Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Search results for: Komal V. Aher

21 Interactive Image Search for Mobile Devices

Authors: Komal V. Aher, Sanjay B. Waykar

Abstract:

Nowadays every individual having mobile device with them. In both computer vision and information retrieval Image search is currently hot topic with many applications. The proposed intelligent image search system is fully utilizing multimodal and multi-touch functionalities of smart phones which allows search with Image, Voice, and Text on mobile phones. The system will be more useful for users who already have pictures in their minds but have no proper descriptions or names to address them. The paper gives system with ability to form composite visual query to express user’s intention more clearly which helps to give more precise or appropriate results to user. The proposed algorithm will considerably get better in different aspects. System also uses Context based Image retrieval scheme to give significant outcomes. So system is able to achieve gain in terms of search performance, accuracy and user satisfaction.

Keywords: color space, histogram, mobile device, mobile visual search, multimodal search

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20 Removal of Vanadium from Industrial Effluents by Natural Ion Exchanger

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Haribhau R. Aher, Priti M. Dhage

Abstract:

The removal vanadium from aqueous solution using natural exchanger was investigated. The effects of pH, contact time and exchanger dose were studied at ambient temperature (25 0C ± 2 0C). The equilibrium process was described by the Langmuir isotherm model with adsorption capacity for vanadium. The natural exchanger i.e. tamarindus seeds powder was treated with formaldehyde and sulpuric acid to increase the adsorptivity of metals. The maximum exchange level was attained as 80.1% at pH 3 with exchanger dose 5 g and contact time 60 min. Method is applied for removal of vanadium from industrial effluents.

Keywords: industrial effluent, natural ion exchange, Tamarindous indica, vanadium

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19 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami

Abstract:

A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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18 Hull Detection from Handwritten Digit Image

Authors: Sriraman Kothuri, Komal Teja Mattupalli

Abstract:

In this paper we proposed a novel algorithm for recognizing hulls in a hand written digits. This is an extension to the work on “Digit Recognition Using Freeman Chain code”. In order to find out the hulls in a user given digit it is necessary to follow three steps. Those are pre-processing, Boundary Extraction and at last apply the Hull Detection system in a way to attain the better results. The detection of Hull Regions is mainly intended to increase the machine learning capability in detection of characters or digits. This can also extend this in order to get the hull regions and their intensities in Black Holes in Space Exploration.

Keywords: chain code, machine learning, hull regions, hull recognition system, SASK algorithm

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17 A Comprehensive Study on Quality Assurance in Game Development

Authors: Maria Komal, Zaineb Khalil, Mehreen Sirshar

Abstract:

Due to the recent technological advancements, Games have become one of the most demanding applications. Gaming industry is rapidly growing and the key to success in this industry is the development of good quality games, which is a highly competitive issue. The ultimate goal of game developers is to provide player’s satisfaction by developing high-quality games. This research is the comprehensive survey of techniques followed by game industries to ensure games quality. After analysis of various techniques, it has been found that quality simulation according to ISO standards and play test methods are used to ensure games quality. Because game development requires cross-disciplined team, an increasing trend towards distributed game development has been observed. This paper evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies used in game industry and draws a conclusion. We have also proposed quality parameters which can be used as a heuristic framework to identify those attributes which have high testing priorities.

Keywords: game development, computer games, video games, gaming industry, quality assurance, playability, user experience

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16 Quantification of Effects of Shape of Basement Topography below the Circular Basin on the Ground Motion Characteristics and Engineering Implications

Authors: Kamal, Dinesh Kumar, J. P. Narayan, Komal Rani

Abstract:

This paper presents the effects of shape of basement topography on the characteristics of the basin-generated surface (BGS) waves and associated average spectral amplification (ASA) in the 3D basins having circular surface area. Seismic responses were computed using a recently developed 3D fourth-order spatial accurate time-domain finite-difference (FD) algorithm based on parsimonious staggered-grid approximation of 3D viscoelastic wave equations. An increase of amplitude amplification and ASA towards the centre of different considered basins was obtained. Further, it may be concluded that ASA in basin very much depends on the impedance contrast, exposure area of basement to the incident wave front, edge-slope, focusing of the BGS-waves and sediment-damping. There is an urgent need of incorporation of a map of differential ground motion (DGM) caused by the BGS-waves as one of the output maps of the seismic microzonation.

Keywords: 3D viscoelastic simulation, basin-generated surface waves, maximum displacement, average spectral amplification

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15 Error Probability of Multi-User Detection Techniques

Authors: Komal Babbar

Abstract:

Multiuser Detection is the intelligent estimation/demodulation of transmitted bits in the presence of Multiple Access Interference. The authors have presented the Bit-error rate (BER) achieved by linear multi-user detectors: Matched filter (which treats the MAI as AWGN), Decorrelating and MMSE. In this work, authors investigate the bit error probability analysis for Matched filter, decorrelating, and MMSE. This problem arises in several practical CDMA applications where the receiver may not have full knowledge of the number of active users and their signature sequences. In particular, the behavior of MAI at the output of the Multi-user detectors (MUD) is examined under various asymptotic conditions including large signal to noise ratio; large near-far ratios; and a large number of users. In the last section Authors also shows Matlab Simulation results for Multiuser detection techniques i.e., Matched filter, Decorrelating, MMSE for 2 users and 10 users.

Keywords: code division multiple access, decorrelating, matched filter, minimum mean square detection (MMSE) detection, multiple access interference (MAI), multiuser detection (MUD)

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14 A Study of Indoor Radon, Thoron, Their Progeny Concentration Levels and Inhalation Dose in Dwellings of Different Districts of Punjab State, India

Authors: Komal Saini, B. K. Sahoo, B.S. Bajwa

Abstract:

In the present study, indoor radon and thoron concentrations have been estimated using newly developed twin cup based pin hole dosimeter with single entry face in some areas of Punjab state, India. The equilibrium equivalent concentration (EEC) of radon and thoron has also been estimated directly by using progeny sensors, fabricated by BARC, India. Observed radon and thoron concentrations varied from 38.7±5.79 to 98.7±13.11 Bq/m3 and 25.38±6.56 to 126.56±14.23 Bq/m3 with an average value of 61.59±8.11 & 70.89±9.52 Bq/m3 respectively. Average equilibrium equivalent concentration of radon and thoron was 27.98±4.66 & 2.24±0.61 Bq/m3. Calculated equilibrium factor for radon and thoron was 0.467 and 0.034 in the present study. Annual inhalation dose calculated from the present observed concentrations, varied from 1.80 to 3.60 mSv/year with an average value of 2.52 mSv/year, which is well within reference level. It has been observed from the present study that thoron is a significant contributor to the inhalation dose which is about 25% of the total inhalation dose.

Keywords: radon, thoron, pin hole cup dosimeter, DTPS/DRPS, annual inhalation dose

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13 Computer Assisted Strategies Help to Pharmacist

Authors: Komal Fizza

Abstract:

All around the world in every field professionals are taking great support from their computers. Computer assisted strategies not only increase the efficiency of the professionals but also in case of healthcare they help in life-saving interventions. The background of this current research is aimed towards two things; first to find out if computer assisted strategies are useful for Pharmacist for not and secondly how much these assist a Pharmacist to do quality interventions. Shifa International Hospital is a 500 bedded hospital, and it is running Antimicrobial Stewardship, during their stewardship rounds pharmacists observed that a lot of wrong doses of antibiotics were coming at times those were being overlooked by the other pharmacist even. So, with the help of MIS team the patients were categorized into adult and peads depending upon their age. Minimum and maximum dose of every single antibiotic present in the pharmacy that could be dispensed to the patient was developed. These were linked to the order entry window. So whenever pharmacist would type any order and the dose would be below or above the therapeutic limit this would give an alert to the pharmacist. Whenever this message pop-up this was recorded at the back end along with the antibiotic name, pharmacist ID, date, and time. From 14th of January 2015 and till 14th of March 2015 the software stopped different users 350 times. Out of this 300 were found to be major errors which if reached to the patient could have harmed them to the greater extent. While 50 were due to typing errors and minor deviations. The pilot study showed that computer assisted strategies can be of great help to the pharmacist. They can improve the efficacy and quality of interventions.

Keywords: antibiotics, computer assisted strategies, pharmacist, stewardship

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12 Recognition and Counting Algorithm for Sub-Regional Objects in a Handwritten Image through Image Sets

Authors: Kothuri Sriraman, Mattupalli Komal Teja

Abstract:

In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed for the recognition of hulls in a hand written images that might be irregular or digit or character shape. Identification of objects and internal objects is quite difficult to extract, when the structure of the image is having bulk of clusters. The estimation results are easily obtained while going through identifying the sub-regional objects by using the SASK algorithm. Focusing mainly to recognize the number of internal objects exist in a given image, so as it is shadow-free and error-free. The hard clustering and density clustering process of obtained image rough set is used to recognize the differentiated internal objects, if any. In order to find out the internal hull regions it involves three steps pre-processing, Boundary Extraction and finally, apply the Hull Detection system. By detecting the sub-regional hulls it can increase the machine learning capability in detection of characters and it can also be extend in order to get the hull recognition even in irregular shape objects like wise black holes in the space exploration with their intensities. Layered hulls are those having the structured layers inside while it is useful in the Military Services and Traffic to identify the number of vehicles or persons. This proposed SASK algorithm is helpful in making of that kind of identifying the regions and can useful in undergo for the decision process (to clear the traffic, to identify the number of persons in the opponent’s in the war).

Keywords: chain code, Hull regions, Hough transform, Hull recognition, Layered Outline Extraction, SASK algorithm

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11 Formulation and Evaluation of Curcumin-Zn (II) Microparticulate Drug Delivery System for Antimalarial Activity

Authors: M. R. Aher, R. B. Laware, G. S. Asane, B. S. Kuchekar

Abstract:

Objective: Studies have shown that a new combination therapy with Artemisinin derivatives and curcumin is unique, with potential advantages over known ACTs. In present study an attempt was made to prepare microparticulate drug delivery system of Curcumin-Zn complex and evaluate it in combination with artemether for antimalarial activity. Material and method: Curcumin Zn complex was prepared and encapsulated using sodium alginate. Microparticles thus obtained are further coated with various enteric polymers at different coating thickness to control the release. Microparticles are evaluated for encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and in vitro drug release. Roentgenographic Studies was conducted in rabbits with BaSO 4 tagged formulation. Optimized formulation was screened for antimalarial activity using P. berghei-infected mice survival test and % paracetemia inhibition, alone (three oral dose of 5mg/day) and in combination with arthemether (i.p. 500, 1000 and 1500µg). Curcumin-Zn(II) was estimated in serum after oral administration to rats by using spectroflurometry. Result: Microparticles coated with Cellulose acetate phthalate showed most satisfactory and controlled release with 479 min time for 60% drug release. X-ray images taken at different time intervals confirmed the retention of formulation in GI tract. Estimation of curcumin in serum by spectroflurometry showed that drug concentration is maintained in the blood for longer time with tmax of 6 hours. The survival time (40 days post treatment) of mice infected with P. berghei was compared to survival after treatment with either Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles artemether combination, curcumin-Zn complex and artemether. Oral administration of Curcumin-Zn(II)-artemether prolonged the survival of P.berghei-infected mice. All the mice treated with Curcumin-Zn(II) microparticles (5mg/day) artemether (1000µg) survived for more than 40 days and recovered with no detectable parasitemia. Administration of Curcumin-Zn(II) artemether combination reduced the parasitemia in mice by more than 90% compared to that in control mice for the first 3 days after treatment. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of the curcumin Zn-artemether combination was more pronounced than mono therapy. A single dose of 1000µg of artemether in curcumin-Zn combination gives complete protection in P. berghei-infected mice. This may reduce the chances of drug resistance in malaria management.

Keywords: formulation, microparticulate drug delivery, antimalarial, pharmaceutics

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10 Integrated Two Stage Processing of Biomass Conversion to Hydroxymethylfurfural Esters Using Ionic Liquid as Green Solvent and Catalyst: Synthesis of Mono Esters

Authors: Komal Kumar, Sreedevi Upadhyayula

Abstract:

In this study, a two-stage process was established for the synthesis of HMF esters using ionic liquid acid catalyst. Ionic liquid catalyst with different strength of the Bronsted acidity was prepared in the laboratory and characterized using 1H NMR, FT-IR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Solid acid catalyst from the ionic liquid catalyst was prepared using the immobilization method. The acidity of the synthesized acid catalyst was measured using Hammett function and titration method. Catalytic performance was evaluated for the biomass conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)-water biphasic system. A good yield of 5-HMF and LA was found at the different composition of MIBK: Water. In the case of MIBK: Water ratio 10:1, good yield of 5-HMF was observed at ambient temperature 150˚C. Upgrading of 5-HMF into monoesters from the reaction of 5-HMF and reactants using biomass-derived monoacid were performed. Ionic liquid catalyst with -SO₃H functional group was found to be best efficient in comparative of a solid acid catalyst for the esterification reaction and biomass conversion. A good yield of 5-HMF esters with high 5-HMF conversion was found to be at 105˚C using the best active catalyst. In this process, process A was the hydrothermal conversion of cellulose and monomer into 5-HMF and LA using acid catalyst. And the process B was the esterification followed by using similar acid catalyst. All monoesters of 5-HMF synthesized here can be used in chemical, cross linker for adhesive or coatings and pharmaceutical industry. A theoretical density functional theory (DFT) study for the optimization of the ionic liquid structure was performed using the Gaussian 09 program to find out the minimum energy configuration of ionic liquid catalyst.

Keywords: biomass conversion, 5-HMF, Ionic liquid, HMF ester

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9 Monitoring Prolong Use of Intravenous Antibiotics: Antimicrobial Stewardship

Authors: Komal Fizza

Abstract:

Irrational and non-judicious use of antibiotics pave the way for an upsurge in antibiotic resistance, diminished effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens and as well as impounding effect on disease management leading to further morbidities. In the backdrop of this the current research is aimed to assess whether antimicrobial prescribing is in accordance with the Infectious Disease Society of America Guidelines in hospitalized patients at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan. Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad is a 500 bed hospital. With the help of MIS team a form wad developed that gave the information about medical records number, name of the patient, day of start of antibiotic, the day antibiotic is supposed to be stopped and as well as the diagnosis of the patient. A ward pharmacist was employed to generate this report on a daily basis. The therapeutic regiment was reviewed by the pharmacist by monitoring the clinical progress, laboratory report and diagnosis. On the basis of this information, pharmacist made suggestions and forwarded to the hospital doctors responsible for prescribing antibiotics. If desired, changes were made regularly. In the current research our main focus was to implement this action and therefore, started monitoring patients who were on antibiotic regimens for more than 10-15 days. We took this initiative since November, 2013. At the start of the program a maximum 19 patients/day were reported to be on antibiotic regimen for more than 10-15 days. After the implementation of the initiative, the number of patients was decreased to fifteen patients per day in December, further decreased to 7 in the month of January and 9 and 6 in February and March respectively. The average patient census was 350. The current pilot study highlighted the role of pharmacist in initiating antibiotic stewardship programs in hospital settings.

Keywords: stewardship, antibiotics, resistance, clinical process

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8 Dynamic Modeling of Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plants Using BioWin

Authors: Komal Rathore, Aydin Sunol, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford

Abstract:

Advanced wastewater treatment plants have complex biological kinetics, time variant influent flow rates and long processing times. Due to these factors, the modeling and operational control of advanced wastewater treatment plants become complicated. However, development of a robust model for advanced wastewater treatment plants has become necessary in order to increase the efficiency of the plants, reduce energy costs and meet the discharge limits set by the government. A dynamic model was designed using the Envirosim (Canada) platform software called BioWin for several wastewater treatment plants in Hillsborough County, Florida. Proper control strategies for various parameters such as mixed liquor suspended solids, recycle activated sludge and waste activated sludge were developed for models to match the plant performance. The models were tuned using both the influent and effluent data from the plant and their laboratories. The plant SCADA was used to predict the influent wastewater rates and concentration profiles as a function of time. The kinetic parameters were tuned based on sensitivity analysis and trial and error methods. The dynamic models were validated by using experimental data for influent and effluent parameters. The dissolved oxygen measurements were taken to validate the model by coupling them with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models. The Biowin models were able to exactly mimic the plant performance and predict effluent behavior for extended periods. The models are useful for plant engineers and operators as they can take decisions beforehand by predicting the plant performance with the use of BioWin models. One of the important findings from the model was the effects of recycle and wastage ratios on the mixed liquor suspended solids. The model was also useful in determining the significant kinetic parameters for biological wastewater treatment systems.

Keywords: BioWin, kinetic modeling, flowsheet simulation, dynamic modeling

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7 Study of Radiological and Chemical Effects of Uranium in Ground Water of SW and NE Punjab, India

Authors: Komal Saini, S. K. Sahoo, B. S. Bajwa

Abstract:

The Laser Fluorimetery Technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps, tube wells in the drinking water samples of SW & NE Punjab, India. The geographic location of the study region in NE Punjab is between latitude 31.21º- 32.05º N and longitude 75.60º-76.14º E and for SW Punjab is between latitude 29.66º-30.48º N and longitude 74.69º-75.54º E. The purpose of this study was mainly to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions. In the present study 131 samples of drinking water collected from different villages of SW and 95 samples from NE, Punjab state, India have been analyzed for chemical and radiological toxicity. In the present investigation, uranium content in water samples of SW Punjab ranges from 0.13 to 908 μgL−1 with an average of 82.1 μgL−1 whereas in samples collected from NE- Punjab, it ranges from 0 to 28.2 μgL−1 with an average of 4.84 μgL−1. Thus, revealing that in the SW- Punjab 54 % of drinking water samples have uranium concentration higher than international recommended limit of 30 µgl-1 (WHO, 2011) while 35 % of samples exceeds the threshold of 60 µgl-1 recommended by our national regulatory authority of Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), Department of Atomic Energy, India, 2004. On the other hand in the NE-Punjab region, none of the observed water sample has uranium content above the national/international recommendations. The observed radiological risk in terms of excess cancer risk ranges from 3.64x10-7 to 2.54x10-3 for SW-Punjab, whereas for NE region it ranges from 0 to 7.89x10-5. The chemical toxic effect in terms of Life-time average Daily Dose (LDD) and Hazard Quotient (HQ) have also been calculated. The LDD for SW-Punjab varies from 0.0098 to 68.46 with an average of 6.18 µg/ kg/day whereas for NE region it varies from 0 to 2.13 with average 0.365 µg/ kg/day, thus indicating presence of chemical toxicity in SW Punjab as 35% of the observed samples in the SW Punjab are above the recommendation limit of 4.53 µg/ kg/day given by AERB for 60 µgl-1 of uranium. Maximum & Minimum values for hazard quotient for SW Punjab is 0.002 & 15.11 with average 1.36 which is considerably high as compared to safe limit i.e. 1. But for NE Punjab HQ varies from 0 to 0.47. The possible sources of high uranium observed in the SW- Punjab will also be discussed.

Keywords: uranium, groundwater, radiological and chemical toxicity, Punjab, India

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6 China Pakistan Economic Corridor: A Changing Mechanism in Pakistan

Authors: Komal Niazi, He Guoqiang

Abstract:

This paper is focused on ‘CPEC (China Pakistan Economic Corridor) a changing mechanism in Pakistan’. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) activity under OBOR (One Belt One Road (OBOR) CPEC is a piece of the bigger umbrella and goes for giving another hallway of exchange for China and Pakistan and is relied upon to profit the entire of South Asian area. But this study reveals that significance of acculturation can never be overemphasized in the investigation of diverse impacts and the routes people groups of various ethnic personalities figure out how to adjust and acknowledge the social attributes of a larger part group in a multiethnic culture. This study also deals with the effects of acculturation which can be seen at multiple levels through CPEC for both Pakistani and Chinese people, who were working on this project. China and Pakistan exchanged the cultural and social patterns with each other. Probably the most perceptible gathering level impacts of cultural assimilation regularly incorporate changes in sustenance (food), clothing, and language. At the individual level, the procedure of cultural assimilation alludes to the socialization procedure by which the Pakistani local people and Chinese who were working in Pakistan adopted values, traditions, attitudes, states of mind, and practices. But China has imposed discourse through economic power and language. CPEC dominates Pakistan’s poor area’s and changes their living, social and cultural values. People also claimed this acculturation was a great threat to their cultural values and religious beliefs. Main findings of the study clearly ascertained that research was to find out the conceptual understanding of people about the acculturation process through CPEC. At the cultural level, aggregate activities and social organizations end up plainly adjusted, and at the behavioral level, there are changes in a person's day by day behavioral collection and some of the time in experienced anxiety. Anthropological data methods were used to collect data, like snowball and judgmental sampling, case studied methods.

Keywords: CPEC, acculturation process, language discourse, social norms, cultural values, religious beliefs

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5 Improvement of Ground Water Quality Index Using Citrus limetta

Authors: Rupas Kumar M., Saravana Kumar M., Amarendra Kumar S., Likhita Komal V., Sree Deepthi M.

Abstract:

The demand for water is increasing at an alarming rate due to rapid urbanization and increase in population. Due to freshwater scarcity, Groundwater became the necessary source of potable water to major parts of the world. This problem of freshwater scarcity and groundwater dependency is very severe particularly in developing countries and overpopulated regions like India. The present study aimed at evaluating the Ground Water Quality Index (GWQI), which represents overall quality of water at certain location and time based on water quality parameters. To evaluate the GWQI, sixteen water quality parameters have been considered viz. colour, pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, total hardness, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, nitrate, sulphate, iron, manganese and fluorides. The groundwater samples are collected from Kadapa City in Andhra Pradesh, India and subjected to comprehensive physicochemical analysis. The high value of GWQI has been found to be mainly from higher values of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, alkalinity, hardness, and fluorides. in the present study, citrus limetta (sweet lemon) peel powder has used as a coagulant and GWQI values are recorded in different concentrations to improve GWQI. Sensitivity analysis is also carried out to determine the effect of coagulant dosage, mixing speed and stirring time on GWQI. The research found the maximum percentage improvement in GWQI values are obtained when the coagulant dosage is 100ppm, mixing speed is 100 rpm and stirring time is 10 mins. Alum is also used as a coagulant aid and the optimal ratio of citrus limetta and alum is identified as 3:2 which resulted in best GWQI value. The present study proposes Citrus limetta peel powder as a potential natural coagulant to treat Groundwater and to improve GWQI.

Keywords: alum, Citrus limetta, ground water quality index, physicochemical analysis

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4 Composition Dependence of Ni 2p Core Level Shift in Fe1-xNix Alloys

Authors: Shakti S. Acharya, V. R. R. Medicherla, Rajeev Rawat, Komal Bapna, Deepnarayan Biswas, Khadija Ali, K. Maiti

Abstract:

The discovery of invar effect in 35% Ni concentration Fe1-xNix alloy has stimulated enormous experimental and theoretical research. Elemental Fe and low Ni concentration Fe1-xNix alloys which possess body centred cubic (bcc) crystal structure at ambient temperature and pressure transform to hexagonally close packed (hcp) phase at around 13 GPa. Magnetic order was found to be absent at 11K for Fe92Ni8 alloy when subjected to a high pressure of 26 GPa. The density functional theoretical calculations predicted substantial hyperfine magnetic fields, but were not observed in Mossbaur spectroscopy. The bulk modulus of fcc Fe1-xNix alloys with Ni concentration more than 35%, is found to be independent of pressure. The magnetic moment of Fe is also found be almost same in these alloys from 4 to 10 GPa pressure. Fe1-xNix alloys exhibit a complex microstructure which is formed by a series of complex phase transformations like martensitic transformation, spinodal decomposition, ordering, mono-tectoid reaction, eutectoid reaction at temperatures below 400°C. Despite the existence of several theoretical models the field is still in its infancy lacking full knowledge about the anomalous properties exhibited by these alloys. Fe1-xNix alloys have been prepared by arc melting the high purity constituent metals in argon ambient. These alloys have annealed at around 3000C in vacuum sealed quartz tube for two days to make the samples homogeneous. These alloys have been structurally characterized by x-ray diffraction and were found to exhibit a transition from bcc to fcc for x > 0.3. Ni 2p core levels of the alloys have been measured using high resolution (0.45 eV) x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Ni 2p core level shifts to lower binding energy with respect to that of pure Ni metal giving rise to negative core level shifts (CLSs). Measured CLSs exhibit a linear dependence in fcc region (x > 0.3) and were found to deviate slightly in bcc region (x < 0.3). ESCA potential model fails correlate CLSs with site potentials or charges in metallic alloys. CLSs in these alloys occur mainly due to shift in valence bands with composition due to intra atomic charge redistribution.

Keywords: arc melting, core level shift, ESCA potential model, valence band

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3 Integrated Geophysical Approach for Subsurface Delineation in Srinagar, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Pradeep Kumar Singh Chauhan, Gayatri Devi, Zamir Ahmad, Komal Chauhan, Abha Mittal

Abstract:

The application of geophysical methods to study the subsurface profile for site investigation is becoming popular globally. These methods are non-destructive and provide the image of subsurface at shallow depths. Seismic refraction method is one of the most common and efficient method being used for civil engineering site investigations particularly for knowing the seismic velocity of the subsurface layers. Resistivity imaging technique is a geo-electrical method used to image the subsurface, water bearing zone, bedrock and layer thickness. Integrated approach combining seismic refraction and 2-D resistivity imaging will provide a better and reliable picture of the subsurface. These are economical and less time-consuming field survey which provide high resolution image of the subsurface. Geophysical surveys carried out in this study include seismic refraction and 2D resistivity imaging method for delineation of sub-surface strata in different parts of Srinagar, Garhwal Himalaya, India. The aim of this survey was to map the shallow subsurface in terms of geological and geophysical properties mainly P-wave velocity, resistivity, layer thickness, and lithology of the area. Both sides of the river, Alaknanda which flows through the centre of the city, have been covered by taking two profiles on each side using both methods. Seismic and electrical surveys were carried out at the same locations to complement the results of each other. The seismic refraction survey was carried out using ABEM TeraLoc 24 channel Seismograph and 2D resistivity imaging was performed using ABEM Terrameter LS equipment. The results show three distinct layers on both sides of the river up to the depth of 20 m. The subsurface is divided into three distinct layers namely, alluvium extending up to, 3 m depth, conglomerate zone lying between the depth of 3 m to 15 m, and compacted pebbles and cobbles beyond 15 m. P-wave velocity in top layer is found in the range of 400 – 600 m/s, in second layer it varies from 700 – 1100 m/s and in the third layer it is 1500 – 3300 m/s. The resistivity results also show similar pattern and were in good agreement with seismic refraction results. The results obtained in this study were validated with an available exposed river scar at one site. The study established the efficacy of geophysical methods for subsurface investigations.

Keywords: 2D resistivity imaging, P-wave velocity, seismic refraction survey, subsurface

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2 Effect of Cigarette Smoke on Micro-Architecture of Respiratory Organs with and without Dietary Probiotics

Authors: Komal Khan, Hafsa Zaneb, Saima Masood, Muhammad Younus, Sanan Raza

Abstract:

Cigarette smoke induces many physiological and pathological changes in respiratory tract like goblet cell hyperplasia and regional distention of airspaces. It is also associated with elevation of inflammatory profiles in different airway compartments. As probiotics are generally known to promote mucosal tolerance, it was postulated that prophylactic use of probiotics can be helpful in reduction of respiratory damage induced by cigarette smoke exposure. Twenty-four adult mice were randomly divided into three groups (cigarette-smoke (CS) group, cigarette-smoke+ Lactobacillus (CS+ P) group, control (Cn) group), each having 8 mice. They were exposed to cigarette smoke for 28 days (6 cigarettes/ day for 6 days/week). Wright-Giemsa staining of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was performed in three mice per group. Tissue samples of trachea and lungs of 7 mice from each group were processed by paraffin embedding technique for haematoxylin & eosin (H & E) and alcian blue- periodic acid-Schiff (AB-PAS) staining. Then trachea (goblet cell number, ratio and loss of cilia) and lungs (airspace distention) were studied. The results showed that the number of goblet cells was increased in CS group as a result of defensive mechanism of the respiratory system against irritating substances. This study also revealed that the cells of CS group having acidic glycoprotein were found to be higher in quantity as compared to those containing neutral glycoprotein. However, CS + P group showed a decrease in goblet cell index due to enhanced immunity by prophylactically used probiotics. Moreover, H & E stained tracheas showed significant loss of cilia in CS group due to propelling of mucous but little loss in CS + P group because of having good protective tracheal epithelium. In lungs, protection of airspaces was also much more evident in CS+ P group as compared to CS group having distended airspaces, especially at 150um distance from terminal bronchiole. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of inflammatory cells population of BALF showed neutrophilia and eosinophilia was significantly reduced in CS+ P group. This study proved that probiotics are found to be useful for reduction of changes in micro-architecture of the respiratory system. Thus, dietary supplementation of probiotic as prophylactic measure can be useful in achieving immunomodulatory effects.

Keywords: cigarette smoke, probiotics, goblet cells, airspace enlargement, BALF

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1 A Hybrid of BioWin and Computational Fluid Dynamics Based Modeling of Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants for Model-Based Control

Authors: Komal Rathore, Kiesha Pierre, Kyle Cogswell, Aaron Driscoll, Andres Tejada Martinez, Gita Iranipour, Luke Mulford, Aydin Sunol

Abstract:

Modeling of Biological Wastewater Treatment Plants requires several parameters for kinetic rate expressions, thermo-physical properties, and hydrodynamic behavior. The kinetics and associated mechanisms become complex due to several biological processes taking place in wastewater treatment plants at varying times and spatial scales. A dynamic process model that incorporated the complex model for activated sludge kinetics was developed using the BioWin software platform for an Advanced Wastewater Treatment Plant in Valrico, Florida. Due to the extensive number of tunable parameters, an experimental design was employed for judicious selection of the most influential parameter sets and their bounds. The model was tuned using both the influent and effluent plant data to reconcile and rectify the forecasted results from the BioWin Model. Amount of mixed liquor suspended solids in the oxidation ditch, aeration rates and recycle rates were adjusted accordingly. The experimental analysis and plant SCADA data were used to predict influent wastewater rates and composition profiles as a function of time for extended periods. The lumped dynamic model development process was coupled with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling of the key units such as oxidation ditches in the plant. Several CFD models that incorporate the nitrification-denitrification kinetics, as well as, hydrodynamics was developed and being tested using ANSYS Fluent software platform. These realistic and verified models developed using BioWin and ANSYS were used to plan beforehand the operating policies and control strategies for the biological wastewater plant accordingly that further allows regulatory compliance at minimum operational cost. These models, with a little bit of tuning, can be used for other biological wastewater treatment plants as well. The BioWin model mimics the existing performance of the Valrico Plant which allowed the operators and engineers to predict effluent behavior and take control actions to meet the discharge limits of the plant. Also, with the help of this model, we were able to find out the key kinetic and stoichiometric parameters which are significantly more important for modeling of biological wastewater treatment plants. One of the other important findings from this model were the effects of mixed liquor suspended solids and recycle ratios on the effluent concentration of various parameters such as total nitrogen, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, etc. The ANSYS model allowed the abstraction of information such as the formation of dead zones increases through the length of the oxidation ditches as compared to near the aerators. These profiles were also very useful in studying the behavior of mixing patterns, effect of aerator speed, and use of baffles which in turn helps in optimizing the plant performance.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, flow-sheet simulation, kinetic modeling, process dynamics

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