Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 225

Search results for: M. Abbas

45 Screening of Different Exotic Varieties of Potato through Adaptability Trial for Local Cultivation

Authors: Arslan Shehroz, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Amjad Abbas, Imran Ramzan, Muhammad Zunair Latif

Abstract:

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the 4th most important food crop of the world after wheat, rice and maize. It is the staple food in many European countries. Being rich in starch (one of the main three food ingredients) and having the highest productivity per unit area, has great potential to address the challenge of the food security. Processed potato is also used as chips and crisps etc as ‘fast food’. There are many biotic and abiotic factors which check the production of potato and become hurdle in achievement production potential of potato. 20 new varieties along with two checks were evaluated. Plant to plant and row to row distances were maintained as 20 cm and 75 cm, respectively. The trial was conducted according to the randomized complete block design with three replications. Normal agronomic and plant protection measures were carried out in the crop. It is revealed from the experiment that exotic variety 171 gave the highest yield of 35.5 t/ha followed by Masai with 31.0 t/ha tuber yield. The check variety Simply Red 24.2 t/ha yield, while the lowest tuber yield (1.5 t/ha) was produced by the exotic variety KWS-06-125. The maximum emergence was shown by the Variety Red Sun (89.7 %). The lowest emergence was shown by the variety Camel (71.7%). Regarding tuber grades, it was noted that the maximum Ration size tubers were produced by the exotic variety Compass (3.7%), whereas 11 varieties did not produce ration size tubers at all. The variety Red Sun produced lowest percentage of small size tubers (12.7%) whereas maximum small size tubers (93.0%) were produced by the variety Jitka. Regarding disease infestation, it was noted that the maximum scab incidence (4.0%) was recorded on the variety Masai, maximum rhizoctonia attack (60.0%) was recorded on the variety Camel and maximum tuber cracking (0.7%) was noted on the variety Vendulla.

Keywords: check variety, potato, potential and yield, trial

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
44 Reversal of Testicular Damage and Subfertility by Resveratrol

Authors: Samy S. Eleawa, Mahmoud A. Alkhateeb, Fahaid H. Alhashem, Ismaeel bin-Jaliah, Hussein F. Sakr, Hesham M. Elrefaey, Abbas O. Elkarib, Mohammad A. Haidara, Abdullah S. Shatoor, Mohammad A. Khalil

Abstract:

This effect of Resveratrol (RES) against CdCl2- induced toxicity in the rat testes was investigated. Seven experimental groups of adult male rats were formulated as follows: A) Controls + NS, B) Control+ vehicle (saline solution of hydroxypropyl cyclodextrin), C) RES treated, D) CdCl2 +NS, E) CdCl2+ vehicle, F) RES followed by CdCl2 and M) CdCl2 followed by RES. At the end of the protocol, serum levels of FSH, LH, and testosterone were measured in all groups. Testicular levels of TBARS and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) activity were also measured. Epidydidimal semen analysis was performed and testicular expression of Bcl-2, p53 and Bax were assessed by RT-PCR. Also, histopathological changes of testes were examined microscopically and described. Pre and Post administration of RES in cadmium chloride-intoxicated rats improved semen parameters including count, motility, daily sperm production and morphology, increased serum concentrations of gonadotropins and testosterone, decreased testicular lipid peroxidation and increased SOD activity. Not only RES attenuated cadmium chloride induced testicular histopathology but was also able to protect against the onset of cadmium chloride testicular toxicity. Cadmium chloride downregulated the anti-apoptotic gene Bcl2 and upregulated the expression of both pro-apoptotic genes p53 and Bax. Resveratrol protected from and partially reversed cadmium chloride testicular via upregulation of Bcl2 and down regulation of p53 and Bax gene expression. Antioxidant activity of RES protects against cadmium chloride testicular toxicity and partially reverses its effect via upregulation of BCl2 and downregulation of p53 and Bax expression. These findings have far reaching implications on subfertility and impotency frequently seen in hypertensive as well as metabolic syndrome patients.

Keywords: resveratrol, cadmium, infertility, sperm, testis, metabolic syndrome

Procedia PDF Downloads 427
43 A Study on Eliteathletes and Coaches' Attitude towards Sport Psychologyi the Areas of Sports

Authors: Mahdi PourAsghar, Abbas Mas'udzadeh, Abdulhakim Tirgari, Saeed Dabiri Roushan, Hooman Rashidi, Fariba Salehi

Abstract:

Objective: One of the major objectives in sports areas is to achieve maximum athletic performance. Physical and psychological preparations are the basic factors for achieving maximum performance in athletes. Unfortunately, in the field of physical preparation, we can see maximum attention and planning of trainers and sports officials. But despite the importance of psychological preparation of athletes and its serious and profound effect on athletic performance, the results of sports competitions show that less attention is paid to this topic, and it is less under the control of counselors and psychologists in different areas of our sport. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the attitude of athletes and coaches to sport psychology. Materials and methods: A descriptive study with a sample size of 234 elite athletes and 216 skilled coaches was conducted in different areas of sports, in Sari, Mazandaran in 2015.The instrument was a questionnaire consisting of two parts of demographic data and Martin questionnaire, assessing the attitude to sport psychology. The data from this study were analyzed using Spss version 18, descriptive statistics tests, and Chi-square test. Results: In this study, positive attitudes of participants in need and confidence towards sport psychology consultation in athletes and coaches group were 55/1 and 56/5 percent, respectively. The positive attitude of female athletes in belief to psychology consultation was more than male athletes. Athletes with higher education had more positive attitude towards the presence of psychologists and psychiatrists in fields of sports. Conclusion: According to the findings based on the need to the psychology consultation in different areas of sports, it is recommended that through training of specialists in the field of sport psychology and review of sports programs in different fields of sports, the presence of these counselors to maintain the psychological preparation of athletes to achieve maximum athletic performance and reduce anxiety and stress be used.

Keywords: Keywords: Athletes, Eliteathletes, Coaches, Attitude, Sport psychology.

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
42 Formation of ZnS/ZnO Heterojunction for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Using Partial Oxidation and Chemical Precipitation Synthesis Methods

Authors: Saba Didarataee, Abbas Ali Khodadadi, Yadollah Mortazavi, Fatemeh Mousavi

Abstract:

Photocatalytic water splitting is one of the most attractive alternative methods for hydrogen evolution. A variety of nanoparticle engineering techniques were introduced to improve the activity of semiconductor photocatalysts. Among these methods, heterojunction formation is an appealing method due to its ability to effectively preventing electron-hole recombination and improving photocatalytic activity. Reaching an optimal ratio of the two target semiconductors for the formation of heterojunctions is still an open question. Considering environmental issues as well as the cost and availability, ZnS and ZnO are frequently studied as potential choices. In this study, first, the ZnS nanoparticle was synthesized in a hydrothermal process; the formation of ZnS nanorods with a diameter of 14-30 nm was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Then two different methods, partial oxidation and chemical precipitation were employed to construct ZnS/ZnO core-shell heterojunction. X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analysis were carried out to determine crystallite phase, surface area, and bandgap of photocatalysts. Furthermore, the temperature of oxidation was specified by a temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) and was fixed at 510℃, at which mild oxidation occurred. The bandgap was calculated by the Kubelka-Munk method and decreased by increasing oxide content from 3.53 (pure ZnS) to 3.18 (pure ZnO). The optimal samples were determined by testing the photocatalytic activity of hydrogen evolution in a quartz photoreactor with side irradiation of UVC lamps with a wavelength of 254 nm. In both procedures, it was observed that the photocatalytic activity of the ZnS/ZnO composite was sensibly higher than the pure ZnS and ZnO, which is attributed to forming a type-II heterostructure. The best ratio of oxide to sulfide was 0.24 and 0.37 in partial oxidation and chemical precipitation, respectively. The highest hydrogen evolution was 1081 µmol/gr.h, gained from partial oxidizing of ZnS nanoparticles at 510℃ for 30 minutes.

Keywords: heterostructure, hydrogen, partial oxidation, photocatalyst, water splitting, ZnS

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
41 Real-Time Big-Data Warehouse a Next-Generation Enterprise Data Warehouse and Analysis Framework

Authors: Abbas Raza Ali

Abstract:

Big Data technology is gradually becoming a dire need of large enterprises. These enterprises are generating massively large amount of off-line and streaming data in both structured and unstructured formats on daily basis. It is a challenging task to effectively extract useful insights from the large scale datasets, even though sometimes it becomes a technology constraint to manage transactional data history of more than a few months. This paper presents a framework to efficiently manage massively large and complex datasets. The framework has been tested on a communication service provider producing massively large complex streaming data in binary format. The communication industry is bound by the regulators to manage history of their subscribers’ call records where every action of a subscriber generates a record. Also, managing and analyzing transactional data allows service providers to better understand their customers’ behavior, for example, deep packet inspection requires transactional internet usage data to explain internet usage behaviour of the subscribers. However, current relational database systems limit service providers to only maintain history at semantic level which is aggregated at subscriber level. The framework addresses these challenges by leveraging Big Data technology which optimally manages and allows deep analysis of complex datasets. The framework has been applied to offload existing Intelligent Network Mediation and relational Data Warehouse of the service provider on Big Data. The service provider has 50+ million subscriber-base with yearly growth of 7-10%. The end-to-end process takes not more than 10 minutes which involves binary to ASCII decoding of call detail records, stitching of all the interrogations against a call (transformations) and aggregations of all the call records of a subscriber.

Keywords: big data, communication service providers, enterprise data warehouse, stream computing, Telco IN Mediation

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
40 Aeroelastic Analysis of Nonlinear All-Movable Fin with Freeplay in Low-Speed

Authors: Laith K. Abbas, Xiaoting Rui, Pier Marzocca

Abstract:

Aerospace systems, generally speaking, are inherently nonlinear. These nonlinearities may modify the behavior of the system. However, nonlinearities in an aeroelastic system can be divided into structural and aerodynamic. Structural nonlinearities can be subdivided into distributed and concentrated ones. Distributed nonlinearities are spread over the whole structure representing the characteristic of materials and large motions. Concentrated nonlinearities act locally, representing loose of attachments, worn hinges of control surfaces, and the presence of external stores. The concentrated nonlinearities can be approximated by one of the classical structural nonlinearities, namely, cubic, free-play and hysteresis, or by a combination of these, for example, a free-play and a cubic one. Compressibility, aerodynamic heating, separated flows and turbulence effects are important aspects that result in nonlinear aerodynamic behavior. An issue related to the low-speed flutter and its catastrophic/benign character represented by Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) of all-movable fin, as well to their control is addressed in the present work. To the approach of this issue: (1) Quasi-Steady (QS) Theory and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) of subsonic flow are implemented, (2) Flutter motion equations of a two-dimensional typical section with cubic nonlinear stiffness in the pitching direction and free play gap are established, (3) Uncoupled bending/torsion frequencies of the selected fin are computed using recently developed Transfer Matrix Method of Multibody System Dynamics (MSTMM), and (4) Time simulations are carried out to study the bifurcation behavior of the aeroelastic system. The main objective of this study is to investigate how the LCO and chaotic behavior are influenced by the coupled aeroelastic nonlinearities and intend to implement a control capability enabling one to control both the flutter boundary and its character. By this way, it may expand the operational envelop of the aerospace vehicle without failure.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, CFD, MSTMM, flutter, freeplay, fin

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
39 Arsenic and Fluoride Contamination in Lahore, Pakistan: Spatial Distribution, Mineralization Control and Sources

Authors: Zainab Abbas Soharwardi, Chunli Su, Harold Wilson Tumwitike Mapoma, Syed Zahid Aziz, Mahmut Ince

Abstract:

This study investigated the spatial variations of groundwater chemistry used by communities in Lahore city with emphasis on arsenic (As) and fluoride (F) levels. A total of 472 tubewell samples were collected from 7 towns and analyzed for physical and chemical parameters, including pH, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), total hardness, HCO3, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, F- and As. There were significant spatial variations observed for total hardness, TDS, HCO3, NO3 and As. In general, the south-east of the city displayed higher TH and HCO3 while the north-east showed significantly higher As concentrations attributed to the heterogeneity of the aquifer and industrial activities. In most cases, As was higher than WHO limit value. Indiscriminate disposal of domestic and commercial wastewater into River Ravi is the cause of elevated NO3 observed in the north-west compared to other places in the area. Investigation of the groundwater type revealed facies in the order: Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4 > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-HCO3-SO4-Cl > Mg-Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-HCO3-SO4 > Ca-Mg-SO4-HCO3. The plausible mineralization control mechanism seems to be that of carbonate weathering, although silicate weathering is probable. Moreover, PHREEQC model results showed that the groundwater was under saturated with respect to evaporites (anhydrite, fluorite, gypsum and halite) while generally equilibrium to saturated with respect to aragonite, calcite and dolomite. The Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that pH significantly affected As, F, NO3 and NO2 while HCO3 contributing most to the observed TDS values in Lahore. It is concluded that inherent mineral dissolution/ precipitation, pH, oxic conditions, anthropogenic activities, atmospheric transport/ wet deposition, microbial activities and surface soil characteristics play their significant roles in elevating both As and F in the city's groundwater.

Keywords: Lahore, arsenic, fluoride, groundwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
38 Seroprevalence and Potential Risk Factors of Bovine Brucellosis under Diverse Production Systems in Central Punjab, Paksitan

Authors: A. Khan, I. Khan, M. Younus, S. E. Haque, U. Waheed, H. Neubauer, A. A. Anjum, S. A. Muhammad, A. Idrees T. Abbas, S. Raza, M. A. Ali, M. Farooq, M. Mahmood, A. Hussain, H. Danish, U. Tayyab, M. Zafar, M. Aslam.

Abstract:

Brucellosis is one of the major problems of milk producing animals in our country which deteriorate the health of livestock. It is a disease of zoonotic significance which is capable of producing disease in humans leading to infertility, orchitis, abortions, and synovitis. In this particular study, milk and serum samples of cattle and buffalo (n=402) were collected from different districts of Punjab including Narowal, Gujranwala and Gujrat. Milk samples were analyzed by Milk Ring Test (MRT), while serum samples were tested through Rose Bengal Plate agglutination Test (RBPT) and Indirect Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay (i-ELISA). The sample tested with MRT were 9.5% positive, including cattle 9.6% and buffalo 9.3%. While using the RBPT test for the detection of serum samples and for screening purpose it was observed that 16.4% animals were seropositive, cattle were 18.8% and buffalo were 13.9% seropositive. The higher prevalence of brucellosis indicates the danger of the disease to human population. The serum samples positive by RBPT were further confirmed by the use of most specific and sensitive serological test known as i-ELISA. 11.4% animals were confirmed as seropositive by i-ELISA including cattle 13.5% seropositive and buffalo 9.3%. The results indicated high seroprevalence of brucellosis in cattle as compared to buffalos. Different risk factors were also studied to know the association between disease and their spread. Advanced age, larger herds, history of abortion and pregnancy of the animals is considered to be the important factors for the prevalence and spread of the hazardous zoonotic disease. It is a core issue of developing countries like Pakistan and has major public health impact.

Keywords: humans, bovines, infertility, orchitis, abortions, seroprevalence, brucellosis

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
37 Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Genes and DNA Damage Induced by Endotoxic Shock in Laying Hens

Authors: Mariam G. Eshak, Ahmed Abbas, M. I. El-Sabry, M. M. Mashaly

Abstract:

This investigation was conducted to determine the physiological response and evaluate the expression of inflammatory and cell death genes and DNA damage induced by endotoxic shock in laying hens. Endotoxic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of 107 Escherichia coli (E. coli,) colony/hen. In the present study, 240 forty-week-old laying hens (H&N) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 40 birds each. Hens were reared in battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all groups. At 42-wk of age, 45 hens from the first group (15 replicate) were infected with E. coli, while the same number of hens from the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) expression, plasma corticosterone concentration, body temperature, and the gene expression of bax, caspase-3 activity, P38, Interlukin-1β (Il-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes and DNA damage in the brain and liver were measured. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P≤0.05) increase of body temperature by 1.2 ᴼC and plasma corticosterone by 3 folds compared to the controls. Further, hens injected with E.Coli showed markedly over-expression of HSP-70 and increase DNA damage in brain and liver. These results were synchronized with activating cell death program since our data showed significant (P≤0.05) high expression of bax and caspase-3 activity genes in the brain and liver. These results were related to remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α in brain and liver. In conclusion, our results indicate that endotoxic shock induces inflammatory physiological response and triggers cell death program by promoting P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression in the brain and liver.

Keywords: chicken, DNA damage, Escherichia coli, gene expression, inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
36 Comparative Analysis of Change in Vegetation in Four Districts of Punjab through Satellite Imagery, Land Use Statistics and Machine Learning

Authors: Mirza Waseem Abbas, Syed Danish Raza

Abstract:

For many countries agriculture is still the major force driving the economy and a critically important socioeconomic sector, despite exceptional industrial development across the globe. In countries like Pakistan, this sector is considered the backbone of the economy, and most of the economic decision making revolves around agricultural outputs and data. Timely and accurate facts and figures about this vital sector hold immense significance and have serious implications for the long-term development of the economy. Therefore, any significant improvements in the statistics and other forms of data regarding agriculture sector are considered important by all policymakers. This is especially true for decision making for the betterment of crops and the agriculture sector in general. Provincial and federal agricultural departments collect data for all cash and non-cash crops and the sector, in general, every year. Traditional data collection for such a large sector i.e. agriculture, being time-consuming, prone to human error and labor-intensive, is slowly but gradually being replaced by remote sensing techniques. For this study, remotely sensed data were used for change detection (machine learning, supervised & unsupervised classification) to assess the increase or decrease in area under agriculture over the last fifteen years due to urbanization. Detailed Landsat Images for the selected agricultural districts were acquired for the year 2000 and compared to images of the same area acquired for the year 2016. Observed differences validated through detailed analysis of the areas show that there was a considerable decrease in vegetation during the last fifteen years in four major agricultural districts of the Punjab province due to urbanization (housing societies).

Keywords: change detection, area estimation, machine learning, urbanization, remote sensing

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
35 Effect of Yeast Culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, and Blood Metabolites in Beetal Male Goats

Authors: Saeed Ahmed, Tamoor Abbas, M. Amir, M. S. Iqbal, D. Hussain

Abstract:

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of supplementation of different levels of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in Beetal male goats diets on growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and selected blood metabolites. Another objective was to determine the inclusion level of yeast culture for optimal growth performance of Beetal male goats. Eighteen (n=18) Beetal male goats were randomly assigned to three total mixed ration treatments (n=6 goats/treatment): T1, T2 and T3 containing 0gm, 3gm and 6gm/day yeast culture (YC) mixed with total mixed ration (TMR). The diets were iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric having crude protein 15.2% and ME 2.6Mcal/kg. The total duration of the experiment was 8 weeks. Beetal bucks were fed on TMR diets (T1, T2 and T3) having blend of oat silage, Lucerne hay and concentrate mixed with yeast culture (YC). Bucks were housed individually and feed was offered @ 4% of body weight on dry matter basis. Samples of fresh feed and refusal were collected twice weekly of moisture percentage using hot air oven. Data for daily dry matter intake, body weight gain, nutrient digestibility and selected blood metabolites were analyzed through one-way ANOVA technique under Complete randomised design (SAS Institute Inc, 2002-03). Results were declared significant at P≤0.05. Overall, DMI was not affected (P≥0.05) by dietary treatments. Body weight gain, digestibility of crude protein and crude fibre were improved. Blood glucose concentration was detected higher in the group having supplementation of yeast culture (YC) 6gm/day compared to other two dietary treatments. This study suggested the positive impact of inclusion of yeast culture (YC) up to 6gm/day in the TMR diet for optimal growth performance and digestibility of nutrients in Beetal male goats.

Keywords: yeast culture, growth performance, digestibility, beetle goat

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
34 Investigating Role of Novel Molecular Players in Forebrain Roof-Plate Midline Invagination

Authors: Mohd Ali Abbas Zaidi, Meenu Sachdeva, Jonaki Sen

Abstract:

In the vertebrate embryo, the forebrain anlagen develops from the anterior-most region of the neural tube which is the precursor of the central nervous system (CNS). The roof plate located at the dorsal midline region of the forebrain anlagen, acts as a source of several secreted molecules involved in patterning and morphogenesis of the forebrain. One such key morphogenetic event is the invagination of the forebrain roof plate which results in separation of the single forebrain vesicle into two cerebral hemispheres. Retinoic acid (RA) signaling plays a key role in this process. Blocking RA signaling at the dorsal forebrain midline inhibits dorsal invagination and results in the absence of certain key features of this region, such as thinning of the neuroepithelium and a lowering of cell proliferation. At present we are investigating the possibility of other signaling pathways acting in concert with RA signaling to regulate this process. We have focused on BMP signaling, which we found to be active in a mutually exclusive domain to that of RA signaling within the roof plate. We have also observed that there is a change in BMP signaling activity on modulation of RA signaling indicating an antagonistic relationship between the two. Moreover, constitutive activation of BMP signaling seems to completely inhibit thinning and partially affect invagination, leaving the lowering of cell proliferation in the midline unaffected. We are employing in-silico modeling as well as molecular manipulations to investigate the relative contribution if any, of regional differences in rates of cell proliferation and thinning of the neuroepithelium towards the process of invagination. We have found expression of certain cell adhesion molecules in forebrain roof-plate whose mRNA localization across the thickness of neuroepithelium is influenced by Bmp and RA signaling, giving regional rigidity to roof plate and assisting invagination. We also found expression of certain cytoskeleton modifiers in a localized small domains in invaginating forebrain roof plate suggesting that midline invagination is under control of many factors.

Keywords: bone morphogenetic signaling, cytoskeleton, cell adhesion molecules, forebrain roof plate, retinoic acid signaling

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
33 What Is the Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure: Observational Study and a Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Al Jafar, Maria Themeli, Sadia Zaman, Sharmin Akbar, Victir Lhost, Ahlam Khamliche, Paul Elliott, Konstantinos Tsilidis, Abbas Dehghan

Abstract:

Although Ramadan fasting is a ritual that is practised every year by millions of Muslims, studies on the effect of this practice on blood pressure are still scarce. This study consists of an observational study and meta-analysis. In London Ramadan Fasting Study, the blood pressure of 85 participants before and after Ramadan was measured. Mixed-effects models were used to analyse collected data and assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure while accounting for potential confounders such as weight, fat mass and total body water. Also, PubMed, Scopus and Embase were searched from inception to March 3rd 2019. Data of selected studies besides unpublished data from our observational study were systematically reviewed and meta-analysed. The review targeted studies that have measured systolic (SBP) or/and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at least twice ( before and after Ramadan). Also, a subgroup analysis was performed to determine the effect in healthy individuals, high blood pressure patients, diabetes patients and chronic kidney disease patients. This review is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019159477). The observational study involved 85 individuals with a mean age of 45.6 years, and 52.9% were males. SBP dropped 7.29 mmHg (-4.74 to -9.84) and DBP dropped 3.42 mmHg (-1.73 to -5.09) after Ramadan. Similarly, in the review and meta-analysis, after pooling the effect from 33 studies (3213 participants), a reduction in both SBP and DBP (-3.19 mmHg, -4.43 to -1.96, I2=48%; -2.26 mmHg -3.19 to -1.34, I2=66%; respectively) was observed. The reduction in SBP and DBP was significant in three subgroups (healthy individuals, diabetes patients and high blood pressure patients); however, no effect was reported in the chronic kidney disease subgroup. This study suggests that Ramadan fasting has a positive influence on SBP and DBP positively. Moreover, the observed reduction in SBP and DBP is not due to reduced weight, fat mass or total body water.

Keywords: blood pressure, diastolic, Ramadan fasting, systolic

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
32 What Is the Impact of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure: Observational Study and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Rami Al Jafar, Maria Themeli, Sadia Zaman, Sharmin Akbar, Victor Lhost, Ahlam Khamliche, Paul Elliott, Kostas Tsilidis, Abbas Dehghan

Abstract:

Although Ramadan fasting is a ritual that is practised every year by millions of Muslims, studies on the effect of this practice on blood pressure are still scarce. This study consists of an observational study and meta-analysis. In London Ramadan Fasting Study, the blood pressure of 85 participants before and after Ramadan was measured. Mixed-effects models were used to analyse collected data and assess the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure while accounting for potential confounders such as weight, fat mass and total body water. Also, PubMed, Scopus and Embase were searched from inception to March 3rd 2019. Data of selected studies besides unpublished data from our observational study were systematically reviewed and meta-analysed. The review targeted studies that have measured systolic (SBP) or/and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) at least twice ( before and after Ramadan). Also, a subgroup analysis was performed to determine the effect in healthy individuals, high blood pressure patients, diabetes patients and chronic kidney disease patients. This review is registered in PROSPERO (CRD42019159477). The observational study involved 85 individuals with a mean age of 45.6 years, and 52.9% were males. SBP dropped 7.29 mmHg (-4.74 to -9.84) and DBP dropped 3.42 mmHg (-1.73 to -5.09) after Ramadan. Similarly, in the review and meta-analysis, after pooling the effect from 33 studies (3213 participants), a reduction in both SBP and DBP (-3.19 mmHg, -4.43 to -1.96, I2=48%; -2.26 mmHg -3.19 to -1.34, I2=66%; respectively) was observed. The reduction in SBP and DBP was significant in three subgroups (healthy individuals, diabetes patients and high blood pressure patients); however, no effect was reported in the chronic kidney disease subgroup. This study suggests that Ramadan fasting has a positive influence on SBP and DBP positively. Moreover, the observed reduction in SBP and DBP is not due to reduced weight, fat mass or total body water.

Keywords: blood pressure, diastolic, Ramadan fasting, systolic

Procedia PDF Downloads 45
31 Provision of Different Layers of Activities for Different Iranian Intermediate English as a Foreign Language Learners for the Beneficial Use of Films within Speaking Classes

Authors: Zahra Ebrahimi, Abbas Moradan

Abstract:

This study investigated the effect of applying different layers of activity for different Iranian intermediate EFL learner’s oral proficiency and two of its components (fluency and accura-cy) for the beneficial use of films within speaking classes. For this purpose, thirty Iranian EFL intermediate learners were selected based on availability sampling, they were divided into one experimental group and one control group, each consisting of 15 participants, who were proved to be homogeneous based on the results obtained from IELTS oral proficien-cy test prior to the treatment. Experimental Group received the treatment which was apply-ing different layers of speaking tasks according to learners’ level of fluency and accuracy. Control group received ordinal treatment of speaking classrooms. The materials for this study consisted of 11 English movies for each session, voice-recorder device, and IELTS oral proficiency tests as well as two interviews based on Ur’s oral scale for measuring fluen-cy and accuracy. The treatment was run for 12 sessions in six weeks. At the end of the treatment, all the students both in experimental and control group were given a post-test interview based on Ur’s scale. To compare and contrast the amount of progress of the learners in different groups the results of the pre-test and post-test of speaking were analysed by using T-tests. Moreover, Multivariate analysis of variance was also used to check the hypotheses. Results showed that application of different layers of activity with regard to students’ level, led to a significantly superior performance in experimental group. Thus, this study verified the positive effect of implementation of different layers of activity and tasks to achieve progress in speaking skill. It can also help to create a less stressful at-mosphere of learning in which all the students will be given specific time to speak and lead them to be autonomous learners.

Keywords: differentiated instruction, learners’ style, multiple intelligence, speaking skill, task-based activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
30 Comparison of hCG and GnRH in Enhancing Pregnancy Rate of Non-Lactating Cycling Brood Mares

Authors: Sanan Raza, Muhammad Younus, Ahmad Yar Qamar, Tariq Abbas, Hamayun Khan, Amanullah Khan

Abstract:

Mares are considered to be seasonally polyestrous animals. The breeding season of mare ranges from March to May in Pakistan. However, fertility problems of mares have been trifling the horse breeders and stud owners since long, and it comes out that the fertility status of mares in Pakistan is relatively lower than the world average. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of hCG and GnRH in improving pregnancy rate of mares in a transition period of month March and April. A total of n=66 mares showing normal estrus cycles with age ranging 5-12 y, weighing between 400-600 kg, BCS 6 ± 0.5 (1-9) and lactation varied from first to 5th were included in the experiment. These mares were administered PGF2α (75 μg; Dalmazine®, Fatro, Italy; 1 ml; i.m.) and divided into 3 groups. Mares of group 1 (n=22) were administered GnRH (100 μg; Dalmarelin®, Fatro, Italy; 4ml; im) while group 2 (n=22) mares were given hCG (5000 IU; IVF-C, LG Pharma; 1ml; iv). Likewise, mares of group 3 (n=22) were injected normal saline. Each treatment was given, when follicle attained the size of 35mm, keeping in view, the maturity of ovulating follicle at 35mm size and response to each treatment after routine ultrasound examination. All the mares of three groups were bred at 12 and 36 hours of treatment when the follicle reached the size of 35mm measured by ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography on day 18th and 42nd mating. On day 18th, pregnancy rate was 81.8% for hCG followed by 54.5% for GnRH and 45.5% for control. On day 42nd, pregnancy rate was (47.4%) for hCG which is significantly high (p<0.05) followed by GnRH (31.6%) and control (21.1%). Additionally the pregnancy loss was (25%, 20% respectively) in control and GnRH treated groups; whereas, hCG treated group showed no pregnancy loss (0.00%). Since no embryonic loss has been observed with hCG treatment during current study. Also hCG treated mares were 7.87 times more likely to conceive than controls. There were two times more chances of pregnancy in hCG treated mares than GnRH treated mares Therefore, it is concluded that the use of hCG in breeding season can improve pregnancy rate at a significant level when compared with GnRH hormone.

Keywords: mares, ovulation, hCG, pregnancy rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 499
29 Infestation of Aphid on Wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) and Its Possible Management with Naturally Existing Beneficial Fauna

Authors: Ghulam Abbas, Ikramul Haq, Ghulam Ghouse

Abstract:

Bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. (Poaceae) is the major source of the staple food for a number of countries of the world including Pakistan. Since it is the staple food of the country, it has been desired, and efforts have been made, that it does not undergo application of pesticides to ensure the food safety. Luckily, wheat does not face a serious threat of insect pests, in ecological conditions of Pakistan, except aphids and armyworm which infest the wheat prior to maturity. It has been observed that almost 5 species of aphid have been reported to attack wheat ie. Ropalosiphum maidi, R. Padi, Schizaphis graminum, Diuraphis noxia, and Sitibion miscanthi but due to natural rise in temperature in terminal season of wheat, the population of aphid gradually decreases and wheat has a safe escape from its infestation. In case, mild temperatures 15ºC to 30ºC prolong, the infestation of aphids also prolongs and it can severely damage wheat in patches, and it has potential to substantially reduce the yield of wheat in infested patch. In years 2013, 2014, and 2015 the studies were undertaken to determine the potential of damage caused by aphid complex in 10 fields in infested patches. The damage caused by aphid complex was calculated on the basis of 1000 grain weight of wheat grains taken from the infested patch and were compared with 1000 grain weight of the healthy plants of the same fields. It was observed that there was 26 to 42% decrease in the weight of grain in infested patches. This patch also escaped from general harvesting by combine harvester and enhanced the loss 13 to 46%. The quality of the wheat straw was also reduced and its acceptance to the animals was also affected up to 50 to 100%. Moreover, the population of naturally existing beneficial fauna was recorded and factors promoting establishment and manipulation of beneficial fauna were studied and analysed.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum, wheat, Pakistan, beneficial fauna, aphid complex

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
28 Case Study on Socio-Economic Impacts of Sustainable Trophy Hunting Programme on Local Community of Sassi-Haramosh Conservancy, Gilgit District, Pakistan

Authors: Hassan Abbas, Rehmat Ali, Muhammad Akbar

Abstract:

This study has been conducted in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy District Gilgit, Gilgit-Baltistan of Pakistan, under the Conservation Leadership Programme of Fauna and Flora International. The main objectives of the study were to assess the socio-economic impact of community-based conservation in Sassi-Haramosh conservancy and identify effects of trophy hunting on the conservation of wildlife in the area. The first trophy hunting program of Astor Markhor was held in year February 21, 2015, and the second on February 21, 2016. The community received a share of 49200 USD and 52400 USD from the first and second hunting, and the total earning was 101600 USD which are Rs. 10,871,200 in Pak Rs. The amounts from the trophy hunting are being managed by the Wildlife Conservation and Social Development Organization (WCSDO) Sassi. The village-based organization WCSDO is spending 50% of the trophy hunting amount in the protection of wildlife, its habitat and other natural resources, 30% in developmental sectors of the village and 20% of the amount in the office expenses. Several developmental projects, like construction of 300 KVA hydropower stations, purchase of 8 acres of land for agriculture, potable water supply project, construction of treks, and other social welfare activities have been carried in the village utilizing the trophy hunting grant. These developmental activities have uplifted the socio-economic conditions of the conservancy. Furthermore, trophy hunting program has positive impacts on the wildlife in the area, as the population of Markhor and Ibex has been increased, results in increasing number of other carnivores in the area. The WCSDO has banned any illegal activities in the habitat of wildlife and grazing of livestock in the core habitats. The program raised the level of awareness in communities and reduced poaching, illegal hunting, cutting of shrubs and extraction of Artemisia species from the pastures.

Keywords: Markhor, trophy hunting, Sassi-Haramosh, Gilgit

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
27 Principles of Risk Management in Surgery Department

Authors: Mohammad H. Yarmohammadian, Masoud Ferdosi, Abbas Haghshenas, Fatemeh Rezaei

Abstract:

Surgical procedures aim at preserving human life and improving quality of their life. However, there are many potential risk sources that can cause serious harm to patients. For centuries, managers believed that technical competence of a surgeon is the only key to a successful surgery. But over the past decade, risks are considered in terms of process-based safety procedures, teamwork and inter departmental communication. Aims: This study aims to determine how the process- biased surgical risk management should be done in terms of project management tool named ABS (Activity Breakdown Structure). Settings and Design: This study was conducted in two stages. First, literature review and meeting with professors was done to determine principles and framework of surgical risk management. Next, responsible teams for surgical patient journey were involved in following meeting to develop the process- biased surgical risk management. Methods and Material: This study is a qualitative research in which focus groups with the inductive approach is used. Sampling was performed to achieve representativeness through intensity sampling biased on experience and seniority. Analysis Method used: context analysis of interviews and consensus themes extracted from FDG meetings discussion was the analysis tool. Results: we developed the patient journey process in 5 main phases, 24 activities and 108 tasks. Then, responsible teams, transposition and allocated places for performing determined. Some activities and tasks themes were repeated in each phases like patient identification and records review because of their importance. Conclusions: Risk management of surgical departments is significant as this facility is the hospital’s largest cost and revenue center. Good communication between surgical team and other clinical teams outside surgery department through process- biased perspective could improve safety of patient under this procedure.

Keywords: risk management, activity breakdown structure (ABS), surgical department, medical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
26 Load Comparison between Different Positions during Elite Male Basketball Games: A Sport Metabolomics Approach

Authors: Kayvan Khoramipour, Abbas Ali Gaeini, Elham Shirzad, Øyvind Sandbakk

Abstract:

Basketball has different positions with individual movement profiles, which may influence metabolic demands. Accordingly, the present study aimed to compare the movement and metabolic load between different positions during elite male basketball games. Five main players of 14 teams (n = 70), who participated in the 2017-18 Iranian national basketball leagues, were selected as participants. The players were defined as backcourt (Posts 1-3) and frontcourt (Posts 4-5). Video based time motion analysis (VBTMA) was performed based on players’ individual running and shuffling speed using Dartfish software. Movements were classified into high and low intensity running with and without having the ball, as well as high and low-intensity shuffling and static movements. Mean frequency, duration, and distance were calculated for each class, except for static movements where only frequency was calculated. Saliva samples were collected from each player before and after 40-minute basketball games and analyzed using metabolomics. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Partial least square discriminant analysis (PLSDA) (for metabolomics data) and independent T-tests (for VBTMA) were used as statistical tests. Movement frequency, duration, and distance were higher in backcourt players (all p ≤ 0.05), while static movement frequency did not differ. Saliva samples showed that the levels of Taurine, Succinic acid, Citric acid, Pyruvate, Glycerol, Acetoacetic acid, Acetone, and Hypoxanthine were all higher in backcourt players, whereas Lactate, Alanine, 3-Metyl Histidine, and Methionine were higher in frontcourt players Based on metabolomics, we demonstrate that backcourt and frontcourt players have different metabolic profiles during games, where backcourt players move clearly more during games and therefore rely more on aerobic energy, whereas frontcourt players rely more on anaerobic energy systems in line with less dynamic but more static movement patterns.

Keywords: basketball, metabolomics, saliva, sport loadomics

Procedia PDF Downloads 16
25 Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Split-Crest Technique by Ultrasonic Bone Surgery Combined with Platelet Concentrates Prior to Dental Implant Placement

Authors: Ahmed Mohamed El-Shamy, Akram Abbas El-Awady, Mahmoud Taha Eldestawy

Abstract:

Background: The present study was to evaluate clinically and radiographically the combined effect of split crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery and platelet concentrates in implant site development. Methods: Forty patients with narrow ridge were participated in this study. Patients were assigned randomly into one of the following four groups according to treatment: Group 1: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement. Group 2: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and PRF. Group 3: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and PRP. Group 4: Patients received split-crest technique by ultrasonic bone surgery with implant placement and collagen membrane. Modified plaque index, modified sulcus bleeding index, and implant stability were recorded as a baseline and measured again at 3 and 6 months. CBCT scans were taken immediately after surgery completion and at 9 months to evaluate bone density at the bone-implant interface. Results after 6 months; collagen group showed statistically significantly lower mean modified bleeding index than the other groups. After 3 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean implant stability with ostell ISQ units' than the other groups. After 6 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean implant stability with ostell ISQ units' than the other groups. After 6 months, the PRF group showed statistically significantly higher mean bone density than the collagen group. Conclusion: Ultrasonic bone surgery in split-crest technique can be a successful option for increasing implant stability values throughout the healing period. The use of a combined technique of ultrasonic bone surgery with PRF and simultaneous implant placement potentially improves osseointegration (bone density). PRF membranes represent advanced technology for the stimulation and acceleration of bone regeneration.

Keywords: dental implants, split-crest, PRF, PRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 13
24 Gas Chromatography-Analysis, Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory, and Anticancer Activities of Some Extracts and Fractions of Linum usitatissimum

Authors: Eman Abdullah Morsi, Hend Okasha, Heba Abdel Hady, Mortada El-Sayed, Mohamed Abbas Shemis

Abstract:

Context: Linum usitatissimum (Linn), known as Flaxseed, is one of the most important medicinal plants traditionally used for various health as nutritional purposes. Objective: Estimation of total phenolic and flavonoid contents as well as evaluate the antioxidant using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2-2'azinobis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) assay and investigation of anti-inflammatory by Bovine serum albumin (BSA) and anticancer activities of hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) and breast cancer cell line (MCF7) have been applied on hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts and also, fractions of methonal extract (hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol). Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid contents were detected using spectrophotometric and colorimetric assays. Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities were estimated in-vitro. Anticancer activity of extracts and fractions of methanolic extract were tested on (HepG2) and (MCF7). Results: Methanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction contain higher contents of total phenols and flavonoids. In addition, methanolic extract had higher antioxidant activity. Butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions yielded higher percent of inhibition of protein denaturation. Meanwhile, ethyl acetate fraction and methanolic extract had anticancer activity against HepG2 and MCF7 (IC50=60 ± 0.24 and 29.4 ± 0.12µg.mL⁻¹) and (IC50=94.7 ± 0.21 and 227 ± 0.48µg.mL⁻¹), respectively. In Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, methanolic extract has 32 compounds, whereas; ethyl acetate and butanol fractions contain 40 and 36 compounds, respectively. Conclusion: Flaxseed contains totally different biologically active compounds that have been found to possess good variable activities, which can protect human body against several diseases.

Keywords: phenolic content, flavonoid content, HepG2, MCF7, hemolysis-assay, flaxseed

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
23 Laboratory Investigation of the Pavement Condition in Lebanon: Implementation of Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement in the Base Course and Asphalt Layer

Authors: Marinelle El-Khoury, Lina Bouhaya, Nivine Abbas, Hassan Sleiman

Abstract:

The road network in the north of Lebanon is a prime example of the lack of pavement design and execution in Lebanon.  These roads show major distresses and hence, should be tested and evaluated. The aim of this research is to investigate and determine the deficiencies in road surface design in Lebanon, and to propose an environmentally friendly asphalt mix design. This paper consists of several parts: (i) evaluating pavement performance and structural behavior, (ii) identifying the distresses using visual examination followed by laboratory tests, (iii) deciding the optimal solution where rehabilitation or reconstruction is required and finally, (iv) identifying a sustainable method, which uses recycled material in the proposed mix. The asphalt formula contains Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement (RAP) in the base course layer and in the asphalt layer. Visual inspection of the roads in Tripoli shows that these roads face a high level of distress severity. Consequently, the pavement should be reconstructed rather than simply rehabilitated. Coring was done to determine the pavement layer thickness. The results were compared to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) design methodology and showed that the existing asphalt thickness is lower than the required asphalt thickness. Prior to the pavement reconstruction, the road materials were tested according to the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) specification to identify whether the materials are suitable. Accordingly, the ASTM tests that were performed on the base course are Sieve analysis, Atterberg limits, modified proctor, Los Angeles, and California Bearing Ratio (CBR) tests. Results show a CBR value higher than 70%. Hence, these aggregates could be used as a base course layer. The asphalt layer was also tested and the results of the Marshall flow and stability tests meet the ASTM specifications. In the last section, an environmentally friendly mix was proposed. An optimal RAP percentage of 30%, which produced a well graded base course and asphalt mix, was determined through a series of trials.

Keywords: asphalt mix, reclaimed asphalt pavement, California bearing ratio, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
22 A Sustainable and Low-Cost Filter to Treat Pesticides in Water

Authors: T. Abbas, J. McEvoy, E. Khan

Abstract:

Pesticide contamination in water supply is a common environmental problem in rural agricultural communities. Advanced water treatment processes such as membrane filtration and adsorption on activated carbon only remove pesticides from water without degrading them into less toxic/easily degradable compounds leaving behind contaminated brine and activated carbon that need to be managed. Rural communities which normally cannot afford expensive water treatment technologies need an economical and sustainable filter which not only treats pesticides from water but also degrades them into benign products. In this study, iron turning waste experimented as potential point-of-use filtration media for the removal/degradation of a mixture of six chlorinated pesticides (lindane, heptachlor, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, and DDT) in water. As a common and traditional medium for water filtration, sand was also tested along with iron turning waste. Iron turning waste was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-Ray analyzer. Four glass columns with different filter media layer configurations were set up: (1) only sand, (2) only iron turning, (3) sand and iron turning (two separate layers), and (4) sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers). The initial pesticide concentration and flow rate were 2 μg/L and 10 mL/min. Results indicate that sand filtration was effective only for the removal of DDT (100%) and endosulfan (94-96%). Iron turning filtration column effectively removed endosulfan, endrin, and dieldrin (85-95%) whereas the lindane and DDT removal were 79-85% and 39-56%, respectively. The removal efficiencies for heptachlor, endosulfan, endrin, dieldrin, and DDT were 90-100% when sand and iron turning waste (two separate layers) were used. However, better removal efficiencies (93-100%) for five out of six pesticides were achieved, when sand, iron turning and sand (three separate layers) were used as filtration media. Moreover, the effects of water pH, amounts of media, and minerals present in water such as magnesium, sodium, calcium, and nitrate on the removal of pesticides were examined. Results demonstrate that iron turning waste efficiently removed all the pesticides under studied parameters. Also, it completely de-chlorinated all the pesticides studied and based on the detection of by-products, the degradation mechanisms for all six pesticides were proposed.

Keywords: pesticide contamination, rural communities, iron turning waste, filtration

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
21 Hybrid Method for Smart Suggestions in Conversations for Online Marketplaces

Authors: Yasamin Rahimi, Ali Kamandi, Abbas Hoseini, Hesam Haddad

Abstract:

Online/offline chat is a convenient approach in the electronic markets of second-hand products in which potential customers would like to have more information about the products to fill the information gap between buyers and sellers. Online peer in peer market is trying to create artificial intelligence-based systems that help customers ask more informative questions in an easier way. In this article, we introduce a method for the question/answer system that we have developed for the top-ranked electronic market in Iran called Divar. When it comes to secondhand products, incomplete product information in a purchase will result in loss to the buyer. One way to balance buyer and seller information of a product is to help the buyer ask more informative questions when purchasing. Also, the short time to start and achieve the desired result of the conversation was one of our main goals, which was achieved according to A/B tests results. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a method for suggesting questions and answers in the messaging platform of the e-commerce website Divar. Creating such systems is to help users gather knowledge about the product easier and faster, All from the Divar database. We collected a dataset of around 2 million messages in Persian colloquial language, and for each category of product, we gathered 500K messages, of which only 2K were Tagged, and semi-supervised methods were used. In order to publish the proposed model to production, it is required to be fast enough to process 10 million messages daily on CPU processors. In order to reach that speed, in many subtasks, faster and simplistic models are preferred over deep neural models. The proposed method, which requires only a small amount of labeled data, is currently used in Divar production on CPU processors, and 15% of buyers and seller’s messages in conversations is directly chosen from our model output, and more than 27% of buyers have used this model suggestions in at least one daily conversation.

Keywords: smart reply, spell checker, information retrieval, intent detection, question answering

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
20 Experimental Investigation of the Impact of Biosurfactants on Residual-Oil Recovery

Authors: S. V. Ukwungwu, A. J. Abbas, G. G. Nasr

Abstract:

The increasing high price of natural gas and oil with attendant increase in energy demand on world markets in recent years has stimulated interest in recovering residual oil saturation across the globe. In order to meet the energy security, efforts have been made in developing new technologies of enhancing the recovery of oil and gas, utilizing techniques like CO2 flooding, water injection, hydraulic fracturing, surfactant flooding etc. Surfactant flooding however optimizes production but poses risk to the environment due to their toxic nature. Amongst proven records that have utilized other type of bacterial in producing biosurfactants for enhancing oil recovery, this research uses a technique to combine biosurfactants that will achieve a scale of EOR through lowering interfacial tension/contact angle. In this study, three biosurfactants were produced from three Bacillus species from freeze dried cultures using sucrose 3 % (w/v) as their carbon source. Two of these produced biosurfactants were screened with the TEMCO Pendant Drop Image Analysis for reduction in IFT and contact angle. Interfacial tension was greatly reduced from 56.95 mN.m-1 to 1.41 mN.m-1 when biosurfactants in cell-free culture (Bacillus licheniformis) were used compared to 4. 83mN.m-1 cell-free culture of Bacillus subtilis. As a result, cell-free culture of (Bacillus licheniformis) changes the wettability of the biosurfactant treatment for contact angle measurement to more water-wet as the angle decreased from 130.75o to 65.17o. The influence of microbial treatment on crushed rock samples was also observed by qualitative wettability experiments. Treated samples with biosurfactants remained in the aqueous phase, indicating a water-wet system. These results could prove that biosurfactants can effectively change the chemistry of the wetting conditions against diverse surfaces, providing a desirable condition for efficient oil transport in this way serving as a mechanism for EOR. The environmental friendly effect of biosurfactants applications for industrial purposes play important advantages over chemically synthesized surfactants, with various possible structures, low toxicity, eco-friendly and biodegradability.

Keywords: bacillus, biosurfactant, enhanced oil recovery, residual oil, wettability

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
19 Personal and Social Factors as Barriers to Leisure Walking in Residential Neighborhoods

Authors: Zeinab Aliyas, Diba Mahboubi

Abstract:

Leisure walking is known as one of the most common types of physical activity that perform in purpose of recreation or health, which in turn may affect resident’s health. In the recent years, promoting leisure walking activity in neighborhood areas become as one of the important issues regarding promoting mental and physical health, however; the level of physical inactivity is rising in many societies including Iran. As it was proven that the tendency to walk out of choice is not encouraging among Iranian people. Hence; understanding the main concern of residents regarding walking activity in their neighborhoods can help in increasing the tendency to do leisure activity among residents. Built environment, social and individual factors are known as the main factors that affect decision to walk, in this regard, the study aimed to investigate the influence of personal and social factors that prevent residents to walk for recreation or exercise in their neighborhoods. Hence the fear of crime and personal barriers were examined in the current research as social and personal factors respectively. To collect the required data, 500 questionnaires by using systematic sampling were distributed from March to May 2016 in four residential neighborhoods of Bandar Abbas in Iran out which 411 questionnaire turned out to be qualified to be used in the study. The Smart-PLS was used to analyze the data. The findings of the study revealed that personal and fear of crime both have significant influence on the level of recreation and exercise walking in the neighborhood areas. The study found that fear of crime has the higher influence on exercise and recreational walking behavior in comparison to individual factors. It was revealed that social factors such as fear of crime in the neighborhoods might be more important than the personal reason for walking optionally in the surrounding environment. The finding of this study can help urban and health researcher to know the significant influence of fear of crime and individual attitudes on the level of leisure walking activity, in addition, the findings of the study suggest that urban planners and designers, as well as public health promoters, need to highly consider the contribution of neighborhoods' social environment variables as well as individual variables to promote walking behavior changes among adult population.

Keywords: exercise walking, fear of crime, neighborhood, personal barriers, recreation walking

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
18 Antibiotic Prescribing in the Acute Care in Iraq

Authors: Ola A. Nassr, Ali M. Abd Alridha, Rua A. Naser, Rasha S. Abbas

Abstract:

Background: Excessive and inappropriate use of antimicrobial agents among hospitalized patients remains an important patient safety and public health issue worldwide. Not only does this behavior incur unnecessary cost but it is also associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of this study is to obtain an insight into the prescribing patterns of antibiotics in surgical and medical wards, to help identify a scope for improvement in service delivery. Method: A simple point prevalence survey included a convenience sample of 200 patients admitted to medical and surgical wards in a government teaching hospital in Baghdad between October 2017 and April 2018. Data were collected by a trained pharmacy intern using a standardized form. Patient’s demographics and details of the prescribed antibiotics, including dose, frequency of dosing and route of administration, were reported. Patients were included if they had been admitted at least 24 hours before the survey. Patients under 18 years of age, having a diagnosis of cancer or shock, or being admitted to the intensive care unit, were excluded. Data were checked and entered by the authors into Excel and were subjected to frequency analysis, which was carried out on anonymized data to protect patient confidentiality. Results: Overall, 88.5% of patients (n=177) received 293 antibiotics during their hospital admission, with a small variation between wards (80%-97%). The average number of antibiotics prescribed per patient was 1.65, ranging from 1.3 for medical patients to 1.95 for surgical patients. Parenteral third-generation cephalosporins were the most commonly prescribed at a rate of 54.3% (n=159) followed by nitroimidazole 29.4% (n=86), quinolones 7.5% (n=22) and macrolides 4.4% (n=13), while carbapenems and aminoglycosides were the least prescribed together accounting for only 4.4% (n=13). The intravenous route was the most common route of administration, used for 96.6% of patients (n=171). Indications were reported in only 63.8% of cases. Culture to identify pathogenic organisms was employed in only 0.5% of cases. Conclusion: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are prescribed at an alarming rate. This practice may provoke antibiotic resistance and adversely affect the patient outcome. Implementation of an antibiotic stewardship program is warranted to enhance the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of antimicrobial agents.

Keywords: Acute care, Antibiotic misuse, Iraq, Prescribing

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
17 Oral Hygiene Behaviors among Pregnant Women with Diabetes Who Attend Primary Health Care Centers at Baghdad City

Authors: Zena F. Mushtaq, Iqbal M. Abbas

Abstract:

Background: Diabetes mellitus during pregnancy is one of the major medical and social problems with increasing prevalence in last decades and may lead to more vulnerable to dental problems and increased risk for periodontal diseases. Objectives: To assess oral hygiene behaviors among pregnant women with diabetes who attended primary health care centers and find out the relationship between oral hygiene behaviors and studied variables. Methodology: A cross sectional design was conducted from 7 July to 30 September 2014 on non probability (convenient sample) of 150 pregnant women with diabetes was selected from twelve Primary Health Care Centers at Baghdad city. Questionnaire format is tool for data collection which had designed and consisted of three main parts including: socio demographic, reproductive characteristics and items of oral hygiene behaviors among pregnant women with diabetes. Reliability of the questionnaire was determined through internal consistency of correlation coefficient (R= 0.940) and validity of content was determined through reviewing it by (12) experts in different specialties and was determined through pilot study. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze collected data. Result: Result of study revealed that (35.3%) of study sample was (35-39) years old with mean and SD is (X & SD = 33.57 ± 5.54) years, and (34.7%) of the study sample was graduated from primary school and less, half of the study sample was government employment and self employed, (42.7%) of the study sample had moderate socioeconomic status, the highest percentage (70.0%) of the study sample was nonsmokers, The result indicates that oral hygiene behaviors have moderate mean score in all items. There are no statistical significant association between oral hygiene domain and studied variables. Conclusions: All items related to health behavior concerning oral hygiene is in moderate mean of score, which may expose pregnant women with diabetes to high risk of periodontal diseases. Recommendations: Dental care provider should perform a dental examination at least every three months for each pregnant woman with diabetes, explanation of the effect of DM on periodontal health, oral hygiene instruction, oral prophylaxis, professional cleaning and treatment of periodontal diseases(scaling and root planing) when needed.

Keywords: diabetes, health behavior, pregnant women, oral hygiene

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
16 Multi-Scale Damage Modelling for Microstructure Dependent Short Fiber Reinforced Composite Structure Design

Authors: Joseph Fitoussi, Mohammadali Shirinbayan, Abbas Tcharkhtchi

Abstract:

Due to material flow during processing, short fiber reinforced composites structures obtained by injection or compression molding generally present strong spatial microstructure variation. On the other hand, quasi-static, dynamic, and fatigue behavior of these materials are highly dependent on microstructure parameters such as fiber orientation distribution. Indeed, because of complex damage mechanisms, SFRC structures design is a key challenge for safety and reliability. In this paper, we propose a micromechanical model allowing prediction of damage behavior of real structures as a function of microstructure spatial distribution. To this aim, a statistical damage criterion including strain rate and fatigue effect at the local scale is introduced into a Mori and Tanaka model. A critical local damage state is identified, allowing fatigue life prediction. Moreover, the multi-scale model is coupled with an experimental intrinsic link between damage under monotonic loading and fatigue life in order to build an abacus giving Tsai-Wu failure criterion parameters as a function of microstructure and targeted fatigue life. On the other hand, the micromechanical damage model gives access to the evolution of the anisotropic stiffness tensor of SFRC submitted to complex thermomechanical loading, including quasi-static, dynamic, and cyclic loading with temperature and amplitude variations. Then, the latter is used to fill out microstructure dependent material cards in finite element analysis for design optimization in the case of complex loading history. The proposed methodology is illustrated in the case of a real automotive component made of sheet molding compound (PSA 3008 tailgate). The obtained results emphasize how the proposed micromechanical methodology opens a new path for the automotive industry to lighten vehicle bodies and thereby save energy and reduce gas emission.

Keywords: short fiber reinforced composite, structural design, damage, micromechanical modelling, fatigue, strain rate effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 15