Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 57

Search results for: Loke Weng Onn

57 Study of Fork Marks on Sapphire Wafers in Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition Tool

Authors: Qiao Pei Wen, Ng Seng Lee, Sae Tae Veera, Chiu Ah Fong, Loke Weng Onn

Abstract:

Thin film thickness uniformity is crucial to get consistent film etch rate and device yield across the wafer. In the capacitive-coupled parallel plate PECVD system; the film thickness uniformity can be affected by many factors such as the heater temperature uniformity, the spacing between top and bottom electrode, RF power, pressure, gas flows and etc. In this paper, we studied how the PECVD SiN film thickness uniformity is affected by the substrate electrical conductivity and the RF power coupling efficiency. PECVD SiN film was deposited on 150-mm sapphire wafers in 200-mm Lam Sequel tool, fork marks were observed on the wafers. On the fork marks area SiN film thickness is thinner than that on the non-fork area. The forks are the wafer handler inside the process chamber to move the wafers from one station to another. The sapphire wafers and the ceramic forks both are insulator. The high resistivity of the sapphire wafers and the forks inhibits the RF power coupling efficiency during PECVD deposition, thereby reducing the deposition rate. Comparing between the high frequency and low frequency RF power (HFRF and LFRF respectively), the LFRF power coupling effect on the sapphire wafers is more dominant than the HFRF power on the film thickness. This paper demonstrated that the SiN thickness uniformity on sapphire wafers can be improved by depositing a thin TiW layer on the wafer before the SiN deposition. The TiW layer can be on the wafer surface, bottom or any layer before SiN deposition.

Keywords: PECVD SiN deposition, sapphire wafer, substrate electrical conductivity, RF power coupling, high frequency RF power, low frequency RF power, film deposition rate, thickness uniformity

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
56 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei

Abstract:

Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 452
55 Magnet Position Variation of the Electromagnetic Actuation System in a Torsional Scanner

Authors: Loke Kean Koay, Mani Maran Ratnam

Abstract:

A mechanically-resonant torsional spring scanner was developed in a recent study. Various methods were developed to improve the angular displacement of the scanner while maintaining the scanner frequency. However, the effects of rotor magnet radial position on scanner characteristics were not well investigated. In this study, the relationships between the magnet position and the scanner characteristics such as natural frequency, angular displacement and stress level were studied. A finite element model was created and an average deviation of 3.18% was found between the simulation and experimental results, qualifying the simulation results as a guide for further investigations. Three magnet positions on the transverse oscillating suspended plate were investigated by finite element analysis (FEA) and one of the positions were selected as the design position. The magnet position with the longest distance from the twist axis of the mirror was selected since it attains minimum stress level while exceeding the minimum critical flicker frequency and delivering the targeted angular displacement to the scanner.

Keywords: torsional scanner, design optimization, computer-aided design, magnet position variation

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
54 People Abandoning Mobile Social Games: Using Candy Crush Saga as an Example

Authors: Pei-Shan Wei, Szu-Ying Lee, Hsi-Peng Lu, Jen-Chuen Tzou, Chien-I Weng

Abstract:

Mobile social games recently become extremely popular, spawning a whole new entertainment culture. However, mobile game players are fickle, quickly and easily picking up and abandoning games. This pilot study seeks to identify factors that influence users to discontinue playing mobile social games. We identified three sacrifices which can prompt users to abandon games: monetary sacrifice, time sacrifice and privacy sacrifice. The results showed that monetary sacrifice has a greater impact than the other two factors in causing players to discontinue usage intention.

Keywords: abandon, mobile devices, mobile social games, perceived sacrifice

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
53 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Win Nee Phong, Tau Chuan Ling, Pau Loke Show

Abstract:

From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: green, microalgae, protein, solvents

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
52 Family Succession and Cost of Bank Loans: Evidence from China

Authors: Tzu-Ching Weng, Hsin-Yi Chi, Wei-Ren Yao

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of family succession on the cost of bank loan and non-price contractual terms. Using a unique dataset from China, we find that lending banks are more likely to charge higher interest rates and impose tighter contractual terms, such as maturity of loans and collateral requirement for second-generation family firms. This finding indicates that information risk and default risk may arise after subsequent family succession. However, we find that second-generation family firms can reduce their cost of bank loan by hiring top-tier auditors or establishing political connections to enhance the credibility of financial reporting or possible future bailouts from the Chinese government.

Keywords: family succession, cost of bank loan, loan contract terms, family firm

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
51 Numerical Investigation of Slot Die Coating Based on VOF Method

Authors: Zhidi Lei, Xixi Cai, Jue Ding, Peifen Weng, Xiaowei Li

Abstract:

In the process of preparing thin films by chemical solution method, the uniformity of gel coating has a great influence on the subsequent film thickness. Based on a coating device, the research tracks the interface development of gas-liquid flow by volume of fluid method (VOF). The effects of fluid viscosity and wall wetting property for the shape and position of the coating window are discussed in the process of slot die coating. The result shows that downstream contact lines gets closer to the corner with the increase of fluid viscosity. When the viscosity increases from 0.2Pa∙s to 0.3Pa∙s, 18.2% of the vortex region area will be reduced. With the static contact angle of upper die head surface (θ_sd) increasing, X_u decreased gradually which cause the instability changes of upstream surface. Also, θ_sd increasing brings the reduction of vortex region.

Keywords: film growth, vortex, VOF, slot die coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 301
50 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isothermal Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng, Chien-Hung Liu

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip and jump on forced convection through a long isothermally heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of thermal flow fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and Smoluchowski jump boundary conditions. Results reveal that the second-order term in the Karniadakis slip boundary condition is found to contribute a negative velocity slip and then to lead to a higher pressure drop as well as a higher fluid temperature for the heated-wall case or to a lower fluid temperature for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Deissler model. In addition, the role of second-order slip becomes more significant when the Knudsen number increases.

Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, gas rarefaction, second-order boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 384
49 A GIS-Based Study on Geographical Divisions of Sustainable Human Settlements in China

Authors: Wu Yiqun, Weng Jiantao

Abstract:

The human settlements of China are picked up from the land use vector map by interpreting the Thematic Map of 2014. This paper established the sustainable human settlements geographical division evaluation system and division model using GIS. The results show that: The density of human residential areas in China is different, and the density of sustainable human areas is higher, and the west is lower than that in the West. The regional differences of sustainable human settlements are obvious: the north is larger than that the south, the plain regions are larger than those of the hilly regions, and the developed regions are larger than the economically developed regions. The geographical distribution of the sustainable human settlements is measured by the degree of porosity. The degree of porosity correlates with the sustainable human settlement density. In the area where the sustainable human settlement density is high the porosity is low, the distribution is even and the gap between the settlements is low.

Keywords: GIS, geographical division, sustainable human settlements, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 505
48 Lubrication Performance of Multi-Level Gear Oil in a Gasoline Engine

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Dong- Syuan Cai, Tsochu-Lin

Abstract:

A vehicle gasoline engine converts gasoline into power so that the car can move, and lubricants are important for engines and also gear boxes. Manufacturers have produced numbers of engine oils, and gear oils for engines and gear boxes to SAE International Standards. Some products not only can improve the lubrication of both the engine and gear box but also can raise power of vehicle this can be easily seen in the advertisement declared by the manufacturers. To observe the lubrication performance, a multi-leveled (heavy duty) gear oil was added to a gasoline engine as the oil in the vehicle. The oil was checked at about every 10,000 kilometers. The engine was detailed disassembled, cleaned, and parts were measured. The wear of components of the engine parts were checked and recorded finally. Based on the experiment results, some gear oil seems possible to be used as engine oil in particular vehicles. Vehicle owners should change oil periodically in about every 6,000 miles (or 10,000 kilometers). Used car owners may change engine oil in even longer distance.

Keywords: multi-level gear oil, engine oil, viscosity, abrasion

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
47 Site Selection and Construction Mechanism of the Island Settlements in China Based on CFD-GIS Technology

Authors: Weng Jiantao, Wu Yiqun

Abstract:

The efficiency of natural ventilation, wind pressure distribution on building surface, wind comfort for pedestrians and buildings’ wind tolerance in traditional settlements are closely related to the pattern of terrain. On the basis of field research on the typical island terrain in China, the physical and mathematical models are established by using CFD software, and then the simulation results of the wind field are exported. We discuss the relationship between wind direction and wind field results. Furthermore simulation results are imported into ArcGIS platform. The evaluation model of island site selection is established with considering slope factor. We realize the visual model of site selection on complex island terrain. The multi-plans of certain residential are discussed based on wind simulation; at last the optimal project is selected. Results can provide the theory guidance for settlement planning and construction in China's traditional island.

Keywords: CFD, island terrain, site selection, construction mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
46 An Investigation of Water Atomizer in Ejected Gas of a Vehicle Engine

Authors: Chun-Wei Liu, Feng-Tsai Weng

Abstract:

People faced pollution threaten in modern age although the standard of exhaust gas of vehicles has been established. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of water atomizer in a vehicle emission system. Diluted 20% ammonia water was used in spraying system. Micro particles produced by exhausted gas from engine of vehicle which were cumulated through atomized spray in a self-development collector. In experiments, a self-designed atomization model plate and a gas tank controlled by the micro-processor using Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) logic was prepared for exhaust test. The gas from gasoline-engine of vehicle was purified with the model panel collector. A soft well named ANSYS was utilized for analyzing the distribution condition of rejected gas. Micro substance and percentage of CO, HC, CO2, NOx in exhausted gas were investigated at different engine speed, and atomizer vibration frequency. Exceptional results in the vehicle engine emissions measurement were obtained. The temperature of exhausted gas can be decreased 3oC. Micro substances PM10 can be decreased and the percentage of CO can be decreased more than 55% at 2500RPM by proposed system. Value of CO, HC, CO2 and NOX was all decreased when atomizers were used with water.

Keywords: atomizer, CO, HC, NOx, PM2.5

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
45 Factor Analysis on Localization of Human Resources of Japanese Firms in Taiwan

Authors: Nana Weng

Abstract:

Localization in the aspect of human resource means more diversity and more opportunities. The main purpose of this article is to identify the perception of local employees and intermediate managers (non-Japanese) and figure out exploratory factors which have been contributing and blocking the level of localization in the aspect of human resource management by using EFA (Exploratory Factors Analysis). Questionnaires will be designed for local employees and managers to inquire about the perceptions of regulations and implementation regarding recruitment, training and development, promotion and rewarding. The study finds that Japanese firms have worked well in the process of localization, especially in hiring and training local staffs in Taiwan. The significance of this study lies in paying more attention to the perception of local employees and intermediate managers regarding localization rather than interviews results from Japanese expatriates or top HR managers who are in charging of localization policy-making.

Keywords: Japanese firms in Taiwan, localization of human resources, exploratory factors analysis, local employees and intermediate managers

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44 Dynamical Characteristics of Interaction between Water Droplet and Aerosol Particle in Dedusting Technology

Authors: Ding Jue, Li Jiahua, Lei Zhidi, Weng Peifen, Li Xiaowei

Abstract:

With the rapid development of national modern industry, people begin to pay attention to environmental pollution and harm caused by industrial dust. Based on above, a numerical study on the dedusting technology of industrial environment was conducted. The dynamic models of multicomponent particles collision and coagulation, breakage and deposition are developed, and the interaction of water droplet and aerosol particle in 2-Dimension flow field was researched by Eulerian-Lagrangian method and Multi-Monte Carlo method. The effects of the droplet scale, movement speed of droplet and the flow field structure on scavenging efficiency were analyzed. The results show that under the certain condition, 30μm of droplet has the best scavenging efficiency. At the initial speed 1m/s of droplets, droplets and aerosol particles have more time to interact, so it has a better scavenging efficiency for the particle.

Keywords: water droplet, aerosol particle, collision and coagulation, multi-monte carlo method

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
43 Students’ View on Sexuality Education

Authors: Hoi Nga Ng, Kam Weng Boey, Chi Wai Kwan, Hing Kwan To

Abstract:

The effectiveness of school-based sexuality education (SBSE) depends largely on adolescents’ attitudes towards sexuality and SBSE. This study examined factors (demographic characteristics, religiosity, and spirituality) associated with students’ sexual attitudes and their views on SBSE. Data were collected via a questionnaire through convenience sampling from three secondary schools. A total of 818 students participated in the study. Male students were generally more permissive in sexual attitudes. Female students were specifically more liberal in attitudes towards abortion, contraception, infection of sexually transmitted diseases, and homosexuality. Higher levels of religiosity and spirituality were negatively associated with permissive sexual attitudes. As in the West, students showed positive attitudes towards SBSE, which provided a fertile ground for SBSE. However, female gender, conservative sexual attitudes, religiosity, and spirituality were positively related to attitudes towards SBSE, which were incongruent with what was found in Western studies. Implementation of SBSE needs to consider factors specific to the local cultural setting.

Keywords: religiosity, school-based sexuality education, secondary school, spirituality

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
42 Perception of Inclusion in Higher Education

Authors: Hoi Nga Ng, Kam Weng Boey, Chi Wai Kwan

Abstract:

Supporters of Inclusive education proclaim that all students, regardless of disabilities or special educational needs (SEN), have the right to study in the normal school setting. It is asserted that students with SEN would benefit in academic performance and psychosocial adjustment via participation in common learning activities within the ordinary school system. When more and more students of SEN completed their early schooling, institute of higher education become the setting where students of SEN continue their learning. This study aimed to investigate the school well-being, social relationship, and academic self-concept of students of SEN in higher education. The Perception of Inclusion Questionnaire (PIQ) was used as the measuring instruments. PIQ was validated and incorporated in a questionnaire designed for online survey. Participation was voluntary and anonymous. A total of 90 students with SEN and 457 students without SEN responded to the online survey. Results showed no significant differences in school well-being and social relationship between students with and without SEN, but students with SEN, particularly those with learning and development impairment and those with mental illness and emotional problems, were significantly poorer in academic self-concept. Implications of the findings were discussed.

Keywords: ccademic self-concept, school well-being, social relationship, special educational needs

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
41 Second-Order Slip Flow and Heat Transfer in a Long Isoflux Microchannel

Authors: Huei Chu Weng

Abstract:

This paper presents a study on the effect of second-order slip on forced convection through a long isoflux heated or cooled planar microchannel. The fully developed solutions of flow and thermal fields are analytically obtained on the basis of the second-order Maxwell-Burnett slip and local heat flux boundary conditions. Results reveal that when the average flow velocity increases or the wall heat flux amount decreases, the role of thermal creep becomes more insignificant, while the effect of second-order slip becomes larger. The second-order term in the Deissler slip boundary condition is found to contribute a positive velocity slip and then to lead to a lower pressure drop as well as a lower temperature rise for the heated-wall case or to a higher temperature rise for the cooled-wall case. These findings are contrary to predictions made by the Karniadakis slip model.

Keywords: microfluidics, forced convection, thermal creep, second-order boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
40 Research on the Relationship between Localization Strategic Human Resource Management Practices and Firm Performance: A Comparison of Japanese Multinational Enterprise Subsidiaries in Vietnam

Authors: Nana Weng

Abstract:

Firstly, based on two diamond models and Value-Rarity-Inimitability-Organization framework, this paper analyzes the Country Specific factors of and firm specific factors which influence subsidiaries’ sustainable competitive advantage. Then, according to the main content of Strategic Human Resource Management (SHRM) research that HRM strategy should fit into corporate strategy, we explained what the SHRM practices should be in the context of localization strategies within Multinational Enterprise (MNE) companies. Then we choose two Japanese MNE subsidiaries in the same industry and tested the hypothesis that localization SHRM practices positively impact on subsidiary’s sustainable competitive advantage, further positively affect firm integrated performance (both financial performance and organizational and organizational performance) lever through High Performance Work Practices (HPWPs) of local employees.

Keywords: localization SHRM, firm integrated performance, Japanese MNE subsidiaries, Vietnam

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
39 Effect of Copper Ions Doped-Hydroxyapatite 3D Fiber Scaffold

Authors: Adil Elrayah, Jie Weng, Esra Suliman

Abstract:

The mineral in human bone is not pure stoichiometric calcium phosphate (Ca/P) as it is partially substituted by in organic elements. In this study, the copper ions (Cu2+) substituted hydroxyapatite (CuHA) powder has been synthesized by the co-precipitation method. The CuHA powder has been used to fabricate CuHA fiber scaffolds by sol-gel process and the following sinter process. The resulted CuHA fibers have slightly different microstructure (i.e. porosity) compared to HA fiber scaffold, which is denser. The mechanical properties test was used to evaluate CuHA, and the results showed decreases in both compression strength and hardness tests. Moreover, the in vitro used endothelial cells to evaluate the angiogenesis of CuHA. The result illustrated that the viability of endothelial cell on CuHA fiber scaffold surfaces tends to antigenic behavior. The results obtained with CuHA scaffold give this material benefit in biological applications such as antimicrobial, antitumor, antigens, compacts, filling cavities of the tooth and for the deposition of metal implants anti-tumor, anti-cancer, bone filler, and scaffold.

Keywords: fiber scaffold, copper ions, hydroxyapatite, in vitro, mechanical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
38 Post Occupancy Evaluation of the Green Office Building with Different Air-Conditioning Systems

Authors: Ziwei Huang, Jian Ge, Jie Shen, Jiantao Weng

Abstract:

Retrofitting of existing buildings plays a critical role to achieve sustainable development. This is being considered as one of the approaches to achieving sustainability in the built environment. In order to evaluate the different air-conditioning systems effectiveness and user satisfaction of the existing building which had transformed into green building effectively and accurately. This article takes the green office building in Zhejiang province, China as an example, analyzing the energy consumption, occupant satisfaction and indoor environment quality (IEQ) from the perspective of the thermal environment. This building is special because it combines ground source heat pump system and Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) air-conditioning system. Results showed that the ground source heat pump system(EUIa≈25.6) consumes more energy than VRF(EUIb≈23.8). In terms of a satisfaction survey, the use of the VRF air-conditioning was more satisfactory in temperature. However, the ground source heat pump is more satisfied in air quality.

Keywords: post-occupancy evaluation, green office building, air-conditioning systems, ground source heat pump system

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
37 Dietary Intake, Serum Vitamin D Status, and Sun Exposure of Malaysian Women of Different Ethnicity

Authors: H. Z. M. Chong, M. E. Y. Leong, G. L. Khor, S. C. Loke

Abstract:

Vitamin D insufficiency is reported to be prevalent among women living in different altitudes including the equator where sunshine is available throughout the year. Multiple factors for vitamin D insufficiency include poor intake of vitamin D rich food and inadequate sun exposure, especially among women working indoor with a sedentary lifestyle. Furthermore, Muslim women in Malaysia whose attire covers the entire body are likely to receive poor sun exposure. This research determined serum vitamin D status, vitamin D intake and sun exposure of women aged 20-45 years of different ethnicity in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Blood samples were collected from 106 women for determination of serum 25(OH)D levels. Information about vitamin D intake and sun exposure were obtained by interviewing the subjects using pre-tested questionnaires. The overall mean serum 25(OH)D was found to be 29.9 ± 14 nmol/L. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency was prevalent and highest among the Malay women. Less than ten percent of the subjects in this study met the sufficient vitamin D level recommendation of ≥50 nmol/L. Intake of vitamin D rich food such as oily fishes was poor across the different ethnicity. Other dietary sources of vitamin D in the diet were fortified bread and skim milk. On the other hand, the median sunlight exposure of the subjects was 3.9 hours per week. The Malay women reported to have the highest duration being exposed to the sun. Nevertheless, due to cultural clothing practices, these women had the least body surface area exposed to sunlight, resulting in the lowest calculated sun index score compared to the Chinese and the Indians. Low intake of vitamin D rich foods and sun exposure were negatively correlated with serum 25(OH)D level. In conclusion, intake of food sources rich in vitamin D and adequate body surface area exposed to the sun are essential to ensure healthy vitamin D level. Supplementation of vitamin D may be recommended to women whom unable to meet these recommendations.

Keywords: serum 25-OH, sun exposure, vitamin D food frequency, vitamin D deficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
36 Direct Electrophoretic Deposition of Hierarchical Structured Electrode Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, Hu-Cheng Weng, An-Ya Lo

Abstract:

In this study, Co3O4-CNT-Graphene composite electrode was deposited by electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method, where micro polystyrene spheres (PSs) were added for co-deposition. Applied with heat treatment, a hierarchical porosity is left in the electrode which is beneficial for supercapacitor application. In terms of charge and discharge performance, we discussed the optimal CNT/Graphene ratio, macroporous ratio, and the effect of Co3O4 addition on electrode capacitance. For materials characterization, scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction, and BET were applied, while cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronopotentiometry (CP) measurements, and Ragone plot were applied as in-situ analyses. Based on this, the effects of PS amount on the structure, porosity and their effect on capacitance of the electrodes were investigated. Finally, the full device performance was examined with charge-discharge and electron impedance spectrum (EIS) methods. The results show that the EPD coating with hierarchical porosity was successfully demonstrated in this study. As a result, the capacitance was greatly enhanced by 2.6 times with the hierarchical structure.

Keywords: supercapacitor, nanocarbon tub, graphene, metal oxide

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35 Measurement and Evaluation of Outdoor Lighting Environment at Night in Residential Community in China: A Case Study of Hangzhou

Authors: Jiantao Weng, Yujie Zhao

Abstract:

With the improvement of living quality and demand for nighttime activities in China, the current situation of outdoor lighting environment at night needs to be assessed. Lighting environment at night plays an important role to guarantee night safety. Two typical residential communities in Hangzhou were selected. A comprehensive test method of outdoor lighting environment at night was established. The road, fitness area, landscape, playground and entrance were included. Field measurements and questionnaires were conducted in these two residential communities. The characteristics of residents’ habits and the subjective evaluation on different aspects of outdoor lighting environment at night were collected via questionnaire. A safety evaluation system on the outdoor lighting environment at night in the residential community was established. The results show that there is a big difference in illumination in different areas. The lighting uniformities of roads cannot meet the requirement of lighting standard in China. Residents pay more attention to the lighting environment of the fitness area and road than others. This study can provide guidance for the design and management of outdoor lighting environment at night.

Keywords: residential community, lighting environment, night, field measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
34 An Antibacterial Dental Restorative Containing 3,4-Dichlorocrotonolactone: Synthesis, Formulation and Evaluation

Authors: Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Yiming Weng

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to synthesize and characterize 5-acryloyloxy-3,4-dichlorocrotonolactone (a furanone derivative), use this derivative to modify a dental restorative, and study the effect of the derivative on the antibacterial activity and compressive strength of the formed restorative. In this study, a furanone derivative was synthesized, characterized, and used to formulate a dental restorative. Compressive strength (CS) and S. mutans viability were used to evaluate the mechanical strength and antibacterial activity of the formed restorative. The fabricated restorative specimens were photocured and conditioned in distilled water at 37oC for 24 h, followed by direct testing for CS or/and incubating with S. mutans for 48 h for antibacterial testing. The results show that the modified dental restorative showed a significant antibacterial activity without substantially decreasing the mechanical strengths. With addition of the antibacterial derivative up to 30%, the restorative kept its original CS nearly unchanged but showed a significant antibacterial activity with 68% reduction in the S. mutans viability. Furthermore, the antibacterial function of the modified restorative was not affected by human saliva. The aging study also indicates that the modified restorative may have a long-lasting antibacterial function. It is concluded that this experimental antibacterial restorative may potentially be developed into a clinically attractive dental filling restorative due to its high mechanical strength and antibacterial function.

Keywords: antibacterial, dental restorative, compressive strength, S. mutans viability

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
33 Low Power CMOS Amplifier Design for Wearable Electrocardiogram Sensor

Authors: Ow Tze Weng, Suhaila Isaak, Yusmeeraz Yusof

Abstract:

The trend of health care screening devices in the world is increasingly towards the favor of portability and wearability, especially in the most common electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring system. This is because these wearable screening devices are not restricting the patient’s freedom and daily activities. While the demand of low power and low cost biomedical system on chip (SoC) is increasing in exponential way, the front end ECG sensors are still suffering from flicker noise for low frequency cardiac signal acquisition, 50 Hz power line electromagnetic interference, and the large unstable input offsets due to the electrode-skin interface is not attached properly. In this paper, a high performance CMOS amplifier for ECG sensors that suitable for low power wearable cardiac screening is proposed. The amplifier adopts the highly stable folded cascode topology and later being implemented into RC feedback circuit for low frequency DC offset cancellation. By using 0.13 µm CMOS technology from Silterra, the simulation results show that this front end circuit can achieve a very low input referred noise of 1 pV/√Hz and high common mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of 174.05 dB. It also gives voltage gain of 75.45 dB with good power supply rejection ratio (PSSR) of 92.12 dB. The total power consumption is only 3 µW and thus suitable to be implemented with further signal processing and classification back end for low power biomedical SoC.

Keywords: CMOS, ECG, amplifier, low power

Procedia PDF Downloads 163
32 An Investigation of Passivation Technology in Stainless Steel Alloy

Authors: Feng-Tsai Weng, Rick Wang, Yan-Cong Liao

Abstract:

Passivation is a kind of surface treatment for material to reinforce the corrosion resistance specially the stainless alloy. Passive film, is to getting more potential compared to their status before passivation. An oxidation film can be formed on the surface of stainless steel, which has a strong corrosion resistance ability after passivation treatment. In this research, a new passivation technology is proposed for a special stainless alloy which contains a 12-14% Chromium. This method includes the A-A-A (alkaline-acid-alkaline) process basically, which was developed by Carpenter that can neutralize trapped acid. Besides, a corrosion resistant coating layer was obtained by immersing the parts in a water bath of mineral oil at high temperature. Salt spray test ASTM B368 was conducted to investigated performance of corrosion resistant of the passivated stainless steel alloy parts. Results show much better corrosion resistant that followed a coating process after A-A-A Passivation process, than only using A-A-A process. The passivation time is with more than 380 hours of salt spray test ASTM B368, which is equal to 3000 hours of Salt spray test ASTM B117. Proposed passivation method of stainless steel can be completed in about 3 hours.

Keywords: passivation, alkaline-acid-alkaline, stainless steel, salt spray test

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31 Development of Imprinting and Replica Molding of Soft Mold Curved Surface

Authors: Yung-Jin Weng, Chia-Chi Chang, Chun-Yu Tsai

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the research of imprinting and replica molding of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure mold. In this paper, a magnetic photocuring forming system is first developed and built independently, then the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mode is created; moreover, the magnetic performance of the magnetic curved surface at different heights is tested and recorded, and through experimentation and simulation, the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mold is used in the research of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure imprinting and replica molding. The experimental results show that, under different surface curvatures and voltage control conditions, different quasi-grey scale array microstructures take shape. In addition, this paper conducts research on the imprinting and replica molding of photoresist composite magnetic powder in order to discuss the forming performance of magnetic photoresist, and finally, the experimental result is compared with the simulation to obtain more accurate prediction and results. This research is predicted to provide microstructure component preparation technology with heterogeneity and controllability, and is a kind of valid shaping quasi-grey scale microstructure manufacturing technology method.

Keywords: soft mold, magnetic, microstructure, curved surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 247
30 Insecticide Resistance Detection on Dengue Vector, Aedes albopictus Obtained from Kapit, Kuching and Sibu Districts in Sarawak State, Malaysia

Authors: Koon Weng Lau, Chee Dhang Chen, Abdul Aziz Azidah, Mohd Sofian-Azirun

Abstract:

Recently, Sarawak state of Malaysia encounter an outbreak of dengue fever. Aedes albopictus has incriminated as one of the important vectors of dengue transmission. Without an effective vaccine, approaches to control or prevent dengue will be a focus on the vectors. The control of Aedes mosquitoes is still dependent on the use of chemical insecticides and insecticide resistance represents a threat to the effectiveness of vector control. This study was conducted to determine the resistance status of 11 active ingredients representing four major insecticide classes: DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenitrothion, bendiocarb, propoxur, etofenprox, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, cyfluthrin, and permethrin. Standard WHO test procedures were conducted to determine the insecticide susceptibility. Aedes albopictus collected from Kapit (resistance ratio, RR = 1.04–3.02), Kuching (RR = 1.17–4.61), and Sibu (RR = 1.06–3.59) exhibited low resistance toward all insecticides except dieldrin. This study reveled that dieldrin is still effective against Ae. albopictus, followed by fenitrothion, cyfluthrin, and deltamethrin. In conclusion, Ae. albopictus in Sarawak exhibited different resistance levels toward various insecticides and alternative solutions should be implemented to prevent further deterioration of the condition.

Keywords: Aedes albopictus, dengue, insecticide resistance, Malaysia

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29 Polymerspolyaniline/CMK-3/Hydroquinone Composite Electrode for Supercapacitor Application

Authors: Hu-Cheng Weng, Jhen-Ting Huang, Chia-Chia Chang, An-Ya Lo

Abstract:

In this study, carbon mesoporous material, CMK-3, was adopted as supporting material for electroactive polymerspolyaniline (PANI), polyaniline, for supercapacitor application, where hydroquinone (HQ) was integrated to enhance the redox reaction of PANI. The results show that the addition of PANI improves the capacitance of electrode from 89 F/g (CMK-3) to 337 F/g (PANI/CMK-3), the addition of HQ furtherly improves the capacitance to 463 F/g (PANI/CMK-3/HQ). The PANI provides higher energy density and also acts as binder of the electrode; the CMK-3 provides higher electron double layer capacitance EDLC and stabilize the polyaniline by its highly porosity. With the addition of HQ, the capacitance of PANI/CMK-3 was further enhanced. In-situ analyses including cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronopotentiometry (CP), electron impedance spectrum (EIS) analyses were applied for electrode performance examination. For materials characterization, the crystal structure, morphology, microstructure, and porosity were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 77K N2 adsorption/desorption analyses, respectively. The effects of electrolyte pH value, PANI polymerization time, HQ concentration, and PANI/CMK-3 ratio on capacitance were discussed. The durability was also studied by long-term operation test. The results show that PANI/CMK-3/HQ with great potential for supercapacitor application. Finally, the potential of all-solid PANI/CMK-3/HQ based supercapacitor was successfully demonstrated.

Keywords: CMK3, PANI, redox electrolyte, solid supercapacitor

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28 SCNet: A Vehicle Color Classification Network Based on Spatial Cluster Loss and Channel Attention Mechanism

Authors: Fei Gao, Xinyang Dong, Yisu Ge, Shufang Lu, Libo Weng

Abstract:

Vehicle color recognition plays an important role in traffic accident investigation. However, due to the influence of illumination, weather, and noise, vehicle color recognition still faces challenges. In this paper, a vehicle color classification network based on spatial cluster loss and channel attention mechanism (SCNet) is proposed for vehicle color recognition. A channel attention module is applied to extract the features of vehicle color representative regions and reduce the weight of nonrepresentative color regions in the channel. The proposed loss function, called spatial clustering loss (SC-loss), consists of two channel-specific components, such as a concentration component and a diversity component. The concentration component forces all feature channels belonging to the same class to be concentrated through the channel cluster. The diversity components impose additional constraints on the channels through the mean distance coefficient, making them mutually exclusive in spatial dimensions. In the comparison experiments, the proposed method can achieve state-of-the-art performance on the public datasets, VCD, and VeRi, which are 96.1% and 96.2%, respectively. In addition, the ablation experiment further proves that SC-loss can effectively improve the accuracy of vehicle color recognition.

Keywords: feature extraction, convolutional neural networks, intelligent transportation, vehicle color recognition

Procedia PDF Downloads 67