Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 433

Search results for: Kingdom of Bahrain

433 The Impact of System and Data Quality on Organizational Success in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Amal M. Alrayes

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Data and system quality play a central role in organizational success, and the quality of any existing information system has a major influence on the effectiveness of overall system performance.Given the importance of system and data quality to an organization, it is relevant to highlight their importance on organizational performance in the Kingdom of Bahrain. This research aims to discover whether system quality and data quality are related, and to study the impact of system and data quality on organizational success. A theoretical model based on previous research is used to show the relationship between data and system quality, and organizational impact. We hypothesize, first, that system quality is positively associated with organizational impact, secondly that system quality is positively associated with data quality, and finally that data quality is positively associated with organizational impact. A questionnaire was conducted among public and private organizations in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The results show that there is a strong association between data and system quality, that affects organizational success.

Keywords: data quality, performance, system quality, Kingdom of Bahrain

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432 Corporate Social Responsibility of Islamic Banks in Bahrain: Depositors’ Awareness

Authors: Sutan Emir Hidayat, Latifa Hassan Al-Qassab

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The purpose of this study is to examine depositors’ awareness on the pursuit of corporate social responsibilities (CSR) conducted by Islamic retail banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain according to the Accounting and Auditing Organization for Islamic Financial Institutions (AAOIFI) standards. The outcome of the paper is the extent to which the depositors knew about the banks’ CSR activities in promoting the welfare of the society beyond their business objectives. The study covered all Islamic retail banks in the Kingdom of Bahrain where a survey questionnaire was distributed to a total of 200 Islamic banks' depositors. The results of the survey show that the level of depositors’ awareness is limited on the pursuit of corporate social responsibilities by the banks as indicated by the small number of statements in the survey questionnaire which the respondents agreed to or of which they had satisfactory knowledge. The significant statistical difference in the respondents' answers to the survey questionnaire when they are grouped according to their respective banks prove that the level of depositors’ awareness on the pursuit of corporate social responsibilities varies considerably among the six Islamic retail banks in the kingdom. The findings of the study might be used to assist the policy makers in the field of CSR of Islamic financial institutions in formulation of better CSR activities and in delivering better services for the public welfare. The study also might help Islamic banks in the kingdom to set up strategy in order to increase the level of depositors’ awareness on their CSR activities.

Keywords: corporate social responsibilities, awareness, Islamic banks, Bahrain

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431 Statistical Model to Examine the Impact of the Inflation Rate and Real Interest Rate on the Bahrain Economy

Authors: Ghada Abo-Zaid

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Introduction: Oil is one of the most income source in Bahrain. Low oil price influence on the economy growth and the investment rate in Bahrain. For example, the economic growth was 3.7% in 2012, and it reduced to 2.9% in 2015. Investment rate was 9.8% in 2012, and it is reduced to be 5.9% and -12.1% in 2014 and 2015, respectively. The inflation rate is increased to the peak point in 2013 with 3.3 %. Objectives: The objectives here are to build statistical models to examine the effect of the interest rate inflation rate on the growth economy in Bahrain from 2000 to 2018. Methods: This study based on 18 years, and the multiple regression model is used for the analysis. All of the missing data are omitted from the analysis. Results: Regression model is used to examine the association between the Growth national product (GNP), the inflation rate, and real interest rate. We found that (i) Increase the real interest rate decrease the GNP. (ii) Increase the inflation rate does not effect on the growth economy in Bahrain since the average of the inflation rate was almost 2%, and this is considered as a low percentage. Conclusion: There is a positive impact of the real interest rate on the GNP in Bahrain. While the inflation rate does not show any negative influence on the GNP as the inflation rate was not large enough to effect negatively on the economy growth rate in Bahrain.

Keywords: growth national product, egypt, regression model, interest rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
430 The Effect of TQM Implementation on Bahrain Industrial Performance

Authors: Bader Al-Mannai, Saad Sulieman, Yaser Al-Alawi

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Research studies worldwide undoubtedly demonstrated that the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) program can improve organizations competitive abilities and provide strategic quality advances. However, limited empirical studies and research are directed to measure the effectiveness of TQM implementation on the industrial and manufacturing organizations performance. Accordingly, this paper is aimed at discussing “the degree of TQM implementation in Bahrain industries and its effect on their performance”. The paper will present the measurement indicators and success factors that were used to assess the degree of TQM implementation in Bahrain industry, and the main performance indicators that were affected by TQM implementation. The adopted research methodology in this study was a survey that was based on self-completion questionnaire. The sample population represented the industrial and manufacturing organizations in Bahrain. The study led to the identification of the operational and strategic measurement indicators and success factors that assist organizations in realizing successful TQM implementation and performance improvement. Furthermore, the research analysis confirmed a positive and significant relationship between the examined performance indicators in Bahrain industry and TQM implementation. In conclusion the investigation of the relationship revealed that the implementation of TQM program has resulted into remarkable improvements on workforce, sales performance, and quality performance indicators in Bahrain industry.

Keywords: performance indicators, success factors, TQM implementation, Bahrain

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429 Exploring Non-Governmental Organizations’ Performance Management: Bahrain Athletics Association as a Case Study

Authors: Nooralhuda Aljlas

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In the ever-growing field of non-governmental organizations, the enhancement of performance management and measurement systems has been increasingly acknowledged by political, economic, social, legal, technological and environmental factors. Within Bahrain Athletics Association, such enhancement results from the key factors leading performance management including collaboration, feedback, human resource management, leadership and participative management. The exploratory, qualitative research conducted reviewed performance management theory. As reviewed, the key factors leading performance management were identified. Drawing on a non-governmental organization case study, the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management were explored. By exploring the key factors leading Bahrain Athletics Association’s performance management, the research study proposed a theoretical framework of the key factors leading performance management in non-governmental organizations in general. The research study recommended further investigation of the role of the two key factors of command and control and leadership, combining military and civilian approaches to enhancing non-governmental organizations’ performance management.

Keywords: Bahrain athletics association, exploratory, key factor, performance management

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
428 E-Government Websites Accessibility for People with Disabilities (PWD): In Depth Evaluation of Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Reem AlKabbi, Hayat Ali, Mariam Yasser

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Nowadays, eGovernment websites are becoming indispensable for public, business, personal efficiency or even improvement of livelihoods. Using these websites, citizens undertake number of tasks that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. However, many of these websites are not accessible to all people' types including People with Disabilities (PWDs). Through Web Accessibility Guidelines, Web developers can develop Web applications that are accessible to PWDs. This research is to investigate the Accessibility of eGovernment websites in Kingdom of Bahrain. The accessibility was measured using Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) and section 508. For the evaluation purpose, some automatic tools were used. Samples of 43 eGovernment websites were selected. The accessibility of the websites was analyzed by using several automatic evaluation tools such as Total Validator and Functional Accessibility Evaluator (FAE). The evaluation process revealed several errors according to the accessibility guidelines. This research provides few recommendations for further improvement of accessibility features of eGovernment websites based on the highlighted issues and key findings reported in this research.

Keywords: website accessibility, W3C, PWD, e-government

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427 Teaching Remotely during COVID-19 Pandemic: Effectiveness and Challenges Faced by Teachers of Remote Teaching Strategies with Autistic Children in the Kingdom of Bahrain-Teachers’ Point of View

Authors: Wid Daghustani, Alison Mackenzie

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This research aims to understand how teachers of autistic children responded to teaching remotely during the Covid-19 pandemic. Six teachers who work in an autism centre were interviewed in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The interviews focused on three themes, the effectiveness of remote teaching strategies, the types of remote teachings employed, and the impact on student’s educational outcomes. WhatsApp video calls were used to conduct the remote teaching since it was easy for mothers to us. According to all teachers, the unprecedented change was quite challenging for autos and their families, especially the mothers being the primary caretakers. Additionally, the effectiveness of remote teaching mainly depended on the cooperation and the willingness of the mothers and on the behaviour of the autistic child. Overall, teachers have agreed that in comparison to face-to-face teaching, remote teaching was not a very successful experience.

Keywords: remote teaching, autistic, COVID-19, teachers

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426 Hypermarkets Product Awareness of Halal Branding in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Imelda Atengco Milan

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This research is aimed to assess the effectiveness and status of Islamic branding amongst hypermarkets from respondents perspective in the Kingdom of Bahrain such as Lulu, Geant and Carrefour and It was identified in terms of pure advertisement, religious norms and culture, certified halal product/ brand, consumption barriers and attitude towards other products/ brand. Included here are also the essentials in modern marketing including problems encountered and recommendations which will be revealed through the findings of the study. The methods used are descriptive and quantitative with sample analysis through quite a number of populations. Formulation of Sample questionnaire is done according to the variables and items used to measure reliability of statistics. The measurement of validity on the conduct of the surveys has been done according to Chronbach’s value (greater than 0.7). Pearson correlation was used as part of statistical analysis as well. It must show continuously that the model used is aligned towards factors indicated.

Keywords: pure advertisement, religious norms & culture, certified halal product, attitude towards other brand and consumption barriers

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
425 Assessment of Waste Management Practices in Bahrain

Authors: T. Radu, R. Sreenivas, H. Albuflasa, A. Mustafa Khan, W. Aloqab

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The Kingdom of Bahrain, a small island country in the Gulf region, is experiencing fast economic growth resulting in a sharp increase in population and greater than ever amounts of waste being produced. However, waste management in the country is still very basic, with landfilling being the most popular option. Recycling is still a scarce practice, with small recycling businesses and initiatives emerging in recent years. This scenario is typical for other countries in the region, with similar amounts of per capita waste being produced. In this paper, we are reviewing current waste management practices in Bahrain by collecting data published by the Government and various authors, and by visiting the country’s only landfill site, Askar. In addition, we have performed a survey of the residents to learn more about the awareness and attitudes towards sustainable waste management strategies. A review of the available data on waste management indicates that the Askar landfill site is nearing its capacity. The site uses open tipping as the method of disposal. The highest percentage of disposed waste comes from the building sector (38.4%), followed by domestic (27.5%) and commercial waste (17.9%). Disposal monitoring and recording are often based on estimates of weight and without proper characterization/classification of received waste. Besides, there is a need for assessment of the environmental impact of the site with systematic monitoring of pollutants in the area and their potential spreading to the surrounding land, groundwater, and air. The results of the survey indicate low awareness of what happens with the collected waste in the country. However, the respondents have shown support for future waste reduction and recycling initiatives. This implies that the education of local communities would be very beneficial for such governmental initiatives, securing greater participation. Raising awareness of issues surrounding recycling and waste management and systematic effort to divert waste from landfills are the first steps towards securing sustainable waste management in the Kingdom of Bahrain.

Keywords: landfill, municipal solid waste, survey, waste management

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424 Web 2.0 in Higher Education: The Instructors’ Acceptance in Higher Educational Institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: Amal M. Alrayes, Hayat M. Ali

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Since the beginning of distance education with the rapid evolution of technology, the social network plays a vital role in the educational process to enforce the interaction been the learners and teachers. There are many Web 2.0 technologies, services and tools designed for educational purposes. This research aims to investigate instructors’ acceptance towards web-based learning systems in higher educational institutes in Kingdom of Bahrain. Questionnaire is used to investigate the instructors’ usage of Web 2.0 and the factors affecting their acceptance. The results confirm that instructors had high accessibility to such technologies. However, patterns of use were complex. Whilst most expressed interest in using online technologies to support learning activities, learners seemed cautious about other values associated with web-based system, such as the shared construction of knowledge in a public format. The research concludes that there are main factors that affect instructors’ adoption which are security, performance expectation, perceived benefits, subjective norm, and perceived usefulness.

Keywords: Web 2.0, higher education, acceptance, students' perception

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423 Faculty and Students Perspectives of E-Learning at the University of Bahrain

Authors: Amira Abdulrazzaq

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This paper is studying the opinion of faculty members and students about the future of education (e-learning) at the University of Bahrain. Through quantitative analysis a distribution of two surveys, one targeting students of IT College, and College of Arts and the other targeting Faculty members of both Colleges. Through the above survey, the paper measures the following factors: awareness and acceptance, satisfaction, usability, and usefulness. Results indicate positive reactions of all above factors.

Keywords: e-learning, education, moodle, WebCT

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422 Selecting Graduates for the Interns’ Award by Using Multisource Feedback Process: Does It Work?

Authors: Kathryn Strachan, Sameer Otoom, Amal AL-Gallaf, Ahmed Al Ansari

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Introduction: Introducing a reliable method to select graduates for an award in higher education can be challenging but is not impossible. Multisource feedback (MSF) is a popular assessment tool that relies on evaluations of different groups of people, including physicians and non-physicians. It is useful for assessing several domains, including professionalism, communication and collaboration and may be useful for selecting the best interns to receive a University award. Methods: 16 graduates responded to an invitation to participate in the student award, which was conducted by the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland-Bahrain Medical University of Bahrain (RCSI Bahrain) using the MSF process. Five individuals from the following categories rated each participant: physicians, nurses, and fellow students. RCSI Bahrain graduates were assessed in the following domains; professionalism, communication, and collaboration. Mean and standard deviation were calculated and the award was given to the graduate who scored the highest among his/her colleagues. Cronbach’s coefficient was used to determine the questionnaire’s internal consistency and reliability. Factor analysis was conducted to examine for the construct validity. Results: 16 graduates participated in the RCSI-Bahrain interns’ award based on the MSF process, giving us a 16.5% response rate. The instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis and showed 3 factor solutions representing 79.3% of the total variance. Reliability analysis using Cronbach’s α reliability of internal consistency indicated that the full scale of the instrument had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). Conclusion: This study found the MSF process to be reliable and valid for selecting the best graduates for the interns’ awards. However, the low response rates may suggest that the process is not feasible for allowing the majority of the students to participate in the selection process. Further research studies may be required to support the feasibility of the MSF process in selecting graduates for the university award.

Keywords: MSF, RCSI, validity, Bahrain

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421 Board Characteristics, Audit Committee Characteristics, and the Level of Bahraini Corporate Compliance with Mandatory IFRS Disclosure Requirements

Authors: Omar Juhmani

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This paper examines the relation between internal corporate governance and the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements. The internal corporate governance is measured by board and audit committee characteristics. Using data from Bahrain Stock Exchange, the results show that board independence is positively and significantly associated with level of compliance with IFRS disclosure requirements. This suggests that internal corporate governance mechanisms are effective in the financial reporting practices by increasing the level of compliance with IFRS disclosures. Also, the results of the regression analyses indicate that two of the control variables; company size and audit firm size are significantly positively associated with the level of corporate compliance with mandatory IFRS disclosure requirements in Bahrain.

Keywords: Bahrain, board and audit committee characteristics, compliance, disclosure, IFRS

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420 Psychological Security and Its Relationship with Self-Esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Muneera Abdul Haleem Bukhari, Maryam I. Alshirawi, Elsayed S. Elkhamisi

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This study aimed at understanding the relationship between psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, exploring the levels of psychological security and self-esteem, as well as determining the differences between genders in psychological security and self-esteem. The sample of the study contained (60) Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability, (34) males and (26) females who are enrolled in the Vocational and Social Rehabilitation Center and Hope Institute in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Their ages are between (15-23) years old. The Psychological Security Scale and self-Esteem Scale (prepared by James Battle) were used by the researcher. Results showed that levels of psychological security and self-esteem among Adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disability was above average; results also showed the order of the psychological security dimensions in the following manner (future outlook – mood - family security – social security) and the order of the dimensions of self-esteem in the following manner (social self-esteem – personal self-esteem – general self-esteem) among Adolescent with Mild Intellectual Disability; as for the differences between genders, the study showed that there was an increased level of psychological security among males. However, there was no difference in self-esteem between both sexes.

Keywords: psychological security, self-esteem, adolescent, intellectual disability, the Kingdom of Bahrain

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419 Bahrain Experience in Supporting Small and Medium Enterprises by the Utilization of E-Government

Authors: Najla Alhkalaf

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The focus of this study is answering the following question: How do e-government services in Bahrain support the productivity of SMEs? This study examines the current E-government function in enhancing SME productivity in Bahrain through analysing the efficiency of e- government by viewing its facilitators and barriers from the perspective of different stakeholders. The study aims to identify and develop best practice guidelines with the end-goal of creating a standardised channel of communication between e-government and SMEs that fulfil the requirement of SME owners, and thus achieve the prime objective of e-government. E-government services for SMEs have been offered in Bahrain since 2005. However, the current services lack the required mechanism for SMEs to fully take advantage of these services because of lagging communication between service provider and end-user. E-government employees believe that a lack of awareness and trust are the main stumbling block, whereas the SME owners believe that there is a lack of sufficiency in the content and efficiency provided through e- services. A questionnaire has been created based on a pilot study that highlighted the main indicators of e-government efficiency and SMEs productivity as well as previous studies conducted on this subject. This allowed for quantitative data to be extracted. Also interviews were conducted with SME owners and government employees from both case studies, which formed the qualitative data for this study. The findings portray that both the service provider and service receiver largely agree on the existence of most of the technical and administrative barriers. However, the data reflects a level of dissatisfaction from the SME side, which contradicts with the perceived level of satisfaction from the government employees. Therefore, the data supports the argument that assures the existence of a communication gap between stakeholders. To this effect, this research would help build channels of communication between stakeholders, and then induces a plan unlocking the potential of e-government application. The conclusions of this study will help devise an optimised E-government strategy for Bahrain.

Keywords: e-government, SME, e-services, G2B, government employees' perspective, entrepreneurs' perspective, enterprise

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418 Supply Chain Logistics Integration in Bahrain's Construction Industry

Authors: Randolf Von N. Salindo

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The study was conducted to measure the logistics integration capabilities of selected companies in the Bahrain construction industry using the Supply Chain 2000 framework; and, determine the extent and direction of influence of these logistics capabilities and integration competencies on the supply chain performance of the firm. A total of 50 executive respondents (from supervisor to managing director level) from 22 construction and construction supplier firms participated in the study from September to November 2014. The results reveal that respondent Bahraini construction firms have significantly lower levels of logistics capabilities, but higher levels of logistics integration competencies compared to international benchmarks. Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, eight logistics capabilities of Bahraini constructions firms were identified to be positively associated with firm performance; with comprehensive metrics as the most positively dominant influential logistics capability. Activity based and total cost methodology is found to be the most negatively dominant influential logistics capability. In terms of logistics integration competencies, the study revealed that that customer integration, internal integration, and, measurement integration are negatively associated with firm performance. There was no logistics integration competency found to be positively associated with the supply chain performance among the companies who participated in the study. The research reveals that there are areas for improvement in supply chain capabilities and logistics integration competencies of the construction firms in the Kingdom of Bahrain to improve their supply chain performance to a global level.

Keywords: comprehensive metrics, customer integration, logistics integration capabilities, logistics integration competencies

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417 Nurses Care Practices at End of Life in Intensive Care Units in the Kingdom of Bahrain

Authors: M. Yaqoob, C. S. O’Neill, S. Faraj, C. L. O’Neill

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This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study exploring nurse’s contributions to end of life decisions and to the care of dying patients in ICU units in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The process of dying is complex as medical clinicians are frequently unable to say with certainty when death will occur. It is generally accepted that end of life care begins when it is possible to know that death is imminent. Nurses do not make medical treatment decisions when caring for a dying patient. There are, however, many other types of decisions made when a patient is approaching the end of life and nurses are either formally or informally part of these decision making processes. This study explored nurses care practices at the end of life, in two ICU units in large hospitals in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research design was a grounded theory approach. Ten nurses participated, six of whom were Bahraini nationals and four were Indian. A core category death avoidance talk was supported by three major subcategories, degrees of involvement in decision making; signalling and creating an awareness of death; care shifting from dying patients to family. Despite nurses asserting that they carried out the orders of doctors and had no role in decision making processes at end of life this study showed that there were degrees of nurse involvement. Doctors frequently discussed the patient’s clinical condition with nurses and also sought information regarding the family. Information about the family was of particular relevance if the doctor was considering a DNR order, which the nurses equated with dying. Families were not always informed when a DNR decision was made. When families were not informed the nurses engaged in sophisticated rituals signalling and creating awareness to family members that the death of their loved one was near. This process also involved a subtle shifting of care from the dying patient to the family. This seminar paper will focus particularly on how nurses signal and create an awareness of death in an ICU setting. The findings suggest that despite the avoidance of death talk in the ICU nurses indirectly convey and create an awareness that death is near to family members.

Keywords: decision making, dying patients, end of life, intensive care unit

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416 MBES-CARIS Data Validation for the Bathymetric Mapping of Shallow Water in the Kingdom of Bahrain on the Arabian Gulf

Authors: Abderrazak Bannari, Ghadeer Kadhem

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The objectives of this paper are the validation and the evaluation of MBES-CARIS BASE surface data performance for bathymetric mapping of shallow water in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The latter is an archipelago with a total land area of about 765.30 km², approximately 126 km of coastline and 8,000 km² of marine area, located in the Arabian Gulf, east of Saudi Arabia and west of Qatar (26° 00’ N, 50° 33’ E). To achieve our objectives, bathymetric attributed grid files (X, Y, and depth) generated from the coverage of ship-track MBSE data with 300 x 300 m cells, processed with CARIS-HIPS, were downloaded from the General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO). Then, brought into ArcGIS and converted into a raster format following five steps: Exportation of GEBCO BASE surface data to the ASCII file; conversion of ASCII file to a points shape file; extraction of the area points covering the water boundary of the Kingdom of Bahrain and multiplying the depth values by -1 to get the negative values. Then, the simple Kriging method was used in ArcMap environment to generate a new raster bathymetric grid surface of 30×30 m cells, which was the basis of the subsequent analysis. Finally, for validation purposes, 2200 bathymetric points were extracted from a medium scale nautical map (1:100 000) considering different depths over the Bahrain national water boundary. The nautical map was scanned, georeferenced and overlaid on the MBES-CARIS generated raster bathymetric grid surface (step 5 above), and then homologous depth points were selected. Statistical analysis, expressed as a linear error at the 95% confidence level, showed a strong correlation coefficient (R² = 0.96) and a low RMSE (± 0.57 m) between the nautical map and derived MBSE-CARIS depths if we consider only the shallow areas with depths of less than 10 m (about 800 validation points). When we consider only deeper areas (> 10 m) the correlation coefficient is equal to 0.73 and the RMSE is equal to ± 2.43 m while if we consider the totality of 2200 validation points including all depths, the correlation coefficient is still significant (R² = 0.81) with satisfactory RMSE (± 1.57 m). Certainly, this significant variation can be caused by the MBSE that did not completely cover the bottom in several of the deeper pockmarks because of the rapid change in depth. In addition, steep slopes and the rough seafloor probably affect the acquired MBSE raw data. In addition, the interpolation of missed area values between MBSE acquisition swaths-lines (ship-tracked sounding data) may not reflect the true depths of these missed areas. However, globally the results of the MBES-CARIS data are very appropriate for bathymetric mapping of shallow water areas.

Keywords: bathymetry mapping, multibeam echosounder systems, CARIS-HIPS, shallow water

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415 The Effect of Using the Active Learning on Achievement and Attitudes toward Studying the Human Rights Course for the Bahrain Teachers College Students

Authors: Abdelbaky Abouzeid

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The study aimed at determining the effect of using the active learning on achievement and attitudes toward studying the human rights course for the Bahrain Teachers College students and the extent to which any differences of statistical significance according to gender and section can exist. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed and implemented research tools such as academic achievement test and the scale of attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course. The scale of attitudes towards Human Rights was constructed of 40 items investigating four dimensions; the cognitive dimension, the behavioral dimension, the affective dimension, and course quality dimension. The researcher then applied some of the active learning strategies in teaching this course to all students of the first year of the Bahrain Teachers College (102 male and female students) after excluding two students who did not complete the course requirements. Students were divided into five groups. These strategies included interactive lecturing, presentations, role playing, group projects, simulation, brainstorming, concept maps and mind maps, reflection and think-pair-share. The course was introduced to students during the second semester of the academic year 2016-2017. The study findings revealed that the use of active learning strategies affected the achievement of students of Bahrain Teachers College in the Human Rights course. The results of the T-test showed statistically significant differences on the pre-test and post-test in favor of the post-test. No statistically significant differences in the achievement of students according to the section and gender were found. The results also indicated that the use of active learning strategies had a positive effect on students' attitudes towards the study of the Human Rights Course on all the scale’s items. The general average reached (4.26) and the percentage reached (85.19%). Regarding the effect of using active learning strategies on students’ attitudes towards all the four dimensions of the scale, the study concluded that the behavioral dimension came first; the quality of the course came second, the cognitive dimension came third and in the fourth place came the affective dimension. No statistically significant differences in the attitude towards studying the Human Rights Course for the students according to their sections or gender were found. Based on the findings of the study, the researchers suggested some recommendations that can contribute to the development of teaching Human Rights Course at the University of Bahrain.

Keywords: attitudes, academic achievement, human rights, behavioral dimension, cognitive dimension, affective dimension, quality of the course

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414 Assessing Professionalism, Communication, and Collaboration among Emergency Physicians by Implementing a 360-Degree Evaluation

Authors: Ahmed Al Ansari, Khalid Al Khalifa

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Objective: Multisource feedback (MSF), also called the 360-Degree evaluation is an evaluation process by which questionnaires are distributed amongst medical peers and colleagues to assess physician performance from different sources other than the attending or the supervising physicians. The aim of this study was to design, implement, and evaluate a 360-Degree process in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Method: The study was undertaken in Bahrain Defense Force Hospital which is a military teaching hospital in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Thirty emergency physicians (who represent the total population of the emergency physicians in our hospital) were assessed in this study. We developed an instrument modified from the Physician achievement review instrument PAR which was used to assess Physician in Alberta. We focused in our instrument to assess professionalism, communication skills and collaboration only. To achieve face and content validity, table of specification was constructed and a working group was involved in constructing the instrument. Expert opinion was considered as well. The instrument consisted of 39 items; were 15 items to assess professionalism, 13 items to assess communication skills, and 11 items to assess collaboration. Each emergency physicians was evaluated with 3 groups of raters, 4 Medical colleague emergency physicians, 4 medical colleague who are considered referral physicians from different departments, and 4 Coworkers from the emergency department. Independent administrative team was formed to carry on the responsibility of distributing the instruments and collecting them in closed envelopes. Each envelope was consisted of that instrument and a guide for the implementation of the MSF and the purpose of the study. Results: A total of 30 emergency physicians 16 males and 14 females who represent the total number of the emergency physicians in our hospital were assessed. The total collected forms is 269, were 105 surveys from coworkers working in emergency department, 93 surveys from medical colleague emergency physicians, and 116 surveys from referral physicians from different departments. The total mean response rates were 71.2%. The whole instrument was found to be suitable for factor analysis (KMO = 0.967; Bartlett test significant, p<0.00). Factor analysis showed that the data on the questionnaire decomposed into three factors which counted for 72.6% of the total variance: professionalism, collaboration, and communication. Reliability analysis indicated that the instrument full scale had high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α 0.98). The generalizability coefficients (Ep2) were 0.71 for the surveys. Conclusions: Based on the present results, the current instruments and procedures have high reliability, validity, and feasibility in assessing emergency physicians trainee in the emergency room.

Keywords: MSF system, emergency, validity, generalizability

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413 Awareness of Drug Interactions among Physicians at Governmental Health Centers in Bahrain

Authors: Yasin I. Tayem, Jamil Ahmed, Mahmood Bahzad, Abdullah Alnama, Fahad Al Asfoor, Mahmood A. Jalil, Mohammed Radhi, Ahmed Alenezi, Khalid A. J. Al-Khaja

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Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) represent a significant cause of patient’s morbidity and mortality. The rate of DDIs is rapidly increasing worldwide with the increasing proportion of ageing population and frequent requirement of polypharmacy-prescription of multiple drugs to treat comorbidities. Prescribing physicians are responsible for checking their prescriptions for the presence and severity of DDIs. However, since a large number of new drugs are approved and marketed every year, new interactions between medications are increasingly reported. Consequently, it is no longer practical for physicians to rely only upon their previous knowledge of medicine to avoid potential DDIs. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of physicians working at primary healthcare centers in Bahrain towards DDIs and how they manage them during their practice. Methodology: In this cross-sectional study, physicians working at all governmental primary healthcare centers in Bahrain were invited to voluntarily, privately and anonymously respond to a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire aims to assess their self-reported knowledge of DDIs and how they check for them in their practice. The participants were requested to provide socio demographic data and information related to their attitudes towards DDIs including strategies they employ for detecting and managing them, and their awareness of drugs which commonly cause DDIs. At the end of the questionnaire, an open-ended item was added to allow participants to further add any comment. Findings and Conclusions: The study is going on currently, and the results and conclusions will be presented at the conference.

Keywords: awareness, drug interactions, health centres, physicians

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412 Seasonal Variations, Environmental Parameters, and Standing Crop Assessment of Benthic Foraminifera in Western Bahrain, Arabian Gulf

Authors: Muhammad Arslan, Michael A. Kaminski, Bassam S. Tawabini, Fabrizio Frontalini

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We conducted a survey of living benthic foraminifera in a relatively unpolluted site of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, with the aim of determining the seasonal variability in their populations, as well as various environmental parameters that affect their distribution. The maximum standing crop was observed during winter, with highest population of rotaliids, followed by a peak in miliolids. The highest population is attributed to an increasing number juveniles observed along the depth transect. A strong correlation between sediment grain size and the foraminiferal population indicates that juveniles were most abundant on coarser sandy substrate and less abundant on fine substrate. In spring, the total living population decreased, and lowest values are observed in the summer. The population started to increase again in the autumn with highest juveniles/adult ratios. Moreover, results of relative abundance and species consistency show that Ammonia is found to be consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids start appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Peneroplis and Elphidium also increases along the depth transect. Environmental characterization reveals that although the site is subjected to eutrophication caused by nitrates and sulfates, pollution caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals is not significant. The assessment of 63 heavy metals showed that none of the metals had concentrations that exceed internationally accepted norms [the devised level of Effect Range-Low], with the exception of strontium. The lack of a significant environmental effect of heavy metals is confirmed by a Foraminiferal Deformities Index value of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbon contamination was detected in the water or sediment samples. Lastly, observations of cytoplasmic streaming and pseudopodial activity in Petri dishes suggest that the foraminiferal population is not stressed. We conclude that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones of the Arabian Gulf.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf, benthic foraminifera, standing crop, Western Bahrain

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411 Analyzing Investors and Building Users Perception of Green Real Estate Development Projects: The Case of Bahrain

Authors: Fay A. Al-Khalifa, Fariel Khan, Anamika Jiwane

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Responding to some governmentally enforced building sustainability criteria is today becoming an unavoidable challenge to the real estate development industry and is no longer an extra that allows developers to gain competitive advantages. Previous studies suggested that using green technologies, if done under the right circumstances, could lead to positive incentives, tax breaks, higher rents, cost savings and higher property values in the long run. This is all in addition to the marketing benefits of the green label. There are, however, still countries, mostly in the developing world, that lack the implementation of such sustainability guidelines and assessment tools. This research aspires to investigate the market’s readiness to implement such criteria, its perception of sustainable architecture and building users motivation to use and/or invest in sustainable buildings. The study showed via a survey administered to 385 inhabitants and investors in commercial real estate in Bahrain that the respondents have a limited understanding of the benefits of green buildings and are unlikely to want to occupy or invest in a green building under the current social, economic and industrial conditions. Reliability of green technology, effectiveness, price and the questionable long-term financial benefits were among the major concerns. The study suggests that the promotion of sustainable architecture should respond to the current market concerns in a more direct way to trigger an interest in investors and users of commercial real estate project. This stimulated attention should consequently encourage developers to consider incorporating sustainability measures, apply for green building assessment programs and invest in green technologies, all of which need higher capitals that are nonetheless financially justifiable on the long run.

Keywords: investment, real estate, sustainability, clients perception, Bahrain

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410 Iran and the Security of the Gulf Cooperation Council States

Authors: Ibrahim Alshalan

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The Islamic Republic of Iran is one of the greatest and most powerful countries, not only in the Arabian Gulf but in the entire Middle East region. However, the Iranian regime, which came to power as a result of the 1979 revolution that resulted in overthrowing the Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, has been the biggest source of threat to the stability of the Middle East since the revolution until this day. It has ambitions to dominate the neighboring Arab countries, especially Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Yemen and Bahrain. Iran has bad relationships with countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC), which includes Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and Bahrain. The main objective of this paper is to shed light on the deteriorating political relations between the Iranian regime on one hand and the GCC on the other, especially Saudi Arabia which is witnessing more challenges as a result of Iran's determination to develop its nuclear program. Another important objective of this paper is to identify the Iranian role in the creation of the hotbeds of conflict in addition to its responsibility for some of the region's problems. It also aims to answer the question; why does Iran insist on developing its controversial nuclear program?

Keywords: Iran, GCC, Gulf, Saudi Arabia

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409 Opinions and Perceptions of Clinical Staff towards Caring for Obese Patients: A Qualitative Research Study in a Cardiac Centre in Bahrain

Authors: Catherine Mary Abou-Zaid, Sandra Goodwin

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This study was conducted in a cardiac center in Bahrain. The rise in the amount of obese patients’ both men and women, being admitted for surgical procedures has become an issue to the nurses and doctors as these patients pose a high risk of major complications arising from their problem. The cessation of obesity in the country is very high and obesity-related diseases has been the cause of concern among men and women, also related individual diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases are rising dramatically within Bahrain in the last 10 years. Rationale for the Study: The ontological approach will help to understand and assess the true nature of the social world and how the world looks at obesity. Obesity has to be looked at as being a realistic ongoing issue. The epistemological approach will look at the theory of the origins of the nature of knowledge, set the rule of validating and learning in the social world of what can be done to curb this concept and how this can help prevent otherwise preventable diseases. Design Methodology: The qualitative design methodology took the form of an ontological/epistemological approach using phenomenology as a framework. The study was based on a social research issue, therefore, ontological ‘realism and idealism’ will feature as the nature of the world from a social and natural context. Epistemological positions of the study will be how we as researchers will find the actual social world and the limiting of that knowledge. The one-to-one interviews will be transcribed and the taped verbatim will be coded and charted giving the thematic analytic results. Recommendations: The significance of the research brought many recommendations. These recommendations were taken from the themes and sub-themes and were presented to the centers management and the necessary arrangements for updating knowledge and attitudes towards obesity in cardiac patients was then presented to the in-service education department. Workshops and training sessions on promoting health education were organized and put into the educational calendar for the next academic year. These sessions would look at patient autonomy, the patients’ rights, healthy eating for patients and families and the risks associated with obesity in cardiac disease processes.

Keywords: cardiac patients, diabetes, education & training, obesity cessation, qualitative

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408 Role of Symbolism in the Journey towards Spirituality: A Case Study of Mosque Architecture in Bahrain

Authors: Ayesha Agha Shah

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The purpose of a mosque or a place of worship is to build a spiritual relation with God. If the sense of spirituality is not achieved, then sacred architecture appears to be lacking depth. Form and space play a significant role to enhance the architectural quality to impart a divine feel to a place. To achieve this divine feeling, form and space, and unity of opposites, either abstract or symbolic can be employed. It is challenging to imbue the emptiness of a space with qualitative experience. Mosque architecture mostly entails traditional forms and design typology. This approach for Muslim worship produces distinct landmarks in the urban neighborhoods of Muslim societies, while creating a great sense of spirituality. The universal symbolic characters in the mosque architecture had prototype geometrical forms for a long time in history. However, modern mosques have deviated from this approach to employ different built elements and symbolism, which are often hard to be identified as related to mosques or even as Islamic. This research aims to explore the sense of spirituality in modern mosques and questions whether the modification of geometrical features produce spirituality in the same manner. The research also seeks to investigate the role of ‘geometry’ in the modern mosque architecture. The research employs the analytical study of some modern mosque examples in the Kingdom of Bahrain, reflecting on the geometry and symbolism adopted in the new mosque architecture design. It buttresses the analysis by the engagement of people’s perceptions derived using a survey of opinions. The research expects to see the significance of geometrical architectural elements in the mosque designs. It will find answers to the questions such as; what is the role of the form of the mosque, interior spaces and the effect of the modified symbolic features in the modern mosque design? How can the symbolic geometry, forms and spaces of a mosque invite a believer to leave the worldly environment behind and move towards spirituality?

Keywords: geometry, mosque architecture, spirituality, symbolism

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407 A Critical Study of the Performance of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) Using Locally Supplied Materials in Bahrain

Authors: A. Umar, A. Tamimi

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Development of new types of concrete with improved performance is a very important issue for the whole building industry. The development is based on the optimization of the concrete mix design, with an emphasis not only on the workability and mechanical properties but also to the durability and the reliability of the concrete structure in general. Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is a high-performance material designed to flow into formwork under its own weight and without the aid of mechanical vibration. At the same time it is cohesive enough to fill spaces of almost any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. Construction time is shorter and production of SCC is environmentally friendly (no noise, no vibration). Furthermore, SCC produces a good surface finish. Despite these advantages, SCC has not gained much local acceptance though it has been promoted in the Middle East for the last ten to twelve years. The reluctance in utilizing the advantages of SCC, in Bahrain, may be due to lack of research or published data pertaining to locally produced SCC. Therefore, there is a need to conduct studies on SCC using locally available material supplies. From the literature, it has been observed that the use of viscosity modifying admixtures (VMA), micro silica and glass fibers have proved to be very effective in stabilizing the rheological properties and the strength of fresh and hardened properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC). Therefore, in the present study, it is proposed to carry out investigations of SCC with combinations of various dosages of VMAs with and without micro silica and glass fibers and to study their influence on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete.

Keywords: self-compacting concrete, viscosity modifying admixture, micro silica, glass fibers

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406 Assessing the Self-Directed Learning Skills of the Undergraduate Nursing Students in a Medical University in Bahrain: A Quantitative Study

Authors: Catherine Mary Abou-Zaid

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This quantitative study discusses the concerns with the self-directed learning (SDL) skills of the undergraduate nursing students in a medical university in Bahrain. The nursing undergraduate student SDL study was conducted taking all 4 years and compiling data collected from the students themselves by survey questionnaire. The aim of the study is to understand and change the attitudes of self-directed learning among the undergraduate students. The SDL of the undergraduate student nurses has been noticed to be lacking and motivation to actually perform without supervision while out-with classrooms are very low. Their use of the resources available on the virtual learning environment and also within the university is not as good as it should be for a university student at this level. They do not use them to their own advantage. They are not prepared for the transition from high school to an academic environment such as a university or college. For some students it is the first time in their academic lives that they have faced sharing a classroom with the opposite sex. For some this is a major issue and we as academics need to be aware of all issues that they come to higher education with. Design Methodology: The design methodology that was chosen was a quantitative design using convenience sampling of the students who would be asked to complete survey questionnaire. This sampling method was chosen because of the time constraint. This was completed by the undergraduate students themselves while in class. The questionnaire was analyzed by the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), the results interpreted by the researcher and the findings published in the paper. The analyzed data will also be reported on and from this information we as educators will be able to see the student’s weaknesses regarding self-directed learning. The aims and objectives of the research will be used as recommendations for the improvement of resources for the students to improve their SDL skills. Conclusion: The results will be able to give the educators an insight to how we can change the self-directed learning techniques of the students and enable them to embrace the skills and to focus more on being self-directed in their studies rather than having to be put on to a SDL pathway from the educators themselves. This evidence will come from the analysis of the statistical data. It may even change the way in which the students are selected for the nursing programme. These recommendations will be reported to the head of school and also to the nursing faculty.

Keywords: self-directed learning, undergraduate students, transition, statistical package for social sciences (SPSS), higher education

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405 Performance Evaluation of Hemispherical Basin Type Solar Still

Authors: Husham Mahmood Ahmed

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For so many reasons, fresh water scarcity is one of major problems facing the world and in particularly in the third world in the Northern Africa, the Middle East, the Southwest of Asia, and many other desert areas. Solar distillation offers one of the most promising solutions of renewable energy to this aggravated situation. The main obstacle hindering the spread of the use of solar technology for fresh water production is its low efficiency. Therefore, enhancing the solar stills performances by studying the parameters affecting their productivity and implementing new ideas and a different design are the main goals of the investigators in recent years. The present research is experimental work that tests a new design of solar still with a hemispherical top cover for water desalination with and without external reflectors under the climate of the Kingdom of Bahrain during the autumn season. The hemispherical cover has a base diameter of 1m and a depth of 0.4m, die cast from a 6 mm thick Lexan plastic sheet. The net effective area was 0.785 m2. It has been found that the average daily production rate obtained from the hemispherical top cover solar still is 3.610 liter/day. This yield is 11.1% higher than the yield of a conventional simple type single slope solar still having 20ᴼ slope glass cover and a larger effective area of 1 m2 obtained in previous research under similar climatic conditions. It has also been found that adding 1.2m long by 0.15 curved reflectors increased the yield of the hemispherical solar still by 5.5 %, while the 1.2 long by 0.3m curved reflector increased the yield by about 8%.

Keywords: hemispherical solar still, solar desalination, solar energy, the Northern Africa

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404 Informational Efficiency and Integration: Evidence from Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) Shariah Equity Market

Authors: Sania Ashraf

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The paper focuses on the prevalence of informational efficiency and integration of GCC Shariah Equity market for the period of 01st January 2010 to 31st June 2015 with daily equity returns of Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The study employs traditional as well as the modern approach of tracing out the efficiency and integration in the return series. From the results of efficiency it was observed that the market lacked efficiency in terms of its past information. The results of integration test clearly indicates that there was a long memory in the returns of GCC Shariah during the study period. Hence it was concluded and proved that the returns of all GCC Equity Shariah were not informationally efficient but fractionally integrated during the study period.

Keywords: efficiency, Fama, GCC shariah, hurst exponent, integration, serial correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 271