Search results for: M. Rezaee
16 Some Tips for Increasing Online Services Safety
Authors: Mohsen Rezaee
Abstract:Although robust security softwares, including anti-viruses, anti-spywares, anti-spam and firewalls are amalgamated with new technologies such as safe zone, hybrid cloud, sand box and etc., and although it can be said that they have managed to prepare highest level of security against viruses, spywares and other malwares in 2012, in fact, hacker attacks to websites are increasingly becoming more and more complicated. Because of security matters developments it can be said it was expected to happen so. Here in this work we try to point out some functional and vital notes to enhance security on the web, enabling the user to browse safely in unlimited web world and to use virtual space securely.
Keywords: firewalls, security, web services, computer scienceProcedia PDF Downloads 329
15 Robust Control of a Parallel 3-RRR Robotic Manipulator via μ-Synthesis Method
Authors: A. Abbasi Moshaii, M. Soltan Rezaee, M. Mohammadi Moghaddam
Abstract:Control of some mechanisms is hard because of their complex dynamic equations. If part of the complexity is resulting from uncertainties, an efficient way for solving that is robust control. By this way, the control procedure could be simple and fast and finally, a simple controller can be designed. One kind of these mechanisms is 3-RRR which is a parallel mechanism and has three revolute joints. This paper aims to robust control a 3-RRR planner mechanism and it presents that this could be used for other mechanisms. So, a significant problem in mechanisms control could be solved. The relevant diagrams are drawn and they show the correctness of control process.
Keywords: 3-RRR, dynamic equations, mechanisms control, structural uncertaintyProcedia PDF Downloads 356
14 Technical Feasibility Analysis of PV Water Pumping System in Khuzestan Province-Iran
Authors: M.Goodarzi, M.Mohammadi, M. Rezaee
Abstract:The technical analysis of using solar energy and electricity for water pumping in the Khuzestan province in Iran is investigated. For this purpose, the ecological conditions such as the weather data, air clearness and sunshine hours are analyzed. The nature of groundwater in the region was examined in terms of depth, static and dynamic head, water pumping rate.Three configurations for solar water pumping system were studied in this thesis; AC solar water pumping with storage battery, AC solar water pumping with storage tank and DC direct solar water pumping.
Keywords: technical feasibility, solar energy, photovoltaic systems, photovoltaic water pumping systemProcedia PDF Downloads 538
13 Stability of a Self-Excited Machine Due to the Mechanical Coupling
Authors: M. Soltan Rezaee, M. R. Ghazavi, A. Najafi, W.-H. Liao
Abstract:Generally, different rods in shaft systems can be misaligned based on the mechanical system usages. These rods can be linked together via U-coupling easily. The system is self-stimulated and may cause instabilities due to the inherent behavior of the coupling. In this study, each rod includes an elastic shaft with an angular stiffness and structural damping. Moreover, the mass of shafts is considered via attached solid disks. The impact of the system architecture and shaft mass on the instability of such mechanism are studied. Stability charts are plotted via a method based on Floquet theory. Eventually, the unstable points have been found and analyzed in detail. The results show that stabilizing the driveline is feasible by changing the system characteristics which include shaft mass and architecture.
Keywords: coupling, mechanical systems, oscillations, rotating shaftsProcedia PDF Downloads 105
12 Human Resource Management Practices, Person-Environment Fit and Financial Performance in Brazilian Publicly Traded Companies
Authors: Bruno Henrique Rocha Fernandes, Amir Rezaee, Jucelia Appio
Abstract:The relation between Human Resource Management (HRM) practices and organizational performance remains the subject of substantial literature. Though many studies demonstrated positive relationship, still major influencing variables are not yet clear. This study considers the Person-Environment Fit (PE Fit) and its components, Person-Supervisor (PS), Person-Group (PG), Person-Organization (PO) and Person-Job (PJ) Fit, as possible explanatory variables. We analyzed PE Fit as a moderator between HRM practices and financial performance in the “best companies to work” in Brazil. Data from HRM practices were classified through the High Performance Working Systems (HPWS) construct and data on PE-Fit were obtained through surveys among employees. Financial data, consisting of return on invested capital (ROIC) and price earnings ratio (PER) were collected for publicly traded best companies to work. Findings show that PO Fit and PJ Fit play a significant moderator role for PER but not for ROIC.
Keywords: financial performance, human resource management, high performance working systems, person-environment fitProcedia PDF Downloads 112
11 The Effects of Combination of Melatonin with and without Zinc on Gonadotropin Hormones in Female Rats
Authors: Fariba Rahimi, Morteza Zendedel, Mohammad Jaafar Rezaee, Bita Vazir, Shahin Fakour
Abstract:The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of melatonin (Mel) with and without zinc (Zn) on the gonadotropin hormones, also thyroid (T3 and T4) hormone concentration in female rats. A total of 40 adult female rats were randomly grouped into five treatment groups, each of 2 rats in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) entire research time. Daily was treated by gavage with Zn and melatonin as follows: T1 (control1, basal diet), T2 (control 2, treated with normal saline) and other experimental groups, including T3, T4 and T5, were treated with a dose of zinc (40 ppm), melatonin (5 mg/kg), and combination zinc plus melatonin with the same level, respectively. Blood FSH and LH concentrations were measured. The result showed no significant differences between treatments in FSH and LH levels. The estrogen and progesterone and TSH levels in rats that received 5 mg of melatonin per day were higher than in other groups but not statistically significant (P>0.05). However, T3 (thyroid) concentration significantly (P<0.05) decreased in the group that received 40 mg/zinc per Kg compared to other groups. No significant (P>0.05) difference was detected among treatments in T4 levels. In conclusion, except for T3, had no significant (P>0.05) effect on another parameter in the female rats that received melatonin or zinc and a blend of melatonin and Zn.
Keywords: zinc, melatonin, hormone, ratProcedia PDF Downloads 0
10 Thermal and Mechanical Properties of Powder Injection Molded Alumina Nano-Powder
Authors: Mostafa Rezaee Saraji, Ali Keshavarz Panahi
Abstract:In this work, the processing steps for producing alumina parts using powder injection molding (PIM) technique and nano-powder were investigated and the thermal conductivity and flexural strength of samples were determined as a function of sintering temperature and holding time. In the first step, the feedstock with 58 vol. % of alumina nano-powder with average particle size of 100nm was prepared using Extrumixing method to obtain appropriate homogeneity. This feedstock was injection molded into the two cavity mold with rectangular shape. After injection molding step, thermal and solvent debinding methods were used for debinding of molded samples and then these debinded samples were sintered in different sintering temperatures and holding times. From the results, it was found that the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of samples increased by increasing sintering temperature and holding time; in sintering temperature of 1600ºC and holding time of 5h, the flexural strength and thermal conductivity of sintered samples reached to maximum values of 488MPa and 40.8 W/mK, respectively.
Keywords: alumina nano-powder, thermal conductivity, flexural strength, powder injection moldingProcedia PDF Downloads 270
9 Comparative Study of Dose Calculation Accuracy in Bone Marrow Using Monte Carlo Method
Authors: Marzieh Jafarzadeh, Fatemeh Rezaee
Abstract:Introduction: The effect of ionizing radiation on human health can be effective for genomic integrity and cell viability. It also increases the risk of cancer and malignancy. Therefore, X-ray behavior and absorption dose calculation are considered. One of the applicable tools for calculating and evaluating the absorption dose in human tissues is Monte Carlo simulation. Monte Carlo offers a straightforward way to simulate and integrate, and because it is simple and straightforward, Monte Carlo is easy to use. The Monte Carlo BEAMnrc code is one of the most common diagnostic X-ray simulation codes used in this study. Method: In one of the understudy hospitals, a certain number of CT scan images of patients who had previously been imaged were extracted from the hospital database. BEAMnrc software was used for simulation. The simulation of the head of the device with the energy of 0.09 MeV with 500 million particles was performed, and the output data obtained from the simulation was applied for phantom construction using CT CREATE software. The percentage of depth dose (PDD) was calculated using STATE DOSE was then compared with international standard values. Results and Discussion: The ratio of surface dose to depth dose (D/Ds) in the measured energy was estimated to be about 4% to 8% for bone and 3% to 7% for bone marrow. Conclusion: MC simulation is an efficient and accurate method for simulating bone marrow and calculating the absorbed dose.
Keywords: Monte Carlo, absorption dose, BEAMnrc, bone marrowProcedia PDF Downloads 151
8 Multi-Stage Multi-Period Production Planning in Wire and Cable Industry
Authors: Mahnaz Hosseinzadeh, Shaghayegh Rezaee Amiri
Abstract:This paper presents a methodology for serial production planning problem in wire and cable manufacturing process that addresses the problem of input-output imbalance in different consecutive stations, hoping to minimize the halt of machines in each stage. To this end, a linear Goal Programming (GP) model is developed, in which four main categories of constraints as per the number of runs per machine, machines’ sequences, acceptable inventories of machines at the end of each period, and the necessity of fulfillment of the customers’ orders are considered. The model is formulated based upon on the real data obtained from IKO TAK Company, an important supplier of wire and cable for oil and gas and automotive industries in Iran. By solving the model in GAMS software the optimal number of runs, end-of-period inventories, and the possible minimum idle time for each machine are calculated. The application of the numerical results in the target company has shown the efficiency of the proposed model and the solution in decreasing the lead time of the end product delivery to the customers by 20%. Accordingly, the developed model could be easily applied in wire and cable companies for the aim of optimal production planning to reduce the halt of machines in manufacturing stages.
Keywords: goal programming approach, GP, production planning, serial manufacturing process, wire and cable industryProcedia PDF Downloads 98
7 Adaptive Responses of Carum copticum to in vitro Salt Stress
Authors: R. Razavizadeh, F. Adabavazeh, M. Rezaee Chermahini
Abstract:Salinity is one of the most widespread agricultural problems in arid and semi-arid areas that limits the plant growth and crop productivity. In this study, the salt stress effects on protein, reducing sugar, proline contents and antioxidant enzymes activities of Carum copticum L. under in vitro conditions were studied. Seeds of C. copticum were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing 0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM NaCl and calli were cultured in MS medium containing 1 μM 2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, 4 μM benzyl amino purine and different levels of NaCl (0, 25, 50, 100 and 150 mM). After NaCl treatment for 28 days, the proline and reducing sugar contents of shoots, roots and calli increased significantly in relation to the severity of the salt stress. The highest amount of proline and carbohydrate were observed at 150 and 100 mM NaCl, respectively. The reducing sugar accumulation in shoots was the highest as compared to roots, whereas, proline contents did not show any significant difference in roots and shoots under salt stress. The results showed significant reduction of protein contents in seedlings and calli. Based on these results, proteins extracted from the shoots, roots and calli of C. copticum treated with 150 mM NaCl showed the lowest contents. The positive relationships were observed between activity of antioxidant enzymes and the increase in stress levels. Catalase, ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activity increased significantly under salt concentrations in comparison to the control. These results suggest that the accumulation of proline and sugars, and activation of antioxidant enzymes play adaptive roles in the adaptation of seedlings and callus of C. copticum to saline conditions.
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, Carum copticum, organic solutes, salt stressProcedia PDF Downloads 225
6 Plasma Pretreatment for Improving the Durability of Antibacterial Activity of Cotton Using ZnO Nanoparticles
Authors: Sheila Shahidi, Hootan Rezaee, Abosaeed Rashidi, Mahmood Ghoranneviss
Abstract:Plasma treatment has an explosive increase in interest and use in industrial applications as for example in medical, biomedical, automobile, electronics, semiconductor and textile industry. A lot of intensive basic research has been performed in the last decade in the field of textiles along with technical textiles. Textile manufacturers and end-users alike have been searching for ways to improve the surface properties of natural and man-made fibers. Specifically, there is a need to improve adhesion and wettability. Functional groups may be introduced onto the fiber surface by using gas plasma treatments, improving fiber surface properties without affecting the fiber’s bulk properties. In this research work, ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were insitue synthesized by sonochemical method at room temperature on both untreated and plasma pretreated cotton woven fabric. Oxygen and nitrogen plasmas were used for pre-functionalization of cotton fabric. And the effect of oxygen and nitrogen pre-functionalization on adhesion properties between ZnO nanoparticles and cotton surface were studied. The results show that nanoparticles with average sizes of 20-100 nm with different morphologies have been created on the surface of samples. Synthesis of ZnO-NPs was varied in the morphological transformation by changes in zinc acetate dehydrate concentration. Characterizations were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and Spectrophotometery. The antibacterial activities of the fabrics were assessed semi-quantitatively by the colonies count method. The results show that the finished fabric demonstrated significant antibacterial activity against S. aureus in antibacterial test. The wash fastness of both untreated and plasma pretreated samples after 30 times of washing was investigated. The results showed that the parameters of plasma reactor plays very important role for improving the antibacterial durability.
Keywords: antibacterial activity, cotton, fabric, nanoparticles, plasmaProcedia PDF Downloads 474
5 Spatial Planning and Tourism Development with Sustainability Model of the Territorial Tourist with Land Use Approach
Authors: Mehrangiz Rezaee, Zabih Charrahi
Abstract:In the last decade, with increasing tourism destinations and tourism growth, we are witnessing the widespread impacts of tourism on the economy, environment and society. Tourism and its related economy are now undergoing a transformation and as one of the key pillars of business economics, it plays a vital role in the world economy. Activities related to tourism and providing services appropriate to it in an area, like many economic sectors, require the necessary context on its origin. Given the importance of tourism industry and tourism potentials of Yazd province in Iran, it is necessary to use a proper procedure for prioritizing different areas for proper and efficient planning. One of the most important goals of planning is foresight and creating balanced development in different geographical areas. This process requires an accurate study of the areas and potential and actual talents, as well as evaluation and understanding of the relationship between the indicators affecting the development of the region. At the global and regional level, the development of tourist resorts and the proper distribution of tourism destinations are needed to counter environmental impacts and risks. The main objective of this study is the sustainable development of suitable tourism areas. Given that tourism activities in different territorial areas require operational zoning, this study deals with the evaluation of territorial tourism using concepts such as land use, fitness and sustainable development. It is essential to understand the structure of tourism development and the spatial development of tourism using land use patterns, spatial planning and sustainable development. Tourism spatial planning implements different approaches. However, the development of tourism as well as the spatial development of tourism is complex, since tourist activities can be carried out in different areas with different purposes. Multipurpose areas have great important for tourism because it determines the flow of tourism. Therefore, in this paper, by studying the development and determination of tourism suitability that is related to spatial development, it is possible to plan tourism spatial development by developing a model that describes the characteristics of tourism. The results of this research determine the suitability of multi-functional territorial tourism development in line with spatial planning of tourism.
Keywords: land use change, spatial planning, sustainability, territorial tourist, YazdProcedia PDF Downloads 92
4 A Close Study on the Nitrate Fertilizer Use and Environmental Pollution for Human Health in Iran
Authors: Saeed Rezaeian, M. Rezaee Boroon
Abstract:Nitrogen accumulates in soils during the process of fertilizer addition to promote the plant growth. When the organic matter decomposes, the form of available nitrogen produced is in the form of nitrate, which is highly mobile. The most significant health effect of nitrate ingestion is methemoglobinemia in infants under six months of age (blue baby syndrome). The mobile nutrients, like nitrate nitrogen, are not stored in the soil as the available forms for the long periods and in large amounts. It depends on the needs for the crops such as vegetables. On the other hand, the vegetables will compete actively for nitrate nitrogen as a mobile nutrient and water. The mobile nutrients must be shared. The fewer the plants, the larger this share is for each plant. Also, this nitrate nitrogen is poisonous for the people who use these vegetables. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by the existing bacteria in the stomach and the Gastro-Intestinal (GI) tract. When nitrite is entered into the blood cells, it converts the hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which causes the anoxemia and cyanosis. The increasing use of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, especially the fertilizers with nitrates compounds, which have been common for the increased production of agricultural crops, has caused the nitrate pollution in the (soil, water, and environment). They have caused a lot of damage to humans and animals. In this research, the nitrate accumulation in different kind of vegetables such as; green pepper, tomatoes, egg plants, watermelon, cucumber, and red pepper were observed in the suburbs of Mashhad, Neisabour, and Sabzevar cities. In some of these cities, the information forms of agronomical practices collected were such as; different vegetable crops fertilizer recommendations, varieties, pesticides, irrigation schedules, etc., which were filled out by some of our colleagues in the research areas mentioned above. Analysis of the samples was sent to the soil and water laboratory in our department in Mashhad. The final results from the chemical analysis of samples showed that the mean levels of nitrates from the samples of the fruit crops in the mentioned cities above were all lower than the critical levels. These fruit crop samples were in the order of: 35.91, 8.47, 24.81, 6.03, 46.43, 2.06 mg/kg dry matter, for the following crops such as; tomato, cucumber, eggplant, watermelon, green pepper, and red pepper. Even though, this study was conducted with limited samples and by considering the mean levels, the use of these crops from the nutritional point of view will not cause the poisoning of humans.
Keywords: environmental pollution, human health, nitrate accumulations, nitrate fertilizersProcedia PDF Downloads 194
3 Transdermal Delivery of Sodium Diclofenac from Palm Kernel Oil Esteres Nanoemulsions
Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Abu Bakar Salleh, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman
Abstract:Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that has been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of the drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using the surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils, contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research aimed to study the effect of terpene type and concentration on sodium diclofenac permeation from palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsions and physicochemical properties of the nanoemulsions systems. The effect of various terpenes of geraniol, menthone, menthol, cineol and nerolidol at different concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0% on permeation of sodium diclofenac were evaluated using Franz diffusion cells and rat skin as permeation membrane. The results of this part demonstrated that all terpenes showed promoting effect on sodium diclofenac penetration. However, menthol and menthone at all concentrations showed significant effects (<0.05) on drug permeation. The most outstanding terpene was menthol with the most significant effect for skin permeability of sodium diclofenac. The effect of terpenes on physicochemical properties of nanoemulsion systems was investigated on the parameters of particle size, zeta potential, pH, viscosity and electrical conductivity. The result showed that all terpenes had the significant effect on particle size and non-significant effects on the zeta potential of the nanoemulsion systems. The effect of terpenes was significant on pH, excluding the menthone at concentrations of 0.5 and 1.0%, and cineol and nerolidol at the concentration of 2.0%. Terpenes also had significant effect on viscosity of nanoemulsions exception of menthone and cineol at the concentration of 0.5%. The result of conductivity measurements showed that all terpenes at all concentration except cineol at the concentration of 0.5% represented significant effect on electrical conductivity.
Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, terpenes, skin permeationProcedia PDF Downloads 332
2 Stability and Rheology of Sodium Diclofenac-Loaded and Unloaded Palm Kernel Oil Esters Nanoemulsion Systems
Authors: Malahat Rezaee, Mahiran Basri, Raja Noor Zaliha Raja Abdul Rahman, Abu Bakar Salleh
Abstract:Sodium diclofenac is one of the most commonly used drugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). It is especially effective in the controlling the severe conditions of inflammation and pain, musculoskeletal disorders, arthritis, and dysmenorrhea. Formulation as nanoemulsions is one of the nanoscience approaches that have been progressively considered in pharmaceutical science for transdermal delivery of drug. Nanoemulsions are a type of emulsion with particle sizes ranging from 20 nm to 200 nm. An emulsion is formed by the dispersion of one liquid, usually the oil phase in another immiscible liquid, water phase that is stabilized using surfactant. Palm kernel oil esters (PKOEs), in comparison to other oils; contain higher amounts of shorter chain esters, which suitable to be applied in micro and nanoemulsion systems as a carrier for actives, with excellent wetting behavior without the oily feeling. This research was aimed to study the effect of O/S ratio on stability and rheological behavior of sodium diclofenac loaded and unloaded palm kernel oil esters nanoemulsion systems. The effect of different O/S ratio of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00 and 1.25 on stability of the drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations was evaluated by centrifugation, freeze-thaw cycle and storage stability tests. Lecithin and cremophor EL were used as surfactant. The stability of the prepared nanoemulsion formulations was assessed based on the change in zeta potential and droplet size as a function of time. Instability mechanisms including coalescence and Ostwald ripening for the nanoemulsion system were discussed. In comparison between drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion formulations, drug-loaded formulations represented smaller particle size and higher stability. In addition, the O/S ratio of 0.5 was found to be the best ratio of oil and surfactant for production of a nanoemulsion with the highest stability. The effect of O/S ratio on rheological properties of drug-loaded and unloaded nanoemulsion systems was studied by plotting the flow curves of shear stress (τ) and viscosity (η) as a function of shear rate (γ). The data were fitted to the Power Law model. The results showed that all nanoemulsion formulations exhibited non-Newtonian flow behaviour by displaying shear thinning behaviour. Viscosity and yield stress were also evaluated. The nanoemulsion formulation with the O/S ratio of 0.5 represented higher viscosity and K values. In addition, the sodium diclofenac loaded formulations had more viscosity and higher yield stress than drug-unloaded formulations.
Keywords: nanoemulsions, palm kernel oil esters, sodium diclofenac, rheoligy, stabilityProcedia PDF Downloads 350
1 Denial among Women Living with Cancer: An Exploratory Study to Understand the Consequences of Cancer and the Denial Mechanism
Authors: Judith Partouche-Sebban, Saeedeh Rezaee Vessal
Abstract:Because of the rising number of new cases of cancer, especially among women, it is more than essential to better understand how women experience cancer in order to bring them adapted to support and care and enhance their well-being and patient experience. Cancer stands for a traumatic experience in which the diagnosis, its medical treatments, and the related side effects lead to deep physical and psychological changes that may arouse considerable stress and anxiety. In order to reduce these negative emotions, women tend to use various defense mechanisms, among which denial has been defined as the most frequent mechanism used by breast cancer patients. This study aims to better understand the consequences of the experience of cancer and their link with the adoption of a denial strategy. The empirical research was done among female cancer survivors in France. Since the topic of this study is relatively unexplored, a qualitative methodology and open-ended interviews were employed. In total, 25 semi-directive interviews were conducted with a female with different cancers, different stages of treatment, and different ages. A systematic inductive method was performed to analyze data. The content analysis enabled to highlight three different denial-related behaviors among women with cancer, which serve a self-protective function. First, women who expressed high levels of anxiety confessed they tended to completely deny the existence of their cancer immediately after the diagnosis of their illness. These women mainly exhibit many fears and a deep distrust toward the medical context and professionals. This coping mechanism is defined by the patient as being unconscious. Second, other women deliberately decided to deny partial information about their cancer, whether this information is related to the stages of the illness, the emotional consequences, or the behavioral consequences of the illness. These women use this strategy as a way to avoid the reality of the illness and its impact on the different aspects of their life as if cancer does not exist. Third, some women tend to reinterpret and give meaning to their cancer as a way to reduce its impact on their life. To this end, they may use magical thinking or positive reframing, or reinterpretation. Because denial may lead to delays in medical treatments, this topic deserves a deep investigation, especially in the context of oncology. As denial is defined as a specific defense mechanism, this study contributes to the existing literature in service marketing which focuses on emotions and emotional regulation in healthcare services which is a crucial issue. Moreover, this study has several managerial implications for healthcare professionals who interact with patients in order to implement better care and support for the patients.
Keywords: cancer, coping mechanisms, denial, healthcare servicesProcedia PDF Downloads 26