskar, Z. Zheng

Abstract:

The driving behavior in area-based (i.e., non-lane based) traffic is induced by the presence of other individuals in the choice space from the driver’s visual perception area. The driving behavior of a subject vehicle is constrained by the potential leaders and leaders are frequently changed over time. This paper is to determine a stochastic model for a parameter of modified intelligent driver model (MIDM) in area-based traffic (as in developing countries). The parametric and non-parametric distributions are presented to fit the parameters of MIDM. The goodness of fit for each parameter is measured in two different ways such as graphically and statistically. The quantile-quantile (Q-Q) plot is used for a graphical representation of a theoretical distribution to model a parameter and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) test is used for a statistical measure of fitness for a parameter with a theoretical distribution. The distributions are performed on a set of estimated parameters of MIDM. The parameters are estimated on the real vehicle trajectory data from India. The fitness of each parameter with a stochastic model is well represented. The results support the applicability of the proposed modeling for parameters of MIDM in area-based traffic flow simulation.

Keywords: area-based traffic, car-following model, micro-simulation, stochastic modeling

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19 Signal Integrity Performance Analysis in Capacitive and Inductively Coupled Very Large Scale Integration Interconnect Models

Authors: Mudavath Raju, Bhaskar Gugulothu, B. Rajendra Naik

Abstract:

The rapid advances in Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology has resulted in the reduction of minimum feature size to sub-quarter microns and switching time in tens of picoseconds or even less. As a result, the degradation of high-speed digital circuits due to signal integrity issues such as coupling effects, clock feedthrough, crosstalk noise and delay uncertainty noise. Crosstalk noise in VLSI interconnects is a major concern and reduction in VLSI interconnect has become more important for high-speed digital circuits. It is the most effectively considered in Deep Sub Micron (DSM) and Ultra Deep Sub Micron (UDSM) technology. Increasing spacing in-between aggressor and victim line is one of the technique to reduce the crosstalk. Guard trace or shield insertion in-between aggressor and victim is also one of the prominent options for the minimization of crosstalk. In this paper, far end crosstalk noise is estimated with mutual inductance and capacitance RLC interconnect model. Also investigated the extent of crosstalk in capacitive and inductively coupled interconnects to minimizes the same through shield insertion technique.

Keywords: VLSI, interconnects, signal integrity, crosstalk, shield insertion, guard trace, deep sub micron

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18 Effect of Sugar Mill Effluent on Growth, Yield and Soil Properties of Ratoon Cane in Cauvery Command Area

Authors: G. K. Madhu, S. Bhaskar, M. S. Dinesh, R. Manii, C. A. Srinivasamurthy

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted in the premises of M/s Sri Chamundeshwari Sugars Ltd., Bharathinagar, Mandya District Pvt. Ltd., during 2014 to study the effect of sugar mill effluent (SME) on growth, yield and soil properties of ratoon cane with eight treatments replicated thrice using RCBD design. Significantly higher growth parameters like cane height (249.77 cm) and number of tillers per clump (12.22) were recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower growth attributes were recorded in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Significantly higher cane yield (104. 93 t -1) was recorded in treatment which received cycle of 3 irrigations with freshwater + 1 irrigation with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments. Significantly lower cane yield (87.40 t ha-1) was observed in treatment which received irrigation with sugar mill effluent alone. Soil properties like pH (7.84) was higher in treatment receiving Alternate irrigation with freshwater and sugar mill effluent + RDF. But EC was significantly higher in treatment which received Cycle of1 irrigation with freshwater + 2 irrigations with sugar mill effluent + RDF as compared to other treatments.

Keywords: sugar mill effluent, sugarcane, irrigation, cane yield

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17 Microstructure Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth in Aluminum Alloy

Authors: M. S. Nandana, K. Udaya Bhat, C. M. Manjunatha

Abstract:

In this study aluminum alloy 7010 was subjected to three different ageing treatments i.e., peak ageing (T6), over-ageing (T7451) and retrogression and re ageing (RRA) to study the influence of precipitate microstructure on the fatigue crack growth rate behavior. The microstructural modification was studied by using transmission electron microscope (TEM) to examine the change in the size and morphology of precipitates in the matrix and on the grain boundaries. The standard compact tension (CT) specimens were fabricated and tested under constant amplitude fatigue crack growth tests to evaluate the influence of heat treatment on the fatigue crack growth rate properties. The tests were performed in a computer-controlled servo-hydraulic test machine applying a load ratio, R = 0.1 at a loading frequency of 10 Hz as per ASTM E647. The fatigue crack growth was measured by adopting compliance technique using a CMOD gauge attached to the CT specimen. The average size of the matrix precipitates were found to be of 16-20 nm in T7451, 5-6 nm in RRA and 2-3 nm in T6 conditions respectively. The grain boundary precipitate which was continuous in T6, was disintegrated in RRA and T7451 condition. The PFZ width was lower in RRA compared to T7451 condition. The crack growth rate was higher in T7451 and lowest in RRA treated alloy. The RRA treated alloy also exhibits an increase in threshold stress intensity factor range (∆Kₜₕ). The ∆Kₜₕ measured was 11.1, 10.3 and 5.7 MPam¹/² in RRA, T6 and T7451 alloys respectively. The fatigue crack growth rate in RRA treated alloy was nearly 2-3 times lower than that in T6 and was one order lower than that observed in T7451 condition. The surface roughness of RRA treated alloy was more pronounced when compared to the other conditions. The reduction in fatigue crack growth rate in RRA alloy was majorly due to the increase in roughness and partially due to increase in spacing between the matrix precipitates. The reduction in crack growth rate and increase in threshold stress intensity range is expected to benefit the damage tolerant capability of aircraft structural components under service loads.

Keywords: damage tolerance, fatigue, heat treatment, PFZ, RRA

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16 Digital Planet: Readying for the Rise of the E-Consumer

Authors: Bhaskar Chakravorti, Christopher Tunnard, Ravi Shankar Chaturvedi

Abstract:

This report introduces the Digital Evolution Index (DEI) as a way to gauge the transformation of economies in the advanced and developing world from traditional brick-and-mortar to digitally enabled. The DEI measures the digital trajectories of 50 countries to provide actionable, data-informed insights for businesses, investors and policymakers. Created by The Fletcher School, in collaboration with MasterCard Worldwide and DataCash, the DEI analyzes the key underlying drivers and barriers that govern a country’s evolution into a digital economy: Demand, Supply, Institutional Environment and Innovation. A longitudinal analysis of these four drivers during the years 2008 to 2013 reveals both the current state of a country’s digital economy, as well as changes over time. Combining these two measures allows us to assign each country to one of four Trajectory Zones: • Stand Out countries have shown high levels of digital development in the past and continue to remain on an upward trajectory. • Stall Out countries have achieved a high level of evolution in the past but are losing momentum and risk falling behind. • Break Out countries have the potential to develop strong digital economies. Though their overall score is still low, they are moving upward and are poised to become Stand Out countries in the future. • Watch Out countries face significant opportunities and challenges, with low scores on both current level and upward motion of their DEI. Some may be able to overcome limitations with clever innovations and stopgap measures, while others seem to be stuck.

Keywords: e-commerce, digital evolution, digital commerce ecosystems, e-consumer

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15 Impact of Story-Telling through Indian Textiles: Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad

Authors: Lavina N. Bhaskar, Ashima Tiwari

Abstract:

In the endeavour of connecting culture to stories, textile to narratives and people to material, authors analyse the impact of narratives in two popular Indian textiles namely - Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad. These textiles narrate people’s tale or Folk tale. Each textile has a style or format in which the story is told (and it is visual). Mata Ni Pachedi, when translated into the English language literally means behind the mother goddess. Mata Ni Pachedi is an Indian textile from the province of Gujarat which constitutes an entire temple of the goddess, with the idol herself in it. On the other hand, Pabuji ki Phad is scroll painting of folk deities of Rajasthan, narrated by Bhopas (the Priest singers of Rajasthan). These textiles narrate stories of ordinary people with extraordinary courage, of social reform, and people’s belief in the divine. Authors take to task their years of craft-cluster study conducted in the past and use existing literature to map their journey in the preliminary phase of research. And then carried out an ethnographic study by visiting the origins of these textiles in Rajasthan and Gujrat (in India), met artisans and their families who are still practicing these dying art form, in order to understand the format and impact of textile story-telling. This research paper talks about the narrative in Indian textiles; the stories in them, artisans and their life as metaphorical representations of the People in Mata Ni Pachedi and Pabuji Ki Phad.

Keywords: cultural derivatives, folk-tale, Indo-Narratives, Indology

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14 Fungicidal Action of the Mycogenic Silver Nanoparticles Against Aspergillus niger Inciting Collar Rot Disease in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

Authors: R. Sarada Jayalakshmi Devi B. Bhaskar, S. Khayum Ahammed, T. N. V. K. V. Prasad

Abstract:

Use of bioagents and biofungicides is safe to manage the plant diseases and to avoid human health hazards which improves food security. Myconanotechnology is the study of nanoparticles synthesis using fungi and their applications. The present work reports on preparation, characterization and antifungal activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Trichoderma sp. which was collected from groundnut rhizosphere. The culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. was used for the reduction of silver ions (Ag+) in AgNO3 solution to the silver (Ag0) nanoparticles. The different ages (4 days, 6 days, 8 days, 12 days, and 15 days) of culture filtrates were screened for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometer, particle size and zeta potential analyzer, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR) and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Among all the treatments the silver nitrate solution treated with six days aged culture filtrate of Trichoderma sp. showed the UV absorption peak at 440 nm with maximum intensity (0.59) after 24 hrs incubation. The TEM micrographs showed the spherical shaped silver nanoparticles with an average size of 30 nm. The antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger causing collar rot disease in groundnut and aspergillosis in humans showed the highest per cent inhibition at 100 ppm concentration (74.8%). The results points to the usage of these mycogenic AgNPs in agriculture to control plant diseases.

Keywords: groundnut rhizosphere, Trichoderma sp., silver nanoparticles synthesis, antifungal activity

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13 Irrigation Potential Assessment for Eastern Ganga Canal, India Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Deepak Khare, Radha Krishan, Bhaskar Nikam

Abstract:

The present study deals with the results of the Ortho-rectified Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m resolution) satellite data analysis for the extraction of canal networks under the Eastern Ganga Canal (EGC) command. Based on the information derived through the remote sensing data, in terms of the number of canals, their physical status and hydraulic connectivity from the source, irrigation potential (IP) created in the command was assessed by comparing with planned/design canal-wise irrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in a geodatabase. The EGC project irrigates the command through one main canal, five branch canals, 36 distributaries and 186 minors. The study was conducted with the main objectives of inventory and mapping of irrigation infrastructure using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and field data. Likewise, the assessment of irrigation potential created using the mapped infrastructure was performed as on March 2017. Results revealed that the canals were not only pending but were also having gap/s, and hydraulically disconnected in each branch canal and also in minors of EGC. A total of 16622.3 ha of commands were left untouched with canal water just due to the presence of gaps in the EGC project. The sum of all the gaps present in minor canals was 11.92 km, while in distributary, it was 2.63 km. This is a very good scenario that balances IP can be achieved by working on the gaps present in minor canals. Filling the gaps in minor canals can bring most of the area under irrigation, especially the tail reaches command.

Keywords: canal command, GIS, hydraulic connectivity, irrigation potential

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12 Impact of Climate Shift on Rainfall and Temperature Trend in Eastern Ganga Canal Command

Authors: Radha Krishan, Deepak Khare, Bhaskar R. Nikam, Ayush Chandrakar

Abstract:

Every irrigation project is planned considering long-term historical climatic conditions; however, the prompt climatic shift and change has come out with such circumstances which were inconceivable in the past. Considering this fact, scrutiny of rainfall and temperature trend has been carried out over the command area of Eastern Ganga Canal project for pre-climate shift period and post-climate shift periods in the present study. Non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods have been applied to study the trends in annual rainfall, seasonal rainfall, annual rainy day, monsoonal rainy days, average annual temperature and seasonal temperature. The results showed decreasing trend of 48.11 to 42.17 mm/decade in annual rainfall and 79.78 tSo 49.67 mm/decade in monsoon rainfall in pre-climate to post-climate shift periods, respectively. The decreasing trend of 1 to 4 days/decade has been observed in annual rainy days from pre-climate to post-climate shift period. Trends in temperature revealed that there were significant decreasing trends in annual (-0.03 ºC/yr), Kharif (-0.02 ºC/yr), Rabi (-0.04 ºC/yr) and summer (-0.02 ºC/yr) season temperature during pre-climate shift period, whereas the significant increasing trend (0.02 ºC/yr) has been observed in all the four parameters during post climate shift period. These results will help project managers in understanding the climate shift and lead them to develop alternative water management strategies.

Keywords: climate shift, rainfall trend, temperature trend, Mann-Kendall test, sen slope estimator, eastern Ganga canal command

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11 Free Vibration Analysis of Timoshenko Beams at Higher Modes with Central Concentrated Mass Using Coupled Displacement Field Method

Authors: K. Meera Saheb, K. Krishna Bhaskar

Abstract:

Complex structures used in many fields of engineering are made up of simple structural elements like beams, plates etc. These structural elements, sometimes carry concentrated masses at discrete points, and when subjected to severe dynamic environment tend to vibrate with large amplitudes. The frequency amplitude relationship is very much essential in determining the response of these structural elements subjected to the dynamic loads. For Timoshenko beams, the effects of shear deformation and rotary inertia are to be considered to evaluate the fundamental linear and nonlinear frequencies. A commonly used method for solving vibration problem is energy method, or a finite element analogue of the same. In the present Coupled Displacement Field method the number of undetermined coefficients is reduced to half when compared to the famous Rayleigh Ritz method, which significantly simplifies the procedure to solve the vibration problem. This is accomplished by using a coupling equation derived from the static equilibrium of the shear flexible structural element. The prime objective of the present paper here is to study, in detail, the effect of a central concentrated mass on the large amplitude free vibrations of uniform shear flexible beams. Accurate closed form expressions for linear frequency parameter for uniform shear flexible beams with a central concentrated mass was developed and the results are presented in digital form.

Keywords: coupled displacement field, coupling equation, large amplitude vibrations, moderately thick plates

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10 Use of RAPD and ISSR Markers in Detection of Genetic Variation among Colletotrichum falcatum Went Isolates from South Gujarat India

Authors: Prittesh Patel, Rushabh Shah, Krishnamurthy Ramar, Vakulbhushan Bhaskar

Abstract:

The present research work aims at finding genetic differences in the genomes of sugarcane red rot isolates Colletotrichum falcatum Went using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and interspersed simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. Ten isolates of C. falcatum isolated from different red rot infected sugarcane cultivars stalk were used in present study. The amplified bands were scored across the lanes obtained in 15 RAPD primes and 21 ISSR primes successfully. The data were analysed using NTSYSpc 2.2 software. The results showed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. Based on the RAPD analysis, ten genotypes were grouped into two major clusters at a cut-off value of 0.75. Geographically distant C. falcatum isolate cfGAN from south Gujarat had a level of similarity with Coimbatore isolate cf8436 presented on separate clade of bootstrapped dendrograms. First and second cluster consisted of five and three isolates respectively, indicating the close relation among them. The 21 ISSR primers produced 119 distinct and scorable loci in that 38 were monomorphic. The number of scorable loci for each primer varied from 2 (ISSR822) to 8 (ISSR807, ISSR823 and ISSR15) with an average of 5.66 loci per primer. Primer ISSR835 amplified the highest number of bands (57), while only 16 bands were obtained by primers ISSR822. Four primers namely ISSR830, ISSR845, ISSR4 and ISSR15 showed the highest value of percentage of polymorphism (100%). The results indicated that both of the marker systems RAPD and ISSR, individually can be effectively used in determination of genetic relationship among C falcatum accessions collected from different parts of south Gujarat.

Keywords: Colletotrichum falcatum, ISSR, RAPD, Red Rot

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9 Sol-Gel Coated Fabric for Controlled Release of Mosquito Repellent

Authors: Bhaskar M. Murai, Neeraj Banchor, Ishveen Chabbra, Madhusudhan Nadgir, S. Vidhya

Abstract:

Sol-gel technology combined with electronics and biochemistry helps to overcome the problems caused by mosquitoes by developing a portable, low-cost device which enables controlled release of trapped compound inside it. It is a wet-chemical technique which is used primarily for fabrication of silicate gel which is usually allowed to dry as per requirement. The outcome is solid rock hard material which is porous and has lots of applications in different fields. Taking porosity as a key factor, allethrin a naturally occurring synthetic compound with molecular mass 302.40 was entrapped inside the sol-gel matrix as a dopant. Allethrin is commonly used as an insecticide and is a key ingredient in commercially available mosquitoes repellent in Asian and subtropical countries. It has low toxicity for humans and birds, and are used in many household insecticides such as RAID as well as mosquito coils. They are however highly toxic to fish and bees. Insects subject to its exposure become paralyzed (nervous system effect) before dying. They are also used as an ultra-low volume spray for outdoor mosquito control. Therefore, there is a need for controlled release of allethrin in the environment. For controlled release of allethrin from sol-gel matrix, its (allethrin) we utilized temperature based controlled evaporation through porous sol-gel. Different types of fabric like cotton, Terri-cotton, polyester, surgical cap, knee-cap etc are studied and the best with maximum absorption capacity is selected to hold the sol-gel matrix with maximum quantity. For sol-gel coating 2 x 2cm cloth pieces are dipped in sol-gel solution for 10 minutes and by calculating the weight difference we concluded that Terri cotton is best suitable for our project. An electronic circuit with heating plate is developed in to test the controlled release of compound. An oscillatory circuit is used to produce the required heat.

Keywords: sol-gel, allethrin, TEOS, biochemistry

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8 Management of Distillery Spentwash to Enhance Productivity of Dryland Crops and Reduce Environmental Pollution: A Case Study in Southern Dry Zone of Karnataka, India

Authors: A. Sathish, N. N. Lingaraju, K. N. Geetha, C. A. Srinivasamurthy, S. Bhaskar

Abstract:

Under dryland conditions, it is observed that the soil organic matter is low due to low organic carbon content due to poor management with less use of inputs. On the other hand, disposal of sugar industry waste, i.e., spentwash is a major concern with limited space for land based treatment and disposal which causes environmental pollution. Spentwash is also a resource that can be applied for productive uses since it contains nutrients that have the potential for use in agriculture. The disposal of spent wash may lead to environmental pollution. Hence as an alternative mechanism, it was applied once to dry lands, and the experiments were conducted from 2012-13 to 2016-17 in kharif season in Maddur Taluk, Mandya District, Karnataka State, India. The study conducted was in 93 different farmers field (maize-11, finger millet-80 & horsegram-14). Spentwash was applied at the rate of 100 m³ ha⁻¹ before sowing of the crops. The results showed that yield of dryland crops like finger millet, horse gram and maize was recorded 14.75 q ha⁻¹, 6 q ha⁻¹ and 31.00 q ha⁻¹, respectively and the yield increase to an extent of 10-25 per cent with one time application of spentwash to dry lands compared to farmers practice, i.e., chemical fertilizer application. The higher yield may be attributed to slow and steady release of nutrients by spentwash throughout the crop growth period. In addition, the growth promoting and other beneficial substances present in spentwash might have also helped in better plant growth and yield. The soil sample analysis after harvest of the crops indicate acidic to neutral pH, EC of 0.11 dSm⁻¹ and Na of 0.20 C mol (P⁺) kg⁻¹ in the normal range which are not harmful. Hence, it can be applied to drylands at least once in 3 years which enhances yield as well as reduces environmental pollution.

Keywords: dryland crops, pollution, sugar industry waste, spentwash

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7 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan

Abstract:

The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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6 Appropriate Technology: Revisiting the Movement in Developing Countries for Sustainability

Authors: Jayshree Patnaik, Bhaskar Bhowmick

Abstract:

The economic growth of any nation is steered and dependent on innovation in technology. It can be preferably argued that technology has enhanced the quality of life. Technology is linked both with an economic and a social structure. But there are some parts of the world or communities which are yet to reap the benefits of technological innovation. Business and organizations are now well equipped with cutting-edge innovations that improve the firm performance and provide them with a competitive edge, but rarely does it have a positive impact on any community which is weak and marginalized. In recent times, it is observed that communities are actively handling social or ecological issues with the help of indigenous technologies. Thus, "Appropriate Technology" comes into the discussion, which is quite prevalent in the rural third world. Appropriate technology grew as a movement in the mid-1970s during the energy crisis, but it lost its stance in the following years when people started it to describe it as an inferior technology or dead technology. Basically, there is no such technology which is inferior or sophisticated for a particular region. The relevance of appropriate technology lies in penetrating technology into a larger and weaker section of community where the “Bottom of the pyramid” can pay for technology if they find the price is affordable. This is a theoretical paper which primarily revolves around how appropriate technology has faded and again evolved in both developed and developing countries. The paper will try to focus on the various concepts, history and challenges faced by the appropriate technology over the years. Appropriate technology follows a documented approach but lags in overall design and diffusion. Diffusion of technology into the poorer sections of community remains unanswered until the present time. Appropriate technology is multi-disciplinary in nature; therefore, this openness allows having a varied working model for different problems. Appropriate technology is a friendly technology that seeks to improve the lives of people in a constraint environment by providing an affordable and sustainable solution. Appropriate technology needs to be defined in the era of modern technological advancement for sustainability.

Keywords: appropriate technology, community, developing country, sustainability

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