Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 232

Search results for: LPI radar

232 Impairments Correction of Six-Port Based Millimeter-Wave Radar

Authors: Dan Ohev Zion, Alon Cohen


In recent years, the presence of short-range millimeter-wave radar in civil application has increased significantly. Autonomous driving, security, 3D imaging and high data rate communication systems are a few examples. The next challenge is the integration inside small form-factor devices, such as smartphones (e.g. gesture recognition). The main challenge is implementation of a truly low-power, low-complexity high-resolution radar. The most popular approach is the Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) radar, with an analog multiplication front-end. In this paper, we present an approach for adaptive estimation and correction of impairments of such front-end, specifically implemented using the Six-Port Device (SPD) as the multiplier element. The proposed algorithm was simulated and implemented on a 60 GHz radar lab prototype.

Keywords: radar, FMCW Radar, IQ mismatch, six port

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231 A Mini Radar System for Low Altitude Targets Detection

Authors: Kangkang Wu, Kaizhi Wang, Zhijun Yuan


This paper deals with a mini radar system aimed at detecting small targets at the low latitude. The radar operates at Ku-band in the frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) mode with two receiving channels. The radar system has the characteristics of compactness, mobility, and low power consumption. This paper focuses on the implementation of the radar system, and the Block least mean square (Block LMS) algorithm is applied to minimize the fortuitous distortion. It is validated from a series of experiments that the track of the unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be easily distinguished with the radar system.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), interference, Block Least Mean Square (Block LMS) Algorithm, Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW)

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
230 A Generalized Model for Performance Analysis of Airborne Radar in Clutter Scenario

Authors: Vinod Kumar Jaysaval, Prateek Agarwal


Performance prediction of airborne radar is a challenging and cumbersome task in clutter scenario for different types of targets. A generalized model requires to predict the performance of Radar for air targets as well as ground moving targets. In this paper, we propose a generalized model to bring out the performance of airborne radar for different Pulsed Repetition Frequency (PRF) as well as different type of targets. The model provides a platform to bring out different subsystem parameters for different applications and performance requirements under different types of clutter terrain.

Keywords: airborne radar, blind zone, clutter, probability of detection

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229 Coherent Ku-Band Radar for Monitoring Ocean Waves

Authors: Richard Mitchell, Robert Mitchell, Thai Duong, Kyungbin Bae, Daegon Kim, Youngsub Lee, Inho Kim, Inho Park, Hyungseok Lee


Although X-band radar is commonly used to measure the properties of ocean waves, the use of a higher frequency has several advantages, such as increased backscatter coefficient, better Doppler sensitivity, lower power, and a smaller package. A low-power Ku-band radar system was developed to demonstrate these advantages. It is fully coherent, and it interleaves short and long pulses to achieve a transmit duty ratio of 25%, which makes the best use of solid-state amplifiers. The range scales are 2 km, 4 km, and 8 km. The minimum range is 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m for the three range scales, and the range resolution is 4 m, 8 m, and 16 m for the three range scales. Measurements of the significant wave height, wavelength, wave period, and wave direction have been made using traditional 3D-FFT methods. Radar and ultrasonic sensor results collected over an extended period of time at a coastal site in South Korea are presented.

Keywords: measurement of ocean wave parameters, Ku-band radar, coherent radar, compact radar

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228 Sequential Data Assimilation with High-Frequency (HF) Radar Surface Current

Authors: Lei Ren, Michael Hartnett, Stephen Nash


The abundant measured surface current from HF radar system in coastal area is assimilated into model to improve the modeling forecasting ability. A simple sequential data assimilation scheme, Direct Insertion (DI), is applied to update model forecast states. The influence of Direct Insertion data assimilation over time is analyzed at one reference point. Vector maps of surface current from models are compared with HF radar measurements. Root-Mean-Squared-Error (RMSE) between modeling results and HF radar measurements is calculated during the last four days with no data assimilation.

Keywords: data assimilation, CODAR, HF radar, surface current, direct insertion

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227 Angle of Arrival Estimation Using Maximum Likelihood Method

Authors: Olomon Wu, Hung Lu, Nick Wilkins, Daniel Kerr, Zekeriya Aliyazicioglu, H. K. Hwang


Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) radar has received increasing attention in recent years. MIMO radar has many advantages over conventional phased array radar such as target detection, resolution enhancement, and interference suppression. In this paper, the results are presented from a simulation study of MIMO Uniformly-Spaced Linear Array (ULA) antennas. The performance is investigated under varied parameters, including varied array size, Pseudo Random (PN) sequence length, number of snapshots, and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). The results of MIMO are compared to a traditional array antenna.

Keywords: MIMO radar, phased array antenna, target detection, radar signal processing

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226 Ultra-High Frequency Passive Radar Coverage for Cars Detection in Semi-Urban Scenarios

Authors: Pedro Gómez-del-Hoyo, Jose-Luis Bárcena-Humanes, Nerea del-Rey-Maestre, María-Pilar Jarabo-Amores, David Mata-Moya


A study of achievable coverages using passive radar systems in terrestrial traffic monitoring applications is presented. The study includes the estimation of the bistatic radar cross section of different commercial vehicle models that provide challenging low values which make detection really difficult. A semi-urban scenario is selected to evaluate the impact of excess propagation losses generated by an irregular relief. A bistatic passive radar exploiting UHF frequencies radiated by digital video broadcasting transmitters is assumed. A general method of coverage estimation using electromagnetic simulators in combination with estimated car average bistatic radar cross section is applied. In order to reduce the computational cost, hybrid solution is implemented, assuming free space for the target-receiver path but estimating the excess propagation losses for the transmitter-target one.

Keywords: bistatic radar cross section, passive radar, propagation losses, radar coverage

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225 Space Time Adaptive Algorithm in Bi-Static Passive Radar Systems for Clutter Mitigation

Authors: D. Venu, N. V. Koteswara Rao


Space – time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in spaceborne or airborne radar systems. Since airborne passive radar systems utilize broadcast, navigation and excellent communication signals to perform various surveillance tasks and also has attracted significant interest from the distinct past, therefore the need of the hour is to have cost effective systems as compared to conventional active radar systems. Moreover, requirements of small number of secondary samples for effective clutter suppression in bi-static passive radar offer abundant illuminator resources for passive surveillance radar systems. This paper presents a framework for incorporating knowledge sources directly in the space-time beam former of airborne adaptive radars. STAP algorithm for clutter mitigation for passive bi-static radar has better quantitation of the reduction in sample size thereby amalgamating the earlier data bank with existing radar data sets. Also, we proposed a novel method to estimate the clutter matrix and perform STAP for efficient clutter suppression based on small sample size. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using MATLAB simulations in order to validate STAP algorithm for passive bi-static radar. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance for various applications which augments traditional active radars using cost-effective measures.

Keywords: bistatic radar, clutter, covariance matrix passive radar, STAP

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224 Fabricating an Infrared-Radar Compatible Stealth Surface with Frequency Selective Surface and Structured Radar-Absorbing Material

Authors: Qingtao Yu, Guojia Ma


Approaches to microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity are often conflicting, as the low-emissivity layer, usually consisting of metals, increases the reflection of microwaves, especially in high frequency. In this study, an infrared-radar compatible stealth surface was fabricated by first depositing a layer of low-emissivity metal film on the surface of a layer of radar-absorbing material. Then, ultrafast laser was used to generate patterns on the metal film, forming a frequency selective surface. With proper pattern design, while the majority of the frequency selective surface is covered by the metal film, it has relatively little influence on the reflection of microwaves between 2 to 18 GHz. At last, structures on the radar-absorbing layer were fabricated by ultra-fast laser to further improve the absorbing bandwidth of the microwave. This study demonstrates that the compatibility between microwave absorption and low infrared emissivity can be achieved by properly designing patterns and structures on the metal film and the radar-absorbing layer accordingly.

Keywords: frequency selective surface, infrared-radar compatible, low infrared emissivity, radar-absorbing material, patterns, structures

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223 Detection and Tracking Approach Using an Automotive Radar to Increase Active Pedestrian Safety

Authors: Michael Heuer, Ayoub Al-Hamadi, Alexander Rain, Marc-Michael Meinecke


Vulnerable road users, e.g. pedestrians, have a high impact on fatal accident numbers. To reduce these statistics, car manufactures are intensively developing suitable safety systems. Hereby, fast and reliable environment recognition is a major challenge. In this paper we describe a tracking approach that is only based on a 24 GHz radar sensor. While common radar signal processing loses much information, we make use of a track-before-detect filter to incorporate raw measurements. It is explained how the Range-Doppler spectrum can help to indicated pedestrians and stabilize tracking even in occultation scenarios compared to sensors in series.

Keywords: radar, pedestrian detection, active safety, sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 404
222 Evaluation of Dual Polarization Rainfall Estimation Algorithm Applicability in Korea: A Case Study on Biseulsan Radar

Authors: Chulsang Yoo, Gildo Kim


Dual polarization radar provides comprehensive information about rainfall by measuring multiple parameters. In Korea, for the rainfall estimation, JPOLE and CSU-HIDRO algorithms are generally used. This study evaluated the local applicability of JPOLE and CSU-HIDRO algorithms in Korea by using the observed rainfall data collected on August, 2014 by the Biseulsan dual polarization radar data and KMA AWS. A total of 11,372 pairs of radar-ground rain rate data were classified according to thresholds of synthetic algorithms into suitable and unsuitable data. Then, evaluation criteria were derived by comparing radar rain rate and ground rain rate, respectively, for entire, suitable, unsuitable data. The results are as follows: (1) The radar rain rate equation including KDP, was found better in the rainfall estimation than the other equations for both JPOLE and CSU-HIDRO algorithms. The thresholds were found to be adequately applied for both algorithms including specific differential phase. (2) The radar rain rate equation including horizontal reflectivity and differential reflectivity were found poor compared to the others. The result was not improved even when only the suitable data were applied. Acknowledgments: This work was supported by the Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea, funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2011012).

Keywords: CSU-HIDRO algorithm, dual polarization radar, JPOLE algorithm, radar rainfall estimation algorithm

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221 The Wear Recognition on Guide Surface Based on the Feature of Radar Graph

Authors: Youhang Zhou, Weimin Zeng, Qi Xie


Abstract: In order to solve the wear recognition problem of the machine tool guide surface, a new machine tool guide surface recognition method based on the radar-graph barycentre feature is presented in this paper. Firstly, the gray mean value, skewness, projection variance, flat degrees and kurtosis features of the guide surface image data are defined as primary characteristics. Secondly, data Visualization technology based on radar graph is used. The visual barycentre graphical feature is demonstrated based on the radar plot of multi-dimensional data. Thirdly, a classifier based on the support vector machine technology is used, the radar-graph barycentre feature and wear original feature are put into the classifier separately for classification and comparative analysis of classification and experiment results. The calculation and experimental results show that the method based on the radar-graph barycentre feature can detect the guide surface effectively.

Keywords: guide surface, wear defects, feature extraction, data visualization

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220 Cognitive SATP for Airborne Radar Based on Slow-Time Coding

Authors: Fanqiang Kong, Jindong Zhang, Daiyin Zhu


Space-time adaptive processing (STAP) techniques have been motivated as a key enabling technology for advanced airborne radar applications. In this paper, the notion of cognitive radar is extended to STAP technique, and cognitive STAP is discussed. The principle for improving signal-to-clutter ratio (SCNR) based on slow-time coding is given, and the corresponding optimization algorithm based on cyclic and power-like algorithms is presented. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: space-time adaptive processing (STAP), airborne radar, signal-to-clutter ratio, slow-time coding

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219 Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. Ramakrishna


Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System (Lab Bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench, imaging engineering

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218 Design and Implementation of a Lab Bench for Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging System

Authors: Karthiyayini Nagarajan, P. V. RamaKrishna


Radar Imaging techniques provides extensive applications in the field of remote sensing, majorly Synthetic Aperture Radar(SAR) that provide high resolution target images. This paper work puts forward the effective and realizable signal generation and processing for SAR images. The major units in the system include camera, signal generation unit, signal processing unit and display screen. The real radio channel is replaced by its mathematical model based on optical image to calculate a reflected signal model in real time. Signal generation realizes the algorithm and forms the radar reflection model. Signal processing unit provides range and azimuth resolution through matched filtering and spectrum analysis procedure to form radar image on the display screen. The restored image has the same quality as that of the optical image. This SAR imaging system has been designed and implemented using MATLAB and Quartus II tools on Stratix III device as a System(lab bench) that works in real time to study/investigate on radar imaging rudiments and signal processing scheme for educational and research purposes.

Keywords: synthetic aperture radar, radio reflection model, lab bench

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217 2D Point Clouds Features from Radar for Helicopter Classification

Authors: Danilo Habermann, Aleksander Medella, Carla Cremon, Yusef Caceres


This paper aims to analyze the ability of 2d point clouds features to classify different models of helicopters using radars. This method does not need to estimate the blade length, the number of blades of helicopters, and the period of their micro-Doppler signatures. It is also not necessary to generate spectrograms (or any other image based on time and frequency domain). This work transforms a radar return signal into a 2D point cloud and extracts features of it. Three classifiers are used to distinguish 9 different helicopter models in order to analyze the performance of the features used in this work. The high accuracy obtained with each of the classifiers demonstrates that the 2D point clouds features are very useful for classifying helicopters from radar signal.

Keywords: helicopter classification, point clouds features, radar, supervised classifiers

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216 Analysis of Weather Radar Data for the Cloud Seeding in Korea, 2018

Authors: Yonghun Ro, Joo-Wan Cha, Sanghee Chae, Areum Ko, Woonseon Jung, Jong-Chul Ha


National Institute of Meteorological Science (NIMS) in South Korea has performed the cloud seeding to support the field of cloud physics. This is to determine the precipitation occurrence analyzing the changes in the microphysical schemes of clouds. NIMS conducted 12 times of cloud seeding in the lower height of the troposphere at Kangwon and Kyunggi provinces throughout 2018. The change in the reflectivity of the weather radar was analyzed to verify the enhancement of precipitation according to the cloud seeding in this study. First, the natural system in the near of the target area was separated to clear the seeding effect. The radar reflectivity in the point of ground gauge station was extracted in every 10 minutes and the increased values during the reaction time of cloud particles and seeding materials were estimated as a seeding effect considering the cloud temperature, wind speed and direction, and seeding line that the aircraft had passed by. The radar reflectivity affected by seeding materials was showed an increment of 5 to 10 dBZ, and enhanced precipitation cloud was also detected in the 11 cases of cloud seeding experiments.

Keywords: cloud seeding, reflectivity, weather radar, seeding effect

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215 OFDM Radar for High Accuracy Target Tracking

Authors: Mahbube Eghtesad


For a number of years, the problem of simultaneous detection and tracking of a target has been one of the most relevant and challenging issues in a wide variety of military and civilian systems. We develop methods for detecting and tracking a target using an orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) based radar. As a preliminary step we introduce the target trajectory and Gaussian noise model in discrete time form. Then resorting to match filter and Kalman filter we derive a detector and target tracker. After that we propose an OFDM radar in order to achieve further improvement in tracking performance. The motivation for employing multiple frequencies is that the different scattering centers of a target resonate differently at each frequency. Numerical examples illustrate our analytical results, demonstrating the achieved performance improvement due to the OFDM signaling method.

Keywords: matched filter, target trashing, OFDM radar, Kalman filter

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214 Evaluation of Satellite and Radar Rainfall Product over Seyhan Plain

Authors: Kazım Kaba, Erdem Erdi, M. Akif Erdoğan, H. Mustafa Kandırmaz


Rainfall is crucial data source for very different discipline such as agriculture, hydrology and climate. Therefore rain rate should be known well both spatial and temporal for any area. Rainfall is measured by using rain-gauge at meteorological ground stations traditionally for many years. At the present time, rainfall products are acquired from radar and satellite images with a temporal and spatial continuity. In this study, we investigated the accuracy of these rainfall data according to rain-gauge data. For this purpose, we used Adana-Hatay radar hourly total precipitation product (RN1) and Meteosat convective rainfall rate (CRR) product over Seyhan plain. We calculated daily rainfall values from RN1 and CRR hourly precipitation products. We used the data of rainy days of four stations located within range of the radar from October 2013 to November 2015. In the study, we examined two rainfall data over Seyhan plain and the correlation between the rain-gauge data and two raster rainfall data was observed lowly.

Keywords: meteosat, radar, rainfall, rain-gauge, Turkey

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213 Motion Detection Method for Clutter Rejection in the Bio-Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Carolina Gouveia, José Vieira, Pedro Pinho


The cardiopulmonary signal monitoring, without the usage of contact electrodes or any type of in-body sensors, has several applications such as sleeping monitoring and continuous monitoring of vital signals in bedridden patients. This system has also applications in the vehicular environment to monitor the driver, in order to avoid any possible accident in case of cardiac failure. Thus, the bio-radar system proposed in this paper, can measure vital signals accurately by using the Doppler effect principle that relates the received signal properties with the distance change between the radar antennas and the person’s chest-wall. Once the bio-radar aim is to monitor subjects in real-time and during long periods of time, it is impossible to guarantee the patient immobilization, hence their random motion will interfere in the acquired signals. In this paper, a mathematical model of the bio-radar is presented, as well as its simulation in MATLAB. The used algorithm for breath rate extraction is explained and a method for DC offsets removal based in a motion detection system is proposed. Furthermore, experimental tests were conducted with a view to prove that the unavoidable random motion can be used to estimate the DC offsets accurately and thus remove them successfully.

Keywords: bio-signals, DC component, Doppler effect, ellipse fitting, radar, SDR

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212 Relation of Radar and Hail Parameters in the Continetal Part of Croatia

Authors: Damir Počakal


Continental part Croatia is exposed, mainly in the summer months, to the frequent occurrence of severe thunderstorms and hail. In the 1960s, aiming to protect and reduce the damage, an operational hail suppression system was introduced in that area. The current protected area is 26800 km2 and has about 580 hail suppression stations (rockets and ground generators) which are managed with 8 radar centres (S-band radars). In order to obtain objective and precise hailstone measurement for different research studies, hailpads were installed on all this stations in 2001. Additionally the dense hailpad network with the dimensions of 20 km x 30 km (1 hailpad per 4 km2), was established in the area with the highest average number of days with hail in Croatia in 2002. This paper presents analysis of relation between radar measured parameters of Cb cells in the time of hail fall with physical parameters of hail (max. diameter, number of hail stones and kinetic energy) measured on hailpads in period 2002 -2014. In addition are compared radar parameters of Cb cells with and without hail on the ground located at the same time over the polygon area.

Keywords: Cb cell, hail, radar, hailpad

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211 A Method for Processing Unwanted Target Caused by Reflection in Secondary Surveillance Radar

Authors: Khanh D.Do, Loi V.Nguyen, Thanh N.Nguyen, Thang M.Nguyen, Vu T.Tran


Along with the development of Secondary surveillance radar (SSR) in air traffic surveillance systems, the Multipath phenomena has always been a noticeable problem. This following article discusses the geometrical aspect and power aspect of the Multipath interference caused by reflection in SSR and proposes a method to deal with these unwanted multipath targets (ghosts) by false-target position predicting and adaptive target suppressing. A field-experiment example is mentioned at the end of the article to demonstrate the efficiency of this measure.

Keywords: multipath, secondary surveillance radar, digital signal processing, reflection

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210 Networked Radar System to Increase Safety of Urban Railroad Crossing

Authors: Sergio Saponara, Luca Fanucci, Riccardo Cassettari, Ruggero Piernicola, Marco Righetto


The paper presents an innovative networked radar system for detection of obstacles in a railway level crossing scenario. This Monitoring System (MS) is able to detect moving or still obstacles within the railway level crossing area automatically, avoiding the need of human presence for surveillance. The MS is also connected to the National Railway Information and Signaling System to communicate in real-time the level crossing status. The architecture is compliant with the highest Safety Integrity Level (SIL4) of the CENELEC standard. The number of radar sensors used is configurable at set-up time and depends on how large the level crossing area can be. At least two sensors are expected and up four can be used for larger areas. The whole processing chain that elaborates the output sensor signals, as well as the communication interface, is fully-digital, was designed in VHDL code and implemented onto a Xilinx Virtex 6.

Keywords: radar for safe mobility, railroad crossing, railway, transport safety

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209 Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying Radar with Compressive Sensing

Authors: Ho Jeong Jin, Chang Won Seo, Choon Sik Cho, Bong Yong Choi, Kwang Kyun Na, Sang Rok Lee


In this paper, a radar signal processing technique using the LFM-FSK (Linear Frequency Modulation-Frequency Shift Keying) is proposed for reducing the false alarm rate based on the compressive sensing. The LFM-FSK method combines FMCW (Frequency Modulation Continuous Wave) signal with FSK (Frequency Shift Keying). This shows an advantage which can suppress the ghost phenomenon without the complicated CFAR (Constant False Alarm Rate) algorithm. Moreover, the parametric sparse algorithm applying the compressive sensing that restores signals efficiently with respect to the incomplete data samples is also integrated, leading to reducing the burden of ADC in the receiver of radars. 24 GHz FMCW signal is applied and tested in the real environment with FSK modulated data for verifying the proposed algorithm along with the compressive sensing.

Keywords: compressive sensing, LFM-FSK radar, radar signal processing, sparse algorithm

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208 Classification of Precipitation Types Detected in Malaysia

Authors: K. Badron, A. F. Ismail, A. L. Asnawi, N. F. A. Malik, S. Z. Abidin, S. Dzulkifly


The occurrences of precipitation, also commonly referred as rain, in the form of "convective" and "stratiform" have been identified to exist worldwide. In this study, the radar return echoes or known as reflectivity values acquired from radar scans have been exploited in the process of classifying the type of rain endured. The investigation use radar data from Malaysian Meteorology Department (MMD). It is possible to discriminate the types of rain experienced in tropical region by observing the vertical characteristics of the rain structure. .Heavy rain in tropical region profoundly affects radiowave signals, causing transmission interference and signal fading. Required wireless system fade margin depends on the type of rain. Information relating to the two mentioned types of rain is critical for the system engineers and researchers in their endeavour to improve the reliability of communication links. This paper highlights the quantification of percentage occurrences over one year period in 2009.

Keywords: stratiform, convective, tropical region, attenuation radar reflectivity

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207 Spherical Harmonic Based Monostatic Anisotropic Point Scatterer Model for RADAR Applications

Authors: Eric Huang, Coleman DeLude, Justin Romberg, Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Madhavan Swaminathan


High performance computing (HPC) based emulators can be used to model the scattering from multiple stationary and moving targets for RADAR applications. These emulators rely on the RADAR Cross Section (RCS) of the targets being available in complex scenarios. Representing the RCS using tables generated from electromagnetic (EM) simulations is often times cumbersome leading to large storage requirement. This paper proposed a spherical harmonic based anisotropic scatterer model to represent the RCS of complex targets. The problem of finding the locations and reflection profiles of all scatterers can be formulated as a linear least square problem with a special sparsity constraint. This paper solves this problem using a modified Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. The results show that the spherical harmonic based scatterer model can effectively represent the RCS data of complex targets.

Keywords: RADAR, RCS, high performance computing, point scatterer model

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206 Design of Transmit Beamspace and DOA Estimation in MIMO Radar

Authors: S. Ilakkiya, A. Merline


A multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar systems use modulated waveforms and directive antennas to transmit electromagnetic energy into a specific volume in space to search for targets. This paper deals with the design of transmit beamspace matrix and DOA estimation for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar with collocated antennas.The design of transmit beamspace matrix is based on minimizing the difference between a desired transmit beampattern and the actual one while enforcing the constraint of uniform power distribution across the transmit array elements. Rotational invariance property is established at the transmit array by imposing a specific structure on the beamspace matrix. Semidefinite programming and spatial-division based design (SDD) are also designed separately. In MIMO radar systems, DOA estimation is an essential process to determine the direction of incoming signals and thus to direct the beam of the antenna array towards the estimated direction. This estimation deals with non-adaptive spectral estimation and adaptive spectral estimation techniques. The design of the transmit beamspace matrix and spectral estimation techniques are studied through simulation.

Keywords: adaptive and non-adaptive spectral estimation, direction of arrival estimation, MIMO radar, rotational invariance property, transmit, receive beamforming

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205 A Generalized Sparse Bayesian Learning Algorithm for Near-Field Synthetic Aperture Radar Imaging: By Exploiting Impropriety and Noncircularity

Authors: Pan Long, Bi Dongjie, Li Xifeng, Xie Yongle


The near-field synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imaging is an advanced nondestructive testing and evaluation (NDT&E) technique. This paper investigates the complex-valued signal processing related to the near-field SAR imaging system, where the measurement data turns out to be noncircular and improper, meaning that the complex-valued data is correlated to its complex conjugate. Furthermore, we discover that the degree of impropriety of the measurement data and that of the target image can be highly correlated in near-field SAR imaging. Based on these observations, A modified generalized sparse Bayesian learning algorithm is proposed, taking impropriety and noncircularity into account. Numerical results show that the proposed algorithm provides performance gain, with the help of noncircular assumption on the signals.

Keywords: complex-valued signal processing, synthetic aperture radar, 2-D radar imaging, compressive sensing, sparse Bayesian learning

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204 An Effective Noise Resistant Frequency Modulation Continuous-Wave Radar Vital Sign Signal Detection Method

Authors: Lu Yang, Meiyang Song, Xiang Yu, Wenhao Zhou, Chuntao Feng


To address the problem that the FM continuous-wave radar (FMCW) extracts human vital sign signals which are susceptible to noise interference and low reconstruction accuracy, a new detection scheme for the sign signals is proposed. Firstly, an improved complete ensemble empirical modal decomposition with adaptive noise (ICEEMDAN) algorithm is applied to decompose the radar-extracted thoracic signals to obtain several intrinsic modal functions (IMF) with different spatial scales, and then the IMF components are optimized by a BP neural network improved by immune genetic algorithm (IGA). The simulation results show that this scheme can effectively separate the noise and accurately extract the respiratory and heartbeat signals and improve the reconstruction accuracy and signal-to-noise ratio of the sign signals.

Keywords: frequency modulated continuous wave radar, ICEEMDAN, BP neural network, vital signs signal

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203 Radar-Based Classification of Pedestrian and Dog Using High-Resolution Raw Range-Doppler Signatures

Authors: C. Mayr, J. Periya, A. Kariminezhad


In this paper, we developed a learning framework for the classification of vulnerable road users (VRU) by their range-Doppler signatures. The frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW) radar raw data is first pre-processed to obtain robust object range-Doppler maps per coherent time interval. The complex-valued range-Doppler maps captured from our outdoor measurements are further fed into a convolutional neural network (CNN) to learn the classification. This CNN has gone through a hyperparameter optimization process for improved learning. By learning VRU range-Doppler signatures, the three classes 'pedestrian', 'dog', and 'noise' are classified with an average accuracy of almost 95%. Interestingly, this classification accuracy holds for a combined longitudinal and lateral object trajectories.

Keywords: machine learning, radar, signal processing, autonomous driving

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