Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 826

Search results for: LSQ dimension

826 Lacunarity measures on Mammographic Image Applying Fractal Dimension and Lacunarity Measures

Authors: S. Sushma, S. Balasubramanian, K. C. Latha, R. Sridhar


Structural texture measures are used to address the aspect of breast cancer risk assessment in screening mammograms. The current study investigates whether texture properties characterized by local Fractal Dimension (FD) and lacunarity contribute to assess breast cancer risk. Fractal Dimension represents the complexity while the lacunarity characterize the gap of a fractal dimension. In this paper, we present our result confirming that the lacunarity value resulted in algorithm using mammogram images states that level of lacunarity will be low when the Fractal Dimension value will be high.

Keywords: breast cancer, fractal dimension, image analysis, lacunarity, mammogram

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825 Box Counting Dimension of the Union L of Trinomial Curves When α ≥ 1

Authors: Kaoutar Lamrini Uahabi, Mohamed Atounti


In the present work, we consider one category of curves denoted by L(p, k, r, n). These curves are continuous arcs which are trajectories of roots of the trinomial equation zn = αzk + (1 − α), where z is a complex number, n and k are two integers such that 1 ≤ k ≤ n − 1 and α is a real parameter greater than 1. Denoting by L the union of all trinomial curves L(p, k, r, n) and using the box counting dimension as fractal dimension, we will prove that the dimension of L is equal to 3/2.

Keywords: feasible angles, fractal dimension, Minkowski sausage, trinomial curves, trinomial equation

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824 Introduction of Artificial Intelligence for Estimating Fractal Dimension and Its Applications in the Medical Field

Authors: Zerroug Abdelhamid, Danielle Chassoux


Various models are given to simulate homogeneous or heterogeneous cancerous tumors and extract in each case the boundary. The fractal dimension is then estimated by least squares method and compared to some previous methods.

Keywords: simulation, cancerous tumor, Markov fields, fractal dimension, extraction, recovering

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
823 Relation between Energy Absorption and Box Dimension of Rock Fragments under Impact Loading

Authors: Li Hung-Hui, Chen Chi-Chieh, Yang Zon-Yee


This study aims to explore the impact energy absorption in the fragmented processes of rock samples during the split-Hopkinson-pressure-bar tests. Three kinds of rock samples including granite, marble and sandstone were tested. The impact energy absorptions were calculated according to the incident, reflected and transmitted strain wave histories measured by a oscilloscope. The degree of fragment rocks after tests was quantified by the box dimension of the fractal theory. The box dimension of rock fragments was obtained from the particle size distribution curve by the sieve analysis. The results can be concluded that: (1) the degree of rock fragments after tests can be well described by the value of box dimension; (2) with the impact energy absorption increasing, the degrees of rock fragments are varied from the very large fragments to very small fragments, and the corresponding box dimension varies from 2.9 to 1.2.

Keywords: SHPB test, energy absorption, rock fragments, impact loading, box dimension

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
822 Metric Dimension on Line Graph of Honeycomb Networks

Authors: M. Hussain, Aqsa Farooq


Let G = (V,E) be a connected graph and distance between any two vertices a and b in G is a−b geodesic and is denoted by d(a, b). A set of vertices W resolves a graph G if each vertex is uniquely determined by its vector of distances to the vertices in W. A metric dimension of G is the minimum cardinality of a resolving set of G. In this paper line graph of honeycomb network has been derived and then we calculated the metric dimension on line graph of honeycomb network.

Keywords: Resolving set, Metric dimension, Honeycomb network, Line graph

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821 The Introduction of the Revolution Einstein’s Relative Energy Equations in Even 2n and Odd 3n Light Dimension Energy States Systems

Authors: Jiradeach Kalayaruan, Tosawat Seetawan


This paper studied the energy of the nature systems by looking at the overall image throughout the universe. The energy of the nature systems was developed from the Einstein’s energy equation. The researcher used the new ideas called even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, which were developed from Einstein’s relativity energy theory equation. In this study, the major methodology the researchers used was the basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, or Tao in order to get new discoveries. The basic beliefs of each religion - Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao respectively, were great influential ideas on the researchers to use them greatly in the study to form new ideas from philosophy. Since the philosophy of each religion was alive with deep insight of the physical nature relative energy, it connected the basic beliefs to light dimension energy states systems. Unfortunately, Einstein’s original relative energy equation showed only even 2n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). But in advance ideas, the researchers multiplied light dimension energy by Einstein’s original relative energy equation and get new idea of theoritical physics in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞). Because from basic principle ideas or beliefs of some religions philosophy of each religion, you had to add the media light dimension energy into Einstein’s original relative energy equation. Consequently, the simple meaning picture in deep insight showed that you could touch light dimension energy of Nivara, God, Ether, Atman, and Tao by light dimension energy. Since light dimension energy was transferred by Nivara, God, Ether, Atman and Tao, the researchers got the new equation of odd 3n light dimension energy states systems. Moreover, the researchers expected to be able to solve overview problems of all light dimension energy in all nature relative energy, which are developed from Eistein’s relative energy equation.The finding of the study was called 'super nature relative energy' ( in odd 3n light dimension energy states systems (if n = 1,…,∞)). From the new ideas above you could do the summation of even 2n and odd 3n light dimension energy states systems in all of nature light dimension energy states systems. In the future time, the researchers will expect the new idea to be used in insight theoretical physics, which is very useful to the development of quantum mechanics, all engineering, medical profession, transportation, communication, scientific inventions, and technology, etc.

Keywords: 2n light dimension energy states systems effect, Ether, even 2n light dimension energy states systems, nature relativity, Nivara, odd 3n light dimension energy states systems, perturbation points energy, relax point energy states systems, stress perturbation energy states systems effect, super relative energy

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820 A Review of Fractal Dimension Computing Methods Applied to Wear Particles

Authors: Manish Kumar Thakur, Subrata Kumar Ghosh


Various types of particles found in lubricant may be characterized by their fractal dimension. Some of the available methods are: yard-stick method or structured walk method, box-counting method. This paper presents a review of the developments and progress in fractal dimension computing methods as applied to characteristics the surface of wear particles. An overview of these methods, their implementation, their advantages and their limits is also present here. It has been accepted that wear particles contain major information about wear and friction of materials. Morphological analysis of wear particles from a lubricant is a very effective way for machine condition monitoring. Fractal dimension methods are used to characterize the morphology of the found particles. It is very useful in the analysis of complexity of irregular substance. The aim of this review is to bring together the fractal methods applicable for wear particles.

Keywords: fractal dimension, morphological analysis, wear, wear particles

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819 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor


Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: fractals, histopathological analysis, image processing, lung cancer, Minkowski dimension

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818 Fractal Analysis of Some Bifurcations of Discrete Dynamical Systems in Higher Dimensions

Authors: Lana Horvat Dmitrović


The main purpose of this paper is to study the box dimension as fractal property of bifurcations of discrete dynamical systems in higher dimensions. The paper contains the fractal analysis of the orbits near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points in discrete dynamical systems. It is already known that in one-dimensional case the orbit near the hyperbolic fixed point has the box dimension equal to zero. On the other hand, the orbit near the non-hyperbolic fixed point has strictly positive box dimension which is connected to the non-degeneracy condition of certain bifurcation. One of the main results in this paper is the generalisation of results about box dimension near the hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic fixed points to higher dimensions. In the process of determining box dimension, the restriction of systems to stable, unstable and center manifolds, Lipschitz property of box dimension and the notion of projective box dimension are used. The analysis of the bifurcations in higher dimensions with one multiplier on the unit circle is done by using the normal forms on one-dimensional center manifolds. This specific change in box dimension of an orbit at the moment of bifurcation has already been explored for some bifurcations in one and two dimensions. It was shown that specific values of box dimension are connected to appropriate bifurcations such as fold, flip, cusp or Neimark-Sacker bifurcation. This paper further explores this connection of box dimension as fractal property to some specific bifurcations in higher dimensions, such as fold-flip and flip-Neimark-Sacker. Furthermore, the application of the results to the unit time map of continuous dynamical system near hyperbolic and non-hyperbolic singularities is presented. In that way, box dimensions which are specific for certain bifurcations of continuous systems can be obtained. The approach to bifurcation analysis by using the box dimension as specific fractal property of orbits can lead to better understanding of bifurcation phenomenon. It could also be useful in detecting the existence or nonexistence of bifurcations of discrete and continuous dynamical systems.

Keywords: bifurcation, box dimension, invariant manifold, orbit near fixed point

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817 A Note on the Fractal Dimension of Mandelbrot Set and Julia Sets in Misiurewicz Points

Authors: O. Boussoufi, K. Lamrini Uahabi, M. Atounti


The main purpose of this paper is to calculate the fractal dimension of some Julia Sets and Mandelbrot Set in the Misiurewicz Points. Using Matlab to generate the Julia Sets images that match the Misiurewicz points and using a Fractal software, we were able to find different measures that characterize those fractals in textures and other features. We are actually focusing on fractal dimension and the error calculated by the software. When executing the given equation of regression or the log-log slope of image a Box Counting method is applied to the entire image, and chosen settings are available in a FracLAc Program. Finally, a comparison is done for each image corresponding to the area (boundary) where Misiurewicz Point is located.

Keywords: box counting, FracLac, fractal dimension, Julia Sets, Mandelbrot Set, Misiurewicz Points

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816 Discover a New Technique for Cancer Recognition by Analysis and Determination of Fractal Dimension Images in Matlab Software

Authors: Saeedeh Shahbazkhany


Cancer is a terrible disease that, if not diagnosed early, therapy can be difficult while it is easily medicable if it is diagnosed in early stages. So it is very important for cancer diagnosis that medical procedures are performed. In this paper we introduce a new method. In this method, we only need pictures of healthy cells and cancer cells. In fact, where we suspect cancer, we take a picture of cells or tissue in that area, and then take some pictures of the surrounding tissues. Then, fractal dimension of images are calculated and compared. Cancer can be easily detected by comparing the fractal dimension of images. In this method, we use Matlab software.

Keywords: Matlab software, fractal dimension, cancer, surrounding tissues, cells or tissue, new method

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
815 Mathematical Based Forecasting of Heart Attack

Authors: Razieh Khalafi


Myocardial infarction (MI) or acute myocardial infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analyzing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behavior of these signals were checked. Results shows this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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814 A New Mathematical Method for Heart Attack Forecasting

Authors: Razi Khalafi


Myocardial Infarction (MI) or acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow stops to part of the heart causing damage to the heart muscle. An ECG can often show evidence of a previous heart attack or one that's in progress. The patterns on the ECG may indicate which part of your heart has been damaged, as well as the extent of the damage. In chaos theory, the correlation dimension is a measure of the dimensionality of the space occupied by a set of random points, often referred to as a type of fractal dimension. In this research by considering ECG signal as a random walk we work on forecasting the oncoming heart attack by analysing the ECG signals using the correlation dimension. In order to test the model a set of ECG signals for patients before and after heart attack was used and the strength of model for forecasting the behaviour of these signals were checked. Results show this methodology can forecast the ECG and accordingly heart attack with high accuracy.

Keywords: heart attack, ECG, random walk, correlation dimension, forecasting

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813 Optimal Feature Extraction Dimension in Finger Vein Recognition Using Kernel Principal Component Analysis

Authors: Amir Hajian, Sepehr Damavandinejadmonfared


In this paper the issue of dimensionality reduction is investigated in finger vein recognition systems using kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA). One aspect of KPCA is to find the most appropriate kernel function on finger vein recognition as there are several kernel functions which can be used within PCA-based algorithms. In this paper, however, another side of PCA-based algorithms -particularly KPCA- is investigated. The aspect of dimension of feature vector in PCA-based algorithms is of importance especially when it comes to the real-world applications and usage of such algorithms. It means that a fixed dimension of feature vector has to be set to reduce the dimension of the input and output data and extract the features from them. Then a classifier is performed to classify the data and make the final decision. We analyze KPCA (Polynomial, Gaussian, and Laplacian) in details in this paper and investigate the optimal feature extraction dimension in finger vein recognition using KPCA.

Keywords: biometrics, finger vein recognition, principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)

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812 The Effects of Affective Dimension of Face on Facial Attractiveness

Authors: Kyung-Ja Cho, Sun Jin Park


This study examined what effective dimension affects facial attractiveness. Two orthogonal dimensions, sharp-soft and babyish-mature, were used to rate the levels of facial attractiveness in 20’s women. This research also investigated the sex difference on the effect of effective dimension of face on attractiveness. The test subjects composed of 15 males and 18 females. They looked 330 photos of women in 20s. Then they rated the levels of the effective dimensions of faces with sharp-soft and babyish-mature, and the attraction with charmless-charming. The respond forms were Likert scales, the answer was scored from 1 to 9. As a result of multiple regression analysis, the subject reported the milder and younger appearance as more attractive. Both male and female subjects showed the same evaluation. This result means that two effective dimensions have the effect on estimating attractiveness.

Keywords: affective dimension of faces, facial attractiveness, sharp-soft, babyish-mature

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811 Using of the Fractal Dimensions for the Analysis of Hyperkinetic Movements in the Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Sadegh Marzban, Mohamad Sobhan Sheikh Andalibi, Farnaz Ghassemi, Farzad Towhidkhah


Parkinson's disease (PD), which is characterized by the tremor at rest, rigidity, akinesia or bradykinesia and postural instability, affects the quality of life of involved individuals. The concept of a fractal is most often associated with irregular geometric objects that display self-similarity. Fractal dimension (FD) can be used to quantify the complexity and the self-similarity of an object such as tremor. In this work, we are aimed to propose a new method for evaluating hyperkinetic movements such as tremor, by using the FD and other correlated parameters in patients who are suffered from PD. In this study, we used 'the tremor data of Physionet'. The database consists of fourteen participants, diagnosed with PD including six patients with high amplitude tremor and eight patients with low amplitude. We tried to extract features from data, which can distinguish between patients before and after medication. We have selected fractal dimensions, including correlation dimension, box dimension, and information dimension. Lilliefors test has been used for normality test. Paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed rank test were also done to find differences between patients before and after medication, depending on whether the normality is detected or not. In addition, two-way ANOVA was used to investigate the possible association between the therapeutic effects and features extracted from the tremor. Just one of the extracted features showed significant differences between patients before and after medication. According to the results, correlation dimension was significantly different before and after the patient's medication (p=0.009). Also, two-way ANOVA demonstrates significant differences just in medication effect (p=0.033), and no significant differences were found between subject's differences (p=0.34) and interaction (p=0.97). The most striking result emerged from the data is that correlation dimension could quantify medication treatment based on tremor. This study has provided a technique to evaluate a non-linear measure for quantifying medication, nominally the correlation dimension. Furthermore, this study supports the idea that fractal dimension analysis yields additional information compared with conventional spectral measures in the detection of poor prognosis patients.

Keywords: correlation dimension, non-linear measure, Parkinson’s disease, tremor

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810 The Effect of Soil Fractal Dimension on the Performance of Cement Stabilized Soil

Authors: Nkiru I. Ibeakuzie, Paul D. J. Watson, John F. Pescatore


In roadway construction, the cost of soil-cement stabilization per unit area is significantly influenced by the binder content, hence the need to optimise cement usage. This research work will characterize the influence of soil fractal geometry on properties of cement-stabilized soil, and strive to determine a correlation between mechanical proprieties of cement-stabilized soil and the mass fractal dimension Dₘ indicated by particle size distribution (PSD) of aggregate mixtures. Since strength development in cemented soil relies not only on cement content but also on soil PSD, this study will investigate the possibility of reducing cement content by changing the PSD of soil, without compromising on strength, reduced permeability, and compressibility. A series of soil aggregate mixes will be prepared in the laboratory. The mass fractal dimension Dₘ of each mix will be determined from sieve analysis data prior to stabilization with cement. Stabilized soil samples will be tested for strength, permeability, and compressibility.

Keywords: fractal dimension, particle size distribution, cement stabilization, cement content

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809 Effect of Model Dimension in Numerical Simulation on Assessment of Water Inflow to Tunnel in Discontinues Rock

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Homayoon Katibeh


Groundwater inflow to the tunnels is one of the most important problems in tunneling operation. The objective of this study is the investigation of model dimension effects on tunnel inflow assessment in discontinuous rock masses using numerical modeling. In the numerical simulation, the model dimension has an important role in prediction of water inflow rate. When the model dimension is very small, due to low distance to the tunnel border, the model boundary conditions affect the estimated amount of groundwater flow into the tunnel and results show a very high inflow to tunnel. Hence, in this study, the two-dimensional universal distinct element code (UDEC) used and the impact of different model parameters, such as tunnel radius, joint spacing, horizontal and vertical model domain extent has been evaluated. Results show that the model domain extent is a function of the most significant parameters, which are tunnel radius and joint spacing.

Keywords: water inflow, tunnel, discontinues rock, numerical simulation

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808 The Effect of Using the Active Learning on Achievement and Attitudes toward Studying the Human Rights Course for the Bahrain Teachers College Students

Authors: Abdelbaky Abouzeid


The study aimed at determining the effect of using the active learning on achievement and attitudes toward studying the human rights course for the Bahrain Teachers College students and the extent to which any differences of statistical significance according to gender and section can exist. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed and implemented research tools such as academic achievement test and the scale of attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course. The scale of attitudes towards Human Rights was constructed of 40 items investigating four dimensions; the cognitive dimension, the behavioral dimension, the affective dimension, and course quality dimension. The researcher then applied some of the active learning strategies in teaching this course to all students of the first year of the Bahrain Teachers College (102 male and female students) after excluding two students who did not complete the course requirements. Students were divided into five groups. These strategies included interactive lecturing, presentations, role playing, group projects, simulation, brainstorming, concept maps and mind maps, reflection and think-pair-share. The course was introduced to students during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The study findings revealed that the use of active learning strategies affected the achievement of students of Bahrain Teachers College in the Human Rights course. The results of the T-test showed statistically significant differences on the pre-test and post-test in favor of the post-test. No statistically significant differences in the achievement of students according to the section and gender were found. The results also indicated that the use of active learning strategies had a positive effect on students' attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course on all the scale’s items. The general average reached (4.26) and the percentage reached (85.19%). Regarding the effect of using active learning strategies on students’ attitudes towards all the four dimensions of the scale, the study concluded that the behavioral dimension came first; the quality of the course came second, the cognitive dimension came third and in the fourth place came the affective dimension. No statistically significant differences in the attitude towards studying the Human Rights Course for the students according to their sections or gender were found. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers suggested some recommendations that can contribute to the development of teaching Human Rights Course at the University of Bahrain.

Keywords: attitudes, academic achievement, human rights, behavioral dimension, cognitive dimension, affective dimension, quality of the course

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807 Regularities of Changes in the Fractal Dimension of Acoustic Emission Signals in the Stages Close to the Destruction of Structural Materials When Exposed to Low-Cycle Loaded

Authors: Phyo Wai Aung, Sysoev Oleg Evgenevich, Boris Necolavet Maryin


The article deals with theoretical problems of correlation of processes of microstructure changes of structural materials under cyclic loading and acoustic emission. The ways of the evolution of a microstructure under the influence of cyclic loading are shown depending on the structure of the initial crystal structure of the material. The spectra of the frequency characteristics of acoustic emission signals are experimentally obtained when testing titanium samples for cyclic loads. Changes in the fractal dimension of the acoustic emission signals in the selected frequency bands during the evolution of the microstructure of structural materials from the action of cyclic loads, as well as in the destruction of samples, are studied. The experimental samples were made of VT-20 structural material widely used in aircraft and rocket engineering. The article shows the striving of structural materials for synergistic stability and reduction of the fractal dimension of acoustic emission signals, in accordance with the degradation of the microstructure, which occurs as a result of fatigue processes from the action of low cycle loads. As a result of the research, the frequency range of acoustic emission signals of 100-270 kHz is determined, in which the fractal dimension of the signals, it is possible to most reliably predict the durability of structural materials.

Keywords: cyclic loadings, material structure changing, acoustic emission, fractal dimension

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806 City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games

Authors: Luciana Brandao Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Fabiana Gondim Mariutti, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourencao


Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.

Keywords: Rio de Janeiro, 2016 olympic games, host city image, cognitive image dimension, affective image dimension

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805 Estimation of Reservoirs Fracture Network Properties Using an Artificial Intelligence Technique

Authors: Reda Abdel Azim, Tariq Shehab


The main objective of this study is to develop a subsurface fracture map of naturally fractured reservoirs by overcoming the limitations associated with different data sources in characterising fracture properties. Some of these limitations are overcome by employing a nested neuro-stochastic technique to establish inter-relationship between different data, as conventional well logs, borehole images (FMI), core description, seismic attributes, and etc. and then characterise fracture properties in terms of fracture density and fractal dimension for each data source. Fracture density is an important property of a system of fracture network as it is a measure of the cumulative area of all the fractures in a unit volume of a fracture network system and Fractal dimension is also used to characterize self-similar objects such as fractures. At the wellbore locations, fracture density and fractal dimension can only be estimated for limited sections where FMI data are available. Therefore, artificial intelligence technique is applied to approximate the quantities at locations along the wellbore, where the hard data is not available. It should be noted that Artificial intelligence techniques have proven their effectiveness in this domain of applications.

Keywords: naturally fractured reservoirs, artificial intelligence, fracture intensity, fractal dimension

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804 Dimension Free Rigid Point Set Registration in Linear Time

Authors: Jianqin Qu


This paper proposes a rigid point set matching algorithm in arbitrary dimensions based on the idea of symmetric covariant function. A group of functions of the points in the set are formulated using rigid invariants. Each of these functions computes a pair of correspondence from the given point set. Then the computed correspondences are used to recover the unknown rigid transform parameters. Each computed point can be geometrically interpreted as the weighted mean center of the point set. The algorithm is compact, fast, and dimension free without any optimization process. It either computes the desired transform for noiseless data in linear time, or fails quickly in exceptional cases. Experimental results for synthetic data and 2D/3D real data are provided, which demonstrate potential applications of the algorithm to a wide range of problems.

Keywords: covariant point, point matching, dimension free, rigid registration

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803 A Sustainable Society and Its Order Principles: Implications of Common Grace and the Man as the Image of God

Authors: Wenfu Zheng, Guanghe Zheng


The discussion on the social sustainability in existing literature is limited to two-dimension epistemology space with only two elements: the human and nature. Using the revelation of the Bible God, the paper adds a moral component to the two-dimension space. With the new variable being introduced, the authors formulate a to three-dimension epistemology space and discuss its implications. Based on the space, the authors explore the hierarchical structure of order principles for a sustainable society. The social order principle system hierarchically consists of three principles: moral, relational, and rational. The justification of every principle is analyzed briefly. The paper concluded that all these order principles are necessary assurance of building a sustainable society.

Keywords: common grace, saving grace, sustainable society, the image of God

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802 Virtual Dimension Analysis of Hyperspectral Imaging to Characterize a Mining Sample

Authors: L. Chevez, A. Apaza, J. Rodriguez, R. Puga, H. Loro, Juan Z. Davalos


Virtual Dimension (VD) procedure is used to analyze Hyperspectral Image (HIS) treatment-data in order to estimate the abundance of mineral components of a mining sample. Hyperspectral images coming from reflectance spectra (NIR region) are pre-treated using Standard Normal Variance (SNV) and Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) methodologies. The endmember components are identified by the Simplex Growing Algorithm (SVG) and after adjusted to the reflectance spectra of reference-databases using Simulated Annealing (SA) methodology. The obtained abundance of minerals of the sample studied is very near to the ones obtained using XRD with a total relative error of 2%.

Keywords: hyperspectral imaging, minimum noise fraction, MNF, simplex growing algorithm, SGA, standard normal variance, SNV, virtual dimension, XRD

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801 Managers’ Mobile Information Behavior in an Openness Paradigm Era

Authors: Abd Latif Abdul Rahman, Zuraidah Arif, Muhammad Faizal Iylia, Mohd Ghazali, Asmadi Mohammed Ghazali


Mobile information is a significant access point for human information activities. Theories and models of human information behavior have developed over several decades but have not yet considered the role of the user’s computing device in digital information interactions. This paper reviews the literature that leads to developing a conceptual framework of a study on the managers mobile information behavior. Based on the literature review, dimensions of mobile information behavior are identified, namely, dimension information needs, dimension information access, information retrieval and dimension of information use. The study is significant to understand the nature of librarians’ behavior in searching, retrieving and using information via the mobile device. Secondly, the study would provide suggestions about various kinds of mobile applications which organization can provide for their staff to improve their services.

Keywords: mobile information behavior, information behavior, mobile information, mobile devices

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800 The Sustainability of Farm Forestry Management in Bulukumba Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

Authors: Nuraeni, Suryanti, Saida, Annas Boceng


Farm forestry is a forest where farmers or landowners do cultivation and farming activities on their land. This study aims to determine the dimensions of sustainable development of farm forestry and to analyze the leverage factors to improve the sustainability status of farm forestry management in Bulukumba Regency. This research was conducted in Kajang District, Bulukumba Regency. The analysis of the sustainability of farm forestry management applied Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS), a modification of the Rapid Appraisal of The Status of Farming (RAPFARM). The index value of farm forestry sustainability was by 62.01% for ecological dimension, 51.54% for economic dimension, 61.00% for the social and cultural dimension, and 63.24% for legal and institutional dimension with sustainable enough category status. Meanwhile, the index value for the technology and infrastructure was by 47.16% of less sustainable category status. The result of leverage analysis of attributes for the dimensions of ecological, economic, social and cultural, legal and institutional as well as infrastructure and technology afforded twenty-two (22) leverage sensitive factors that influence the sustainability of farm forestry.

Keywords: farm forestry, South Sulawesi, management, sustainability

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799 Soft Infrastructure in Tourism Development

Authors: Seetanah Boopen, Padachi Kesseven, R. Juwaheer , R. V. Sannassee, M. L. Lamport


This study aims primarily at investigating the importance of soft infrastructure in tourism development for the case of an island economy namely Mauritius. The study in the first place assesses the level of perceived and actual satisfaction of the present state of the different types of soft tourism infrastructure and the allied services provided by tourism stakeholders in Mauritius and address the identified gaps. In order to address the study objectives, a rigorous survey analysis among 1741 international tourists at the departure lounge of the Sir Seewoosagur International Airport of Mauritius was carried out. The respondents placed significant emphasis on the different elements of the soft infrastructure dimension, where many of the elements falling under this dimension were rated with a high mean score. In particular the visitors rated communication, both internet and telephone services, and security to be most important. Significant gap has been found in the categories of ‘Health’ and ‘Security’. This indicates that the tourists ascribe high importance to the soft infrastructure dimension. The link between the respondent profile and the key variables which influence the tourist choice of the island as a destination are found to be equally important for most of the international tourists. However, these were deemed to be more critical for tourists travelling with family members. Although the survey instrument attempted to measure any gap between on the one hand, the importance of the infrastructure dimension and on the other hand, the level of satisfaction with the infrastructure dimension, overall the results do not show any statistically significant gap among the different elements of the infrastructural dimension. The study dwells into further analysis by engaging into an econometric framework related to a Probit Model, using the data collected, to gauge the effect of soft infrastructure on tourist intention to repeat or recommend the destination. The results confirm that soft infrastructure is found to be sensible to tourists, although relatively less sensitive as compared to tourism and transport and hotel infrastructure.

Keywords: tourism development, soft infrastructure, Mauritius, hotel infrastructure

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798 Viability of EBT3 Film in Small Dimensions to Be Use for in-Vivo Dosimetry in Radiation Therapy

Authors: Abdul Qadir Jangda, Khadija Mariam, Usman Ahmed, Sharib Ahmed


The Gafchromic EBT3 film has the characteristic of high spatial resolution, weak energy dependence and near tissue equivalence which makes them viable to be used for in-vivo dosimetry in External Beam and Brachytherapy applications. The aim of this study is to assess the smallest film dimension that may be feasible for the use in in-vivo dosimetry. To evaluate the viability, the film sizes from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm were calibrated with 6 MV Photon and 6 MeV electron beams. The Gafchromic EBT3 (Lot no. A05151201, Make: ISP) film was cut into five different sizes in order to establish the relationship between absorbed dose vs. film dimensions. The film dimension were 3 x 3, 5 x 5, 10 x 10, 15 x 15, and 20 x 20 mm. The films were irradiated on Varian Clinac® 2100C linear accelerator for dose range from 0 to 1000 cGy using PTW solid water phantom. The irradiation was performed as per clinical absolute dose rate calibratin setup, i.e. 100 cm SAD, 5.0 cm depth and field size of 10x10 cm2 and 100 cm SSD, 1.4 cm depth and 15x15 cm2 applicator for photon and electron respectively. The irradiated films were scanned with the landscape orientation and a post development time of 48 hours (minimum). Film scanning accomplished using Epson Expression 10000 XL Flatbed Scanner and quantitative analysis carried out with ImageJ freeware software. Results show that the dose variation with different film dimension ranging from 3 x 3 mm to 20 x 20 mm is very minimal with a maximum standard deviation of 0.0058 in Optical Density for a dose level of 3000 cGy and the the standard deviation increases with the increase in dose level. So the precaution must be taken while using the small dimension films for higher doses. Analysis shows that there is insignificant variation in the absorbed dose with a change in film dimension of EBT3 film. Study concludes that the film dimension upto 3 x 3 mm can safely be used up to a dose level of 3000 cGy without the need of recalibration for particular dimension in use for dosimetric application. However, for higher dose levels, one may need to calibrate the films for a particular dimension in use for higher accuracy. It was also noticed that the crystalline structure of the film got damage at the edges while cutting the film, which can contribute to the wrong dose if the region of interest includes the damage area of the film

Keywords: external beam radiotherapy, film calibration, film dosimetery, in-vivo dosimetery

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797 The Role of Metal-Induced Gap States in the Superconducting Qubit Decoherence at Low-Dimension

Authors: Dominik Szczesniak, Sabre Kais


In the present communication, we analyze selected local aspects of the metal-induced gap states (MIGSs) that may be responsible for the magnetic flux noise in some of the superconducting qubit modalities at low-dimension. The presented theoretical analysis stems from the earlier bulk considerations and is aimed at further explanation of the decoherence effect by recognizing its universal character. Specifically, the analysis is carried out by using the complex band structure method for arbitrary low-dimensional junctions. This allows us to provide the most fundamental and general observations for the systems of interest. In particular, herein, we investigate in detail the MIGSs behavior in the momentum space as a function of the potential fluctuations and the electron-electron interaction magnitude at the interface. In what follows, this study is meant to provide a direct relationship between the MIGSs behavior, the discussed decoherence effect, and the intrinsic properties of the low-dimensional Josephson junctions.

Keywords: superconducting qubits, metal-induced gap states, decoherence, low-dimension

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