Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3221

Search results for: Libyan manufacturing companies

3221 Quality Culture Framework Proposal for Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa Ahmed Shokshok

Abstract:

Libyan industrial companies face many challenges in today's competitive market. Quality management culture approaches is one of these challenges which may furnish the road to the Libyan industrial companies to effectively empower their employees and improve their ability to respond to the international competition. The primary objective of this paper is to design a practical approach to guide Libyan industrial companies toward successful quality culture implementation.

Keywords: TQM, quality culture, Libyan manufacturing industries, quality framework

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3220 Barriers Facing the Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Mohamed Abduelmula, Martin Birkett, Chris Connor

Abstract:

Lean Manufacturing has developed from being a set of tools and methods to becoming a management philosophy which can be used to remove or reduce waste in manufacturing processes and so enhance the operational productivity of an enterprise. Several enterprises around the world have applied the lean manufacturing system and gained great improvements. This paper investigates the barriers and obstacles that face Libyan manufacturing companies to implement lean manufacturing. A mixed-method approach is suggested, starting with conducting a questionnaire to get quantitative data then using this to develop semi-structured interviews to collect qualitative data. The findings of the questionnaire results and how these can be used further develop the semi-structured interviews are then discussed. The survey was distributed to 65 manufacturing companies in Libya, and a response rate of 64.6% was obtained. The results showed that these are five main barriers to implementing lean in Libya, namely organizational culture, skills and expertise, and training program, financial capability, top management, and communication. These barriers were also identified from the literature as being significant obstacles to implementing Lean in other countries industries. Having an understanding of the difficulties that face the implementation of lean manufacturing systems, as a new and modern system and using this to develop a suitable framework will help to improve the manufacturing sector in Libya.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, barriers, questionnaire, Libyan manufacturing companies

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3219 An Investigation of Quality Practices in Libyan Industrial Companies

Authors: Mostafa A. Shokshok, Omran Ali Abu Krais

Abstract:

This paper describes the collection and analysis of data obtained from face-to-face interviews conducted in selected Libyan industrial companies. The objectives of the interviews are to enhance understanding, and generate explanations of current issues in culture and quality management systems in Libyan companies. The method used in analyzing the questions, as well as the main finding of each question are explained. The interviews probed areas identify national and organizational culture, quality management systems, current methods, effects, barriers and other factors affecting the success of quality management implementation. Eleven questions are prepared and been discussed with the interviewees.

Keywords: interviews, quality, culture, Libyan industrial companies

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3218 Provision Electronic Management Requirements in Libyan Oil Companies

Authors: Hitham Yami

Abstract:

This study will focus primarily on assessing the availability requirements of the electronic management of oil companies in Libya, and the mean objectives of the research applying electronic management and make recommendations and steps to approach electronic management. There are limited research and statistical analysis to support electronic management in Libyan companies. The groundwork for the proposed approach is to develop independent variables and the dependent variables to be restructured after it Alntra side of the field and the side to get the data to achieve the desired results and solving the problem faced by the Libyan Oil Corporation. All these strategies are proposed to achieve the goal, and solving Libyan oil installations.

Keywords: oil company’s revenue, independent variables, electronic management, Libyan oil corporation

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3217 Identifying the Barriers behind the Lack of Six Sigma Use in Libyan Manufacturing Companies

Authors: Osama Elgadi, Martin Birkett, Wai Ming Cheung

Abstract:

This paper investigates the barriers behind the underutilisation of six sigma in Libyan manufacturing companies (LMCs). A mixed-method methodology is proposed, starting by conducting interviews to collect qualitative data followed by the development of a questionnaire to obtain quantitative data. The focus of this paper is on discussing the findings of the interview stage and how these can be used to further develop the questionnaire stage. The interview results showed that only four key barriers were highlighted as being encountered by LMCs. With a difference in terms of their significance, these factors were identified, and placed in descending order according to their importance, namely: “Lack of top management commitment”, “Lack of training”, “Lack of knowledge about six sigma”, and “Culture effect”. The findings also showed that some barriers which, were found in previous studies of six sigma implementation were not considered as barriers to LMCs but can, in fact, be considered as success factors or enablers for six sigma adoption. These factors were identified as: “sufficiency of time and financial resources”; “customers unsatisfied”; “good communication between all departments in the company”; “we are certain about its results and benefits to our company and unhappy with the current quality system”. These results suggest that LMCs face fewer barriers to adopting six sigma than many well-established global companies operating in other countries and could take advantage of these successful factors by developing and implementing a six sigma framework to improve their product quality and competitiveness.

Keywords: six sigma, barriers, Libyan manufacturing companies, interview

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3216 Rock Paintings with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

Abstract:

The rock paintings of Grande Kabylia contain a good number of Libyan inscriptions. Of the 54 sites discovered, 23 have inscriptions painted in red ocher. We find them in rock shelters, on blocks of sandstone in the northern part of Kabylia. Our job is to collect as many cave paintings as possible with Libyan inscriptions. Then we will make an analysis on the epigraphic level, the different forms of the characters and their frequencies. The other purpose of this research is to bring out the different characters used in these paintings and compare them with those of the Libyan steles of Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: Grande Kabylia, Libyan inscriptions, Libyan stele, rock paintings

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3215 Advanced Manufacturing Technology Adoption in Manufacturing Comapnies in Kenya

Authors: George Nyori Makari, J. M. Ogola

Abstract:

Over the past few decades, manufacturing has evolved from a more labor-intensive set of mechanical processes to a sophisticated set of information based technology processes. With the existence of various advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs), more and more functions or jobs are performed by these machines instead of human labour. This study was undertaken in order to research the extent of AMTs adoption in manufacturing companies in Kenya. In order to investigate a survey was conducted via questionnaires that were sent to 183 selected AMT manufacturing companies in Kenya. 92 companies responded positively. All the surveyed companies were found to have a measure of investment in at least two of the 14 types of AMTs investigated. In general the company surveyed showed that the level of AMT adoption in Kenya is very low with investments levels at a mean of 2.057 and integration levels at a mean of 1.639 in a scale of 1-5.

Keywords: AMT adoption, AMT investments, AMT integration, companies in Kenya

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3214 Analysis of Steles with Libyan Inscriptions of Grande Kabylia, Algeria

Authors: Samia Ait Ali Yahia

Abstract:

Several steles with Libyan inscriptions were discovered in Grande Kabylia (Algeria), but very few researchers were interested in these inscriptions. Our work is to list, if possible all these steles in order to do a descriptive study of the corpus. The steles analysis will be focused on the iconographic and epigraphic level and on the different forms of Libyan characters in order to highlight the alphabet used by the Grande Kabylia.

Keywords: epigraphy, stele, Libyan inscription, Grande Kabylia

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3213 Chemical Analysis of Available Portland Cement in Libyan Market Using X-Ray Fluorescence

Authors: M. A. Elbagermia, A. I. Alajtala, M. Alkerzab

Abstract:

This study compares the quality of different brands of Portland Cement (PC) available in Libyan market. The amounts of chemical constituents like SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, SO3, and Lime Saturation Factor (LSF) were determined in accordance with Libyan (L.S.S) and Amrican (A.S.S) Standard Specifications. All the cement studies were found to be good for concrete work especially where no special property is required. The chemical and mineralogical analyses for studied clinker samples show that the dominant phases composition are C3S and C2S while the C3A and C4AF are less abundant.

Keywords: Portland cement, chemical composition, Libyan market, X-Ray fluorescence

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3212 A Primer to the Learning Readiness Assessment to Raise the Sharing of E-Health Knowledge amongst Libyan Nurses

Authors: Mohamed Elhadi M. Sharif, Mona Masood

Abstract:

The usage of e-health facilities is seen to be the first priority by the Libyan government. As such, this paper focuses on how the key factors or elements of working size in terms of technological availability, structural environment, and other competence-related matters may affect nurses’ sharing of knowledge in e-health. Hence, this paper investigates learning readiness assessment to raise e-health for Libyan regional hospitals by using e-health services in nursing education.

Keywords: Libyan nurses, e-learning readiness, e-health, nursing education

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3211 Libyan Residents in Britain and Identity of Place

Authors: Intesar Ibrahim

Abstract:

Large-scale Libyan emigration is a relatively new phenomenon. Most of the Libyan families in the UK are new immigrants, unlike the other neighbouring countries of Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria and even Sudan. Libyans have no particular history of large-scale migration. On the other hand, many Libyan families live in modest homes located in large Muslim communities of Pakistanis and Yemenis. In the UK as a whole, there are currently 16 Libyan schools most of which are run during the weekend for children of school age. There are three such weekend schools in Sheffield that teach a Libyan school curriculum, and Libyan women and men run these schools. Further, there is also a Masjid (mosque) that is operated by Libyans, beside the other Masjids in the city, which most of the Libyan community attend for prayer and for other activities such as writing marriage contracts. The presence of this Masjid increases the attraction for Libyans to reside in the Sheffield area. This paper studies how Libyan immigrants in the UK make their decisions on their housing and living environment in the UK. Libyan residents in the UK come from different Libyan regions, social classes and lifestyles; this may have an impact on their choices in the interior designs of their houses in the UK. A number of case studies were chosen from Libyan immigrants who came from different types of dwellings in Libya, in order to compare with their homes and their community lifestyle in the UK and those in Libya. This study explores the meaning and the ways of using living rooms in Libyan emigrants’ houses in the UK and compares those with those in their houses back in their home country. For example, the way they set up furniture in rooms acts as an indicator of the hierarchical structure of society. The design of furniture for Libyan sitting rooms for floor-seating is different from that of the traditional English sitting room. The paper explores the identity and cultural differences that affected the style and design of the living rooms for Libyan immigrants in the UK. The study is carried out based on the "production of space" theory that any culture has its needs, style of living and way of thinking. I argue that the study found more than 70% of Libyan immigrants in the UK still furnish the living room in their traditional way (flooring seating).

Keywords: place, identity, culture, immigrants

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3210 Analysis of Chemical Composition of Raw Milk in Some Farms Animals in El Khoms, Libya

Authors: Dukali Abujnah

Abstract:

This study was undertaken to knowledge the chemical composition of some farm animals (cows ) by using ultrasonic milk analyzer. This method was used first time in our country in the field of milk hygiene to determine and comparison the composition percent of raw milk for farm animals as attempt to protect the health of consumers 240 raw milk samples for each species of animals included in this study for two different season of year first (Novembe 2014 - January 2015) , second from (May – Novembe2015) .The chemical analysis. In this way, a range of building suitable to put in the Libyan market product structures, and milk, for use as a new product or exposure to treatment such as pasteurized milk and long-life may be wider study project..Controls have been implemented in operating in Libya, companies which are part of the business created by the Libyan state. It was created only after the companies that made many of the studies and research carried out on areas of Libya which it was possible to intervene. Although troops spent in recent years, companies have not yet found their balance and milk production has not yet come to those set forth in the action plans, due to problems of various types that will be discussed in this study. We believe that these data have been taken in four years if analyzed properly, can provide more accurate information to farmers in their companies want to take dairy cattle breeding. The total bacterial count was 76 and 38 cfu/ml for locally produced and imported UHT milk respectively. Coliforms were negative for all examined locally produce and imported samples. E. coli were not isolated from any of the examined UHT samples. Aerobic spore-formers count mean count was 49 and 27 cfu/ml for both examined samples respectively. Obtained results show that most of the locally produced UHT milk does not satisfy the suggested Libyan Standards for UHT milk for fat% as well as total bacterial count/ml. Economical and public health importance of the obtained results were discussed, and control measures for improving the quality of UHT locally made milk were also discussed.

Keywords: locally, UHT milks, farms animals, raw milk analysis milk

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3209 A Framework for Successful TQM Implementation and Its Effect on the Organizational Sustainability Development

Authors: Redha Elhuni, M. Munir Ahmad

Abstract:

The main purpose of this research is to construct a generic model for successful implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) in oil sector, and to find out the effects of this model on the organizational sustainability development (OSD) performance of Libyan oil and gas companies using the structured equation modeling (SEM) approach. The research approach covers both quantitative and qualitative methods. A questionnaire was developed in order to identify the quality factors that are seen by Libyan oil and gas companies to be critical to the success of TQM implementation. Hypotheses were developed to evaluate the impact of TQM implementation on O SD. Data analysis reveals that there is a significant positive effect of the TQM implementation on OSD. 24 quality factors are found to be critical and absolutely essential for successful TQM implementation. The results generated a structure of the TQMSD implementation framework based on the four major road map constructs (Top management commitment, employee involvement and participation, customer-driven processes, and continuous improvement culture).

Keywords: total quality management, critical success factors, oil and gas, organizational sustainability development (SD), Libya

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3208 Comparative Analysis of Effect of Capital Structure to Profitability in Manufacturing Sector in Indonesia and Malaysia in 2009 - 2014

Authors: Hatane Semuel, Hartmann H. Ngono, Sautma R. Basana

Abstract:

The effect of capital structure on profitability is often debated by many financial investigators. The application of the trade-off theory and pecking order theory to analyze this relationship may generate different views. Each company has its own strategies to achieve its objectives and the external environment, such as state policy has a broad impact on the relationship with the capital structure of the company's profitability. Malaysia is the country closest to Indonesia that had a similar growth rate of GDP and industrial production with Indonesia, but Malaysia has lower inflation rate than Indonesia. This study was conducted to compare the performance of manufacturing sector between two countries when entering the era of the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC). The samples for this study were 69 companies in Indonesia and 242 companies in Malaysia that engaged in manufacturing sector. The study uses panel data analysis. The study found that the capital structure have positive effect on profitability of manufacturing company in Indonesia, and it turns to negative effect on manufacturing companies in Malaysia. The results also showed that there are significant differences in short-term debt towards profitability of manufacturing companies in the two countries Indonesia and Malaysia.

Keywords: capital structure, Indonesia, Malaysia, manufacturing, profitability

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3207 Cross-Cultural Pragmatics: Apology Strategies by Libyans

Authors: Ahmed Elgadri

Abstract:

In the last thirty years, studies on cross-cultural pragmatics in general and apology strategies in specific have focused on western and East-Asian societies. A small volume of research has been conducted in investigating speech acts production by Arabic dialect speakers. Therefore, this study investigated the apology strategies used by Libyan Arabic speakers using an online Discourse Completion Task (DCT) questionnaire. The DCT consisted of six situations covering different social contexts. The survey was written in Libyan Arabic dialect to help generate vernacular speech as much as possible. The participants were 25 Libyan nationals, 12 females, and 13 males. Also, to get a deeper understanding of the motivation behind the use of certain strategies, the researcher interviewed four participants using the Libyan Arabic dialect as well. The results revealed a high use of IFID, offer of repair, and explanation. Although this might support the universality claim of speech acts strategies, it was clear that cultural norms and religion determined the choice of apology strategies significantly. This led to the discovery of new culture-specific strategies, as outlined later in this paper. This study gives an insight into politeness strategies in Libyan society, and it is hoped to contribute to the field of cross-cultural pragmatics.

Keywords: apologies, cross-cultural pragmatics, language and culture, Libyan Arabic, politeness, pragmatics, socio-pragmatics, speech acts

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3206 Understand the Concept of Agility for the Manufacturing SMEs

Authors: Adel H. Hejaaji

Abstract:

The need for organisations to be flexible to meet the rapidly changing requirements of their customers is now well appreciated and can be witnessed within companies with their use of techniques such as single-minute exchange of die (SMED) for machine change-over or Kanban as the visual production and inventory control for Just-in-time manufacture and delivery. What is not so well appreciated by companies is the need for agility. Put simply it is the need to be alert for a new and unexpected opportunity and quick to respond with the changes necessary in order to profit from it. This paper aims to study the literature of agility in manufacturing to understand the concept of agility and how it is important and critical for the small and medium size manufacturing organisations (SMEs), and to defined the specific benefits of moving towards agility, and thus what benefit it can bring to an organisation.

Keywords: SMEs, agile manufacturing, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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3205 Investigating the Use of Advanced Manufacturing Technologies in the Assembly Type Manufacturing Companies in Trinidad and Tobago

Authors: Nadine Sangster, Akil James, Rondell Duke, Aaron Ameerali, Terrence Lalla

Abstract:

The market place of the 21st century is evolving into one of merging national markets, fragmented consumer markets, and rapidly changing product technologies. The use of new technologies has become vital to the manufacturing industry for their survival and sustainability. This work focused on the assembly type industry in a small developing country and aimed at identifying the use of advanced manufacturing technologies and their impact on this sector of the manufacturing industry. It was found that some technologies were being used and that they had improved the effectiveness of those companies but there was still quite a bit of room for improvements. Some of the recommendations included benchmarking against international standards, the adoption of a “made in TT” campaign and the effective utilisation of the technologies to improve manufacturing effectiveness and thus improve competitive advantages and strategies.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing technology, Trinidad and Tobago, manufacturing, industrial engineering

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3204 A Lean Manufacturing Profile of Practices in the Metallurgical Industry: A Methodology for Multivariate Analysis

Authors: M. Jonathan D. Morales, R. Ramón Silva

Abstract:

The purpose of this project is to carry out an analysis and determine the profile of actual lean manufacturing processes in the Metropolitan Area of Bucaramanga. Through the analysis of qualitative and quantitative variables it was possible to establish how these manufacturers develop production practices that ensure their competitiveness and productivity in the market. In this study, a random sample of metallurgic and wrought iron companies was applied, following which a quantitative focus and analysis was used to formulate a qualitative methodology for measuring the level of lean manufacturing procedures in the industry. A qualitative evaluation was also carried out through a multivariate analysis using the Numerical Taxonomy System (NTSYS) program which should allow for the determination of Lean Manufacturing profiles. Through the results it was possible to observe how the companies in the sector are doing with respect to Lean Manufacturing Practices, as well as identify the level of management that these companies practice with respect to this topic. In addition, it was possible to ascertain that there is no one dominant profile in the sector when it comes to Lean Manufacturing. It was established that the companies in the metallurgic and wrought iron industry show low levels of Lean Manufacturing implementation. Each one carries out diverse actions that are insufficient to consolidate a sectoral strategy for developing a competitive advantage which enables them to tie together a production strategy.

Keywords: production line management, metallurgic industry, lean manufacturing, productivity

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3203 The Impact of Business Process Reengineering to the Company Performance through TQM and Enterprise Resource Planning Implementation on Manufacturing Companies in East Java, Indonesia

Authors: Widjojo Suprapto, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan, Sautma Ronni Basana

Abstract:

Business process reengineering can be conducted by some procedure rationalization for all related departments in a company so that all data and business processes are connected. The changing of any business process is used to set up the working standard so that it gives an impact to the implementation of ERP and the company performance. After collecting and processing the data from 77 manufacturing companies, it is obtained that BPR (Business Process Reengineering) has no direct impact on the implementation of ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning) in the companies and manufacturing performance; however, it influences the implementation of TQM. The implementation of TQM influences directly the implementation of ERP, but it does not influence directly the company performance. The implementation of ERP gives a significant increase in the work performance of the manufacturing companies in East Java.

Keywords: enterprise resources planning, business process reengineering, TQM, company performance

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3202 Cash Flow Position and Corporate Performance: A Study of Selected Manufacturing Companies in Nigeria

Authors: Uzoma Emmanuel Igboji

Abstract:

The study investigates the effects of cash flow position on corporate performance in the manufacturing sector of Nigeria, using multiple regression techniques. The study involved a survey of five (5) manufacturing companies quoted on the Nigerian Stock Exchange. The data were obtained from the annual reports of the selected companies under study. The result shows that operating and financing cash flow have a significant positive relationship with corporate performance, while investing cash flow position have a significant negative relationship. The researcher recommended that the regulatory authorities should encourage external auditors of these quoted companies to use cash flow ratios in evaluating the performance of a company before expressing an independent opinion on the financial statement. The will give detailed financial information to existing and potential investors to make informed economic decisions.

Keywords: cash flow, financing, performance, operating

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3201 The Impacts of Soft and Hard Enterprise Resource Planning to the Corporate Business Performance through the Enterprise Resource Planning Integrated System

Authors: Sautma Ronni Basana, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan, Widjojo Suprapto

Abstract:

Companies have already implemented the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system to increase the data integration so that they can improve their business performance. Although some companies have managed to implement the ERP well, they still need to improve gradually so that the ERP functions can be optimized. To obtain a faster and more accurate data, the key users and IT department have to customize the process to suit the needs of the company. In reality, sustaining the ERP technology system requires soft and hard ERP so it enables to improve the business performance of the company. Soft and hard ERP are needed to build a tough system to ensure the integration among departments running smoothly. This research has three questions. First, is the soft ERP bringing impacts to the hard ERP and system integration. Then, is the hard ERP having impacts to the system integration. Finally, is the business performance of the manufacturing companies is affected by the soft ERP, hard ERP, and system integration. The questionnaires are distributed to 100 manufacturing companies in East Java, and are collected from 90 companies which have implemented the ERP, with the response rate of 90%. From the data analysis using PLS program, it is obtained that the soft ERP brings positive impacts to the hard ERP and system integration for the companies. Then, the hard ERP brings also positive impacts to the system integration. Finally, the business process performance of the manufacturing companies is affected by the system integration, soft ERP, and hard ERP simultaneously.

Keywords: soft ERP, hard ERP, system integration, business performance

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3200 Support of Knowledge Sharing in Manufacturing Companies: A Case Study

Authors: Zuzana Crhová, Karel Kolman, Drahomíra Pavelková

Abstract:

Knowledge is considered as an important asset which can help organizations to create competitive advantage. The necessity of taking care of these assets is more important in these days – in days of turbulent changes in business environment. Knowledge could facilitate adaption to constant changes. The aim of this paper is to describe how the knowledge sharing can be supported in the manufacturing companies. The methods of case studies and grounded theory were used to present information gained by carrying out semi-structured interviews. Results show that knowledge sharing is supported in very similar ways in respondent companies.

Keywords: case study, human resource management, knowledge, knowledge sharing

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3199 Determination of Cadmium , Lead, Nickel, and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni, and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: tea, infusion, metals, Libya

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3198 Identification of Factors and Impacts on the Success of Implementing Extended Enterprise Resource Planning: Case Study of Manufacturing Industries in East Java, Indonesia

Authors: Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan, Sautma Ronni Basana, Widjojo Suprapto

Abstract:

The ERP is integrating all data from various departments within the company into one data base. One department inputs the data and many other departments can access and use the data through the connected information system. As many manufacturing companies in Indonesia implement the ERP technology, many adjustments are to be made to align with the business process in the companies, especially the management policy and the competitive advantages. For companies that are successful in the initial implementation, they still have to maintain the process so that the initial success can develop along with the changing of business processes of the company. For companies which have already implemented the ERP successfully, they are still in need to maintain the system so that it can match up with the business development and changes. The continued success of the extended ERP implementation aims to achieve efficient and effective performance for the company. This research is distributing 100 questionnaires to manufacturing companies in East Java, Indonesia, which have implemented and have going live ERP for over five years. There are 90 returned questionnaires with ten disqualified questionnaires because they are from companies that implement ERP less than five years. There are only 80 questionnaires used as the data, with the response rate of 80%. Based on the data results and analysis with PLS (Partial Least Square), it is obtained that the organization commitment brings impacts to the user’s effectiveness and provides the adequate IT infrastructure. The user’s effectiveness brings impacts to the adequate IT infrastructure. The information quality of the company increases the implementation of the extended ERP in manufacturing companies in East Java, Indonesia.

Keywords: organization commitment, adequate IT infrastructure, information quality, extended ERP implementation

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3197 Determination of Lead , Cadmium, Nickel and Zinc in Some Green Tea Samples Collected from Libyan Markets

Authors: Jamal A. Mayouf, Hashim Salih Al Bayati, Eltayeb M. Emmima

Abstract:

Green tea is one of the most common drinks in all cities of Libyan. Heavy metal contents such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) were determined in four green tea samples collected from Libyan market and their tea infusions by using atomic emission spectrophotometry after acid digestion. The results obtained indicate that the concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea infusions samples ranged from 0.07-0.12, 0.19-0.28, 0.09-0.15, 0.18-0.43 mg/l after boiling for 5 min., 0.06-0.08, 0.18-0.23, 0.08-0.14, 0.17-0.27 mg/l after boiling for 10 min., 0.07-0.11, 0.18-0.24, 0.08-0.14, 0.21-0.34 mg/l after boiling for 15 min. respectively. On the other hand, the concentrations of the same element mentioned above obtained in tea leaves ranged from 6.0-18.0, 36.0-42.0, 16.0-20.0, 44.0-132.0 mg/kg respectively. The concentrations of Cd, Pb, Ni and Zn in tea leaves samples were higher than Prevention of Food Adulteration (PFA) limit and World Health Organization(WHO) permissible limit.

Keywords: boiling, infusion, metals, tea

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3196 Role of Senior Management in Implementing Lean Manufacturing Practices: A Study of Manufacturing Companies of Pakistan

Authors: Saima Yaqoob

Abstract:

Due to advancement in technologies and cutting cost competition, especially in manufacturing business, organizations are now becoming more focused toward achieving exceptional quality standards with low manufacturing cost. In this concern, many process improvement strategies are becoming popular in the way of increasing productivity and output. Lean manufacturing principles are among one of them, increasingly used for improving productivity by reducing wastages. Many success factors are involved in lean implementation. But, the role of senior management is most important in developing the lean culture in an organization. Purpose of this study is to investigate the perception of executive level management related to the successful implementation of lean practices and its comparison with the existing practices in the organization. In order to collect data, survey questionnaire comprised of eight statements rendering the critical success factors were sent to the top management of fifty (50) automotive manufacturing companies of Karachi. After analyzing their feedbacks, the trend of lean manufacturing principles and the commitment of senior management toward its implementation was identified in the manufacturing industries of Karachi, Pakistan.

Keywords: lean manufacturing, process improvement, senior management, perception, involvement, waste reduction

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3195 Integrating Carbon Footprint into Supply Chain Management of Manufacturing Companies: Sri Lanka

Authors: Shirekha Layangani, Suneth Dharmaparakrama

Abstract:

When the manufacturing industry is concerned the Environment Management System (EMS) is a common term. Currently most organizations have obtained the environmental standard certification, ISO 14001. In the Sri Lankan context even though the organizations adopt Environmental Management, a very limited number of companies tend to calculate their Carbon Footprints. This research discusses the demotivating factors of manufacturing organizations in Sri Lanka to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. Further it also identifies the benefits that manufacturing organizations can gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The manufacturing companies listed under “ISO 14001” certification were considered in this study in order to investigate the problems mentioned above. 100% enumeration was used when the surveys were carried out. In order to gather essential data two surveys were designed to be done among manufacturing organizations that are currently engaged in calculating their carbon footprint and the organizations that have not. The survey among the first set of manufacturing organizations revealed the benefits the organizations were able to gain by implementing calculation of carbon footprint. The latter set organizations revealed the demotivating factors that have influenced not to integrate calculation of carbon footprint into their supply chains. This paper has summarized the results obtained by the surveys and segregated depending on the market share of the manufacturing organizations. Further it has indicated the benefits that can be obtained by implementing carbon footprint calculation, depending on the market share of the manufacturing entity. Finally the research gives suggestions to manufacturing organizations on applicability of adopting carbon footprint calculation depending on the benefits that can be obtained.

Keywords: carbon footprint, environmental management systems (EMS), benefits of carbon footprint, ISO14001

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3194 Implementation of Lean Manufacturing in Some Companies in Colombia: A Case Study

Authors: Natalia Marulanda, Henry González, Gonzalo León, Alejandro Hincapié

Abstract:

Continuous improvement tools are the result of a set of studies that developed theories and methodologies. These methodologies enable organizations to increase their levels of efficiency, effectiveness, and productivity. Based on these methodologies, lean manufacturing philosophy, which is based on the optimization of resources, waste disposal, and generation of value to products and services, was developed. Lean application has been massive globally, but Colombian companies have been made it incipiently. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to identify the impacts generated by the implementation of lean manufacturing tools in five companies located in Colombia and Medellín metropolitan area. It also seeks to make a comparison of the results obtained from the implementation of lean philosophy and Theory of Constraints. The methodology is qualitative and quantitative, is based on the case study interview from dialogue with the leaders of the processes that used lean tools. The most used tools by research companies are 5's with 100% and TPM with 80%. The less used tool is the synchronous production with 20%. The main reason for the implementation of lean was supply chain management with 83.3%. For the application of lean and TOC, we did not find significant differences between the impact, in terms of methodology, areas of application, staff initiatives, supply chain management, planning, and training.

Keywords: business strategy, lean manufacturing, theory of constraints, supply chain

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3193 ELD79-LGD2006 Transformation Techniques Implementation and Accuracy Comparison in Tripoli Area, Libya

Authors: Jamal A. Gledan, Othman A. Azzeidani

Abstract:

During the last decade, Libya established a new Geodetic Datum called Libyan Geodetic Datum 2006 (LGD 2006) by using GPS, whereas the ground traversing method was used to establish the last Libyan datum which was called the Europe Libyan Datum 79 (ELD79). The current research paper introduces ELD79 to LGD2006 coordinate transformation technique, the accurate comparison of transformation between multiple regression equations and the three-parameters model (Bursa-Wolf). The results had been obtained show that the overall accuracy of stepwise multi regression equations is better than that can be determined by using Bursa-Wolf transformation model.

Keywords: geodetic datum, horizontal control points, traditional similarity transformation model, unconventional transformation techniques

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3192 Optimization of Manufacturing Process Parameters: An Empirical Study from Taiwan's Tech Companies

Authors: Chao-Ton Su, Li-Fei Chen

Abstract:

The parameter design is crucial to improving the uniformity of a product or process. In the product design stage, parameter design aims to determine the optimal settings for the parameters of each element in the system, thereby minimizing the functional deviations of the product. In the process design stage, parameter design aims to determine the operating settings of the manufacturing processes so that non-uniformity in manufacturing processes can be minimized. The parameter design, trying to minimize the influence of noise on the manufacturing system, plays an important role in the high-tech companies. Taiwan has many well-known high-tech companies, which show key roles in the global economy. Quality remains the most important factor that enables these companies to sustain their competitive advantage. In Taiwan however, many high-tech companies face various quality problems. A common challenge is related to root causes and defect patterns. In the R&D stage, root causes are often unknown, and defect patterns are difficult to classify. Additionally, data collection is not easy. Even when high-volume data can be collected, data interpretation is difficult. To overcome these challenges, high-tech companies in Taiwan use more advanced quality improvement tools. In addition to traditional statistical methods and quality tools, the new trend is the application of powerful tools, such as neural network, fuzzy theory, data mining, industrial engineering, operations research, and innovation skills. In this study, several examples of optimizing the parameter settings for the manufacturing process in Taiwan’s tech companies will be presented to illustrate proposed approach’s effectiveness. Finally, a discussion of using traditional experimental design versus the proposed approach for process optimization will be made.

Keywords: quality engineering, parameter design, neural network, genetic algorithm, experimental design

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