Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: Katharina Hobusch

16 Solid Particle Erosion of Heat Treated TNB-V4 at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Muhammad Naveed, Richard Stechow, Sebastian Bolz, Katharina Hobusch, Sabine Weiß

Abstract:

Solid particle erosion has been identified as a critical wear phenomenon which takes place during operation of aeroengines in dusty environment. The present work discusses the erosion behavior of Ti-44.5Al-6.25Nb-0.8Mo-0.1B alloy (TNB-V4) which finds its application in low pressure gas turbines and can be used for high pressure compressors too. Prior to the erosion tests, the alloy was heat treated to improve the mechanical properties. Afterwards, specimens were eroded at impact angles of 30° and 90° at room and high temperatures (100 °C-400 °C). Volume loss and erosion behavior are studied through gravimetric analysis, whereas erosion mechanisms are characterized through scanning electron microscopy. The results indicate a clear difference in the erosion mechanism for different impact angles. The influence of the test temperature on the erosion behavior of the alloy is also discussed in the present contribution.

Keywords: solid particle erosion, gamma TiAl, TNB-V4, high temperature erosion

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15 The Influence of Consumer and Brand-Oriented Capabilities on Business Performance in Young Firms: A Quantitative Causal Model Analysis

Authors: Katharina Buttenberg

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Customer and brand-oriented capabilities have been identified as key influencing capabilities for business performance. Especially in the early years of the firm, it is crucial to develop and consciously manage these capabilities. In this paper, the results of a quantitative analysis, investigating the causal relationship between customer- and brand-oriented (marketing) capabilities and business performance will be presented. The research displays the dependencies between the constructs and will provide practical implications for young firms in the acquisition and management of these capabilities.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Resource-based theory, brand-oriented capabilities, customer-oriented capabilities, young firms

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14 The Europeanization of Minority and Disability Rights: A Comparative View

Authors: Katharina Crepaz

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Both minority rights and disability rights are relatively new fields for policy-making in a European context, and both are affected by the EU’s diversity mainstreaming approach, as well as by the non-discrimination legislation drafted at the European level. These processes correspond to the classic understanding of Europeanization, namely a “top-down” stream of influence from the European to the national and subnational levels. However, both minority and disability rights movements also show instances of “bottom-up” Europeanization, e.g. transnational advocacy networks and efforts to reach joint goals at the EU-level. This paper aims to provide a comparative perspective on Europeanization in both fields, pointing out similar dynamics and patterns, but also explaining in which sectors outcomes may be different and which domestic and other scope conditions may be responsible for these differences.

Keywords: minority rights, Disability rights, Europeanization, comparative perspective

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13 Innovative Ideas through Collaboration with Potential Users

Authors: Martin Hewing, Katharina Hölzle

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Organizations increasingly use environmental stimuli and ideas from users within participatory innovation processes in order to tap new sources of knowledge. The research presented in this article focuses on users who shape the distant edges of markets and currently are not using products and services from a domain– so called potential users. Those users at the peripheries are perceived to contribute more novel information, by which they better reflect shifts in needs and behavior than current users in the core market. Their contributions in collaborative and creative problem-solving processes and how they generate ideas for discontinuous innovations are of particular interest. With an experimental design, we compare ideas from potential and current users and analyze the effects of cognitive distance in collaboration and the utilization of explicit and tacit knowledge. We find potential users to generate more original ideas, particularly when they collaborate with someone experienced within the domain. Their ideas are most obviously characterized by an increased level of surprise and unusualness compared to dominant designs, which is rooted in contexts and does not require technological leaps. Collaboration with potential users can therefore result in new ways to leverage technological competences. Furthermore, the cross-fertilization arising from cognitive distance between a potential and a current user is asymmetric due to differences in the nature of their utilized knowledge and personal objectives. This paper discusses implications for innovation research and the management of early innovation processes.

Keywords: Co-creation, user collaboration, discontinuous innovation, innovation research

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12 Flexible Work Arrangements for Managers-Gender Diversity and Organizational Development in German Firms

Authors: Marc Gärtner, Monika Huesmann, Katharina Schiederig

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While workplace flexibility provides opportunities to better balance work and family care, careers in management are still predominantly based on physical presence, blurred boundaries and a culture of availability at the workplace. Thus, carers (mostly women) still experience disadvantages and stalled careers. In a multi-case study, funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, success factors and barriers of flexible work arrangements in five big organizations, including three of the largest German companies, have been identified. Using qualitative interview methods, the working models of 10 female and male users of flexible work arrangements like part time, home office and job sharing have been studied. The study group applied a 360-degree approach with focus groups, covering the users’ themselves, their superiors, colleagues and staff as well as in-house human resource managers. The group interviews reveal that success of flexible models is mainly built on three factors: (a) the inclusiveness of the organizational culture, (b) the commitment of leaders and especially the supervisors, and (c) the fitting of the model and the user(s). Flexibilization of time and space can indeed contribute to a better work-life balance. This is, however, not a necessary outcome, as the interviews suggest, but depends on the right implementation of the right model in the particular work environment. Beyond the actual study results, the presentation will also assess the methodological approach.

Keywords: Leadership, Organizational Culture, work-life balance, flexible work

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11 Evaluation of Different Anticoagulant Effects on Flow Properties of Human Blood Using Falling Needle Rheometer

Authors: Hideki Yamamoto, Hiroki Tsuneda, Takamasa Suzuki, Kimito Kawamura, Eiji Tamura, Katharina Wochner, Roberto Plasenzotti

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Flow property of human blood is one of the important factors on the prevention of the circulatory condition such as a high blood pressure, a diabetes mellitus, and a cardiac infarction. However, the measurement of flow property of human blood, especially blood viscosity, is not so easy, because of their coagulation or aggregation behaviors after taking a sample from blood vessel. In the experiment, some kinds of anticoagulant were added into the human blood to avoid its solidification. Anticoagulant used in the blood test has been chosen for each purpose of blood test, for anticoagulant effect on blood is different mechanism for each. So that, there is a problem that the evaluation of measured blood property with different anticoagulant is so difficult. Therefore, it is so important to make clear the difference of anticoagulant effect on the blood property. In the previous work, a compact-size falling needle rheometer (FNR) has been developed in order to measure the flow property of human blood such as a flow curve, an apparent viscosity. It was found that FNR system can apply to a rheometer or a viscometry for various experimental conditions for not only human blood but also mammalians blood. In this study, the measurements of human blood viscosity with different anticoagulant (EDTA and Heparin) were carried out using newly developed FNR system. The effect of anticoagulant on blood viscosity was also tested by using the standard liquid for each. The accuracy on the viscometry was also tested by using the standard liquid for calibrating materials (JS-10, JS-20) and observed data have satisfactory agreement with reference data around 1.0% at 310K. The flow curve of six males and females with different anticoagulant were measured using FNR. In this experiment, EDTA and Heparin were chosen as anticoagulant for blood. Heparin can inhibit the coagulation of human blood by activating the body of anti-thrombin. To examine the effect of human blood viscosity on anticoagulant, flow curve was measured at high shear rate (>350s-1), and apparent viscosity of each person were determined with different anticoagulant. The apparent viscosity of human blood with heparin was 2%-9% higher than that with EDTA. However, the difference of blood viscosity for two anticoagulants for same blood was different for each. Further discussion, we need the consideration of effect on other physical property, such as cellular component and plasma component.

Keywords: viscosity, falling-needle rheometer, human blood, anticoagulant

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10 Entrepreneurship Education Revised: Merging a Theory-Based and Action-Based Framework for Entrepreneurial Narratives' Impact as an Awareness-Raising Teaching Tool

Authors: Katharina Fellnhofer, Kaisu Puumalainen

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Despite the current worldwide increasing interest in entrepreneurship education (EE), little attention has been paid to innovative web-based ways such as the narrative approach by telling individual stories of entrepreneurs via multimedia for demonstrating the impact on individuals towards entrepreneurship. In addition, this research discipline is faced with no consensus regarding its effective content of teaching materials and tools. Therefore, a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution is required to aim at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research to serve for future research related to multimedia entrepreneurial narratives. Based on this background, our effort will focus on finding support regarding following introductory statement: Multimedia success and failure stories of real entrepreneurs show potential to change perceptions towards entrepreneurship in a positive way. The proposed qualitative conceptual paper will introduce the underlying background for this research framework. Therefore, as a qualitative hypothesis-generating research contribution it aims at drawing new insights from published works in the EE field of research related to entrepreneurial narratives to serve for future research. With the means of the triangulation of multiple theories, we will utilize the foundation for multimedia-based entrepreneurial narratives applying a learning-through-multimedia-real-entrepreneurial-narratives pedagogical tool to facilitate entrepreneurship. Our effort will help to demystify how value-oriented entrepreneurs telling their stories multimedia can simultaneously enhance EE. Therefore, the paper will build new-fangled bridges between well-cited theoretical constructs to build a robust research framework. Overall, the intended contribution seeks to emphasize future research of currently under-researched issues in the EE sphere, which are considered to be essential not only to academia, as well as to business and society having future jobs-providing growth-oriented entrepreneurs in mind. The Authors would like to thank the Austrian Science Fund FWF: [J3740 – G27].

Keywords: Entrepreneurship Education, entrepreneurial intention, entrepreneurial attitudes and perceptions, entrepreneurial narratives

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9 A Qualitative Research Approach Exploring Early Adolescents’ Perspectives on Their Fears during School Transition and Their Strategies to Overcome These

Authors: Katharina Stiehl, Kate Woodcock, Ina Stacher, Beate Schrank

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Background: There is a consensus that school transition from primary to secondary is one of the most challenging periods for children. This time is associated with increased stress and worry. Failure to adequately cope with transition can lead to poor school adjustment, decreased self-esteem, poor academic performance, a reduced sense of general well-being and can, ultimately, result in mental health problems. There are many papers that employ a theoretical perspective, however, to our best knowledge, there is a lack of in-depth analysis of young people’s views on what they fear, how these fears manifest in everyday school life and young people’s own strategies to cope and overcome these obstacles in today’s society. Aim: This qualitative study aims to understand children’s fears in connection with school transitions and the strategies early adolescents apply to overcome these issues. Method: Workshops using youth engagement strategies were conducted with 53 classes (N = 1000 pupils; age = 9-12 years) in lower Austria. Data were collected using a vignette story about a child who had recently moved from primary to secondary school. First, the entire class brainstormed about potential fears this new classmate could experience, followed by small group discussions about possible strategies to overcome the described issues. A thematic analysis was conducted. Results: Children articulated four major fears (fear of peer victimisation, victimisation by authorities, academic failure, and being alone). Ways to overcome these include behavioural as well as more cognitive strategies, such as emotion regulation approaches. Conclusion: A better understanding of children’s fears and their natural coping strategies provides researchers with important knowledge to create child-centered preventive health programs, based on topics relevant to children in today’s society. It shows which strategies are used and helps identify potential gaps where additional support is needed.

Keywords: Strategies, fears, child voice, experts by experience, primary-secondary school transition

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8 Insights into the Annotated Genome Sequence of Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 Isolated from a Thermophilic Rural Biogas Producing Plant

Authors: Irena Maus, Katharina Gabriella Cibis, Andreas Bremges, Yvonne Stolze, Geizecler Tomazetto, Daniel Wibberg, Helmut König, Alfred Pühler, Andreas Schlüter

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Within the agricultural sector, the production of biogas from organic substrates represents an economically attractive technology to generate bioenergy. Complex consortia of microorganisms are responsible for biomass decomposition and biogas production. Recently, species belonging to the phylum Thermotogae were detected in thermophilic biogas-production plants utilizing renewable primary products for biomethanation. To analyze adaptive genome features of representative Thermotogae strains, Defluviitoga tunisiensis L3 was isolated from a rural thermophilic biogas plant (54°C) and completely sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq system. Sequencing and assembly of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome yielded a circular chromosome with a size of 2,053,097 bp and a mean GC content of 31.38%. Functional annotation of the complete genome sequence revealed that the thermophilic strain L3 encodes several genes predicted to facilitate growth of this microorganism on arabinose, galactose, maltose, mannose, fructose, raffinose, ribose, cellobiose, lactose, xylose, xylan, lactate and mannitol. Acetate, hydrogen (H2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are supposed to be end products of the fermentation process. The latter gene products are metabolites for methanogenic archaea, the key players in the final step of the anaerobic digestion process. To determine the degree of relatedness of dominant biogas community members within selected digester systems to D. tunisiensis L3, metagenome sequences from corresponding communities were mapped on the L3 genome. These fragment recruitments revealed that metagenome reads originating from a thermophilic biogas plant covered 95% of D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence. In conclusion, availability of the D. tunisiensis L3 genome sequence and insights into its metabolic capabilities provide the basis for biotechnological exploitation of genome features involved in thermophilic fermentation processes utilizing renewable primary products.

Keywords: genome sequence, thermophilic biogas plant, Thermotogae, Defluviitoga tunisiensis

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7 Promoting Self-Esteem and Social Integration in Secondary German Schools: An Evaluation Study

Authors: Uwe Berger, Bernhard Strauss, Susanne Manes, Anni Glaeser, Katharina Wick

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Introduction: Over the last decades growing rates of mental health concerns among children and adolescents have been observed. At the same time, physical well-being of children and adolescents becomes increasingly impaired as well. Schools play an important role in preventing mental and physical disorders and in promoting well-being. Self-esteem, as well as social integration, are vital influence factors for mental and physical well-being. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate the program 'VorteilJena' for secondary schools in Germany focusing on self-esteem and social integration to improve mental and physical well-being. Method: The school-based health promotion program was designed for students in 5th grade and higher. It consists of several short pedagogical exercises instructed by a teacher and were integrated into the regular class over the course of ten weeks. The exercises focused on fostering social integration using either tasks improving team spirit or exercises that increase tolerance and sense of belonging. Other exercises focused on strengthening the self-esteem of the students. Additionally, the program included a poster exhibition titled 'Belonging' which was put up in the school buildings. The exhibition comprised ten posters which addressed relevant risk factors and resources related to social integration and self-esteem. The study was a randomized controlled sequential study with a pre and post measurement conducted in ten German schools. A total of 1642 students (44% male) were recruited. Their age ranged from 9 to 21 years (M=12.93 years; SD= 2.11). The program was conducted in classes ranging from 5th to 12th grade. Results: The program improved wellbeing, self-esteem and social integration of the involved students compared to the control group. Differential effects depending on implementation rates or age of the students will be analyzed. Moreover, implications for future school-based health promotion programs targeting self-esteem and social integration will be discussed. Conclusion: Social integration considerably influences self-esteem and well-being of students and can be targeted by school-based programs including short and modest exercises. Since a sufficient implementation of health promotion programs is essential, the present program due to its practicability represents a good opportunity to install health promotion focusing on social integration in schools.

Keywords: Well-being, self-esteem, social integration, health promotion in schools

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6 Angiomotin Regulates Integrin Beta 1-Mediated Endothelial Cell Migration and Angiogenesis

Authors: Yuanyuan Zhang, Yujuan Zheng, Giuseppina Barutello, Sumako Kameishi, Kungchun Chiu, Katharina Hennig, Martial Balland, Federica Cavallo, Lars Holmgren

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Angiogenesis describes that new blood vessels migrate from pre-existing ones to form 3D lumenized structure and remodeling. During directional migration toward the gradient of pro-angiogenic factors, the endothelial cells, especially the tip cells need filopodia to sense the environment and exert the pulling force. Of particular interest are the integrin proteins, which play an essential role in focal adhesion in the connection between migrating cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). Understanding how these biomechanical complexes orchestrate intrinsic and extrinsic forces is important for our understanding of the underlying mechanisms driving angiogenesis. We have previously identified Angiomotin (Amot), a member of Amot scaffold protein family, as a promoter for endothelial cell migration in vitro and zebrafish models. Hence, we established inducible endothelial-specific Amot knock-out mice to study normal retinal angiogenesis as well as tumor angiogenesis. We found that the migration ratio of the blood vessel network to the edge was significantly decreased in Amotec- retinas at postnatal day 6 (P6). While almost all the Amot defect tip cells lost migration advantages at P7. In consistence with the dramatic morphology defect of tip cells, there was a non-autonomous defect in astrocytes, as well as the disorganized fibronectin expression pattern correspondingly in migration front. Furthermore, the growth of transplanted LLC tumor was inhibited in Amot knockout mice due to fewer vasculature involved. By using MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse model, there was a significantly longer period before tumors arised when Amot was specifically knocked out in blood vessels. In vitro evidence showed that Amot binded to beta-actin, Integrin beta 1 (ITGB1), Fibronectin, FAK, Vinculin, major focal adhesion molecules, and ITGB1 and stress fibers were distinctly induced by Amot transfection. Via traction force microscopy, the total energy (force indicater) was found significantly decreased in Amot knockdown cells. Taken together, we propose that Amot is a novel partner of the ITGB1/Fibronectin protein complex at focal adhesion and required for exerting force transition between endothelial cell and extracellular matrix.

Keywords: angiogenesis, angiomotin, endothelial cell migration, focal adhesion, integrin beta 1

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5 Implementing a Prevention Network for the Ortenaukreis

Authors: Klaus Froehlich-Gildhoff, Ullrich Boettinger, Katharina Rauh, Angela Schickler

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The Prevention Network Ortenaukreis, PNO, funded by the German Ministry of Education and Research, aims to promote physical and mental health as well as the social inclusion of 3 to 10 years old children and their families in the Ortenau district. Within a period of four years starting 11/2014 a community network will be established. One regional and five local prevention representatives are building networks with stakeholders of the prevention and health promotion field bridging the health care, educational and youth welfare system in a multidisciplinary approach. The regional prevention representative implements regularly convening prevention and health conferences. On a local level, the 5 local prevention representatives implement round tables in each area as a platform for networking. In the setting approach, educational institutions are playing a vital role when gaining access to children and their families. Thus the project will offer 18 month long organizational development processes with specially trained coaches to 25 kindergarten and 25 primary schools. The process is based on a curriculum of prevention and health promotion which is adapted to the specific needs of the institutions. Also to ensure that the entire region is reached demand oriented advanced education courses are implemented at participating day care centers, kindergartens and schools. Evaluation method: The project is accompanied by an extensive research design to evaluate the outcomes of different project components such as interview data from community prevention agents, interviews and network analysis with families at risk on their support structures, data on community network development and monitoring, as well as data from kindergarten and primary schools. The latter features a waiting-list control group evaluation in kindergarten and primary schools with a mixed methods design using questionnaires and interviews with pedagogues, teachers, parents, and children. Results: By the time of the conference pre and post test data from the kindergarten samples (treatment and control group) will be presented, as well as data from the first project phase, such as qualitative interviews with the prevention coordinators as well as mixed methods data from the community needs assessment. In supporting this project, the Federal Ministry aims to gain insight into efficient components of community prevention and health promotion networks as it is implemented and evaluated. The district will serve as a model region, so that successful components can be transferred to other regions throughout Germany. Accordingly, the transferability to other regions is of high interest in this project.

Keywords: Physical Health, Health Promotion, Social Inclusion, psychological well-being, childhood research, prevention network

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4 Persuading ICT Consumers to Disconnect from Work: An Experimental Study on the Influence of Message Frame, Regulatory Focus, Ad Believability and Attitude toward the Ad on Message Effectiveness

Authors: Katharina Ninaus, Ralf Terlutter, Sandra Diehl

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Information and communication technologies (ICT) have become pervasive in all areas of modern life, both in work and leisure. Technological developments and particularly the ubiquity of smartphones have made it possible for ICT consumers to be constantly connected to work, fostering an always-on mentality and increasing the pressure to be accessible at all times. However, performing work tasks outside of working hours using ICT results in a lack of mental detachment and recovery from work. It is, therefore, necessary to develop effective behavioral interventions to increase risk awareness of a constant connection to the workplace in the employed population. Drawing on regulatory focus theory, this study aims to investigate the persuasiveness of tailoring messages to individuals’ chronic regulatory focus in order to encourage ICT consumers to set boundaries by defining fixed times for professional accessibility outside of working hours in order to contribute to the well-being of ICT consumers with high ICT involvement in their work life. The experimental study examines the interaction effect between consumers’ chronic regulatory focus (i.e. promotion focus versus prevention focus) and positive or negative message framing (i.e. gain frame versus loss frame) on consumers’ intention to perform the advocated behavior. Based on the assumption that congruent messages create regulatory fit and increase message effectiveness, it is hypothesized that behavioral intention will be higher in the condition of regulatory fit compared to regulatory non-fit. It is further hypothesized that ad believability and attitude toward the ad will mediate the effect of regulatory fit on behavioral intention given that ad believability and ad attitude both determine consumer behavioral responses. Results confirm that the interaction between regulatory focus and message frame emerged as a predictor of behavioral intention such as that consumers’ intentions to set boundaries by defining fixed times for professional accessibility outside of working hours increased as congruency with their regulatory focus increased. The loss-framed ad was more effective for consumers with a predominant prevention focus, while the gain-framed ad was more effective for consumers with a predominant promotion focus. Ad believability and attitude toward the ad both emerged as predictors of behavioral intention. Mediation analysis revealed that the direct effect of the interaction between regulatory focus and message frame on behavioral intention was no longer significant when including ad believability and ad attitude as mediators in the model, indicating full mediation. However, while the indirect effect through ad believability was significant, the indirect effect through attitude toward the ad was not significant. Hence, regulatory fit increased ad believability, which then increased behavioral intention. Ad believability appears to have a superior effect indicating that behavioral intention does not depend on attitude toward the ad, but it depends on whether or not the ad is perceived as believable. The study shows that the principle of regulatory fit holds true in the context of ICT consumption and responds to calls for more research on mediators of health message framing effects.

Keywords: message framing, always-on mentality, Information and communication technologies (ICT) consumption, regulatory focus

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3 Assessing the Plant Diversity's Quality, Threats and Opportunities for the Support of Sustainable City Development of the City Raipur, India

Authors: Debashis Sanyal, Katharina Lapin

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Worldwide urban areas are growing. Urbanization has a great impact on social and economic development and ecosystem services. This global trend of urbanization also has significant impact on habitat and biodiversity. The impact of urbanization on the biodiversity of cities in Europe and North America is well studied, while there is a lack of data from cities in currently fast growing urban areas. Indian cities are expanding. The scientific community and the governmental authorities are facing the ongoing urbanization process as an opportunity for the environment. This case study supports the evaluation of urban biodiversity of the city Raipur in the North-West of India. The aim of this study is to assess the overview of the environmental and ecological implications of urbanization. The collected data and analysis was used to discuss the challenges for the sustainable city development. Vascular plants were chosen as an appropriate indicator for the assessment of local biodiversity changes. On the one hand, the vegetation cover is sensible to anthropogenic influence, and in the other hand, the local species composition is comparable to changes at the regional and national scale, using the plant index of India. Further information of abiotic situation can be gathered with the determination of indicator species. In order to calculate the influence of urbanization on the native plant diversity, the Shannon diversity index H´ was chosen. The Pielou`s pooled quadrate method was used for estimating diversity when a random sample is not expected. It was used to calculate the Pilou´s index of evenness. The estimated species coverage was used for calculating the H´ and J. Pearson correlation was performed to test the relationship between urbanization pattern and plant diversity. Further, a SWOT analysis was used in for analyzing internal and external factors impinging on a decision making process. The city of Raipur (21.25°N 81.63°E) has a population of 1,010,087 inhabitants living in an urban area of 226km², in the district of the Indian state of Chhattisgarh. Within the last decade, the urban area of Raipur increased. The results show that various novel ecosystems exist in the urban area of Raipur. The high amount of native flora is mainly to find at the shore of urban lakes and along the river Karun. These areas of high Biodiversity Index are to protect as urban biodiversity hot spots. The governmental authorities are well informed about the environmental challenges for the sustainable development of the city. Together with the scientific community of the Technical University of Raipur many engineering solutions are discussed for implementation of the future. The case study helped to point out the importance environmental measures that support the ecosystem services of green infrastructure. The fast process of urbanization is difficult to control. Uncontrolled creation of urban housing leads to difficulties in unsustainable use of natural resources. This is the major threat for the urban biodiversity.

Keywords: Plant diversity, Urban ecology, India, novel ecosystems

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2 Disposal Behavior of Extreme Poor People Living in Guatemala at the Base of the Pyramid

Authors: Katharina Raab, Ralf Wagner

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With the decrease of poverty, the focus on the solid waste challenge shifts away from affluent, mostly Westernized consumers to the base of the pyramid. The relevance of considering the disposal behavior of impoverished people arises from improved welfare, leading to an increase in consumption opportunities and, consequently, of waste production. In combination with the world’s growing population the relevance of the topic increases, because solid waste management has global impacts on consumers’ welfare. The current annual municipal solid waste generation is estimated to 1.9 billion tonnes, 30% remains uncollected. As for the collected 70% is landfilling and dumping, 19% is recycled or recovered, 11% is led to energy recovery facilities. Therefore, aim is to contribute by adding first insights about poor people's disposal behaviors, including the framing of their rationalities, emotions and cognitions. The study provides novel empirical results obtained from qualitative semi-structured in-depth interviews near Guatemala City. In the study’s framework consumers have to choose from three options when deciding what to do with their obsolete possessions: Keeping the product: The main reason for this is the respondent´s emotional attachment to a product. Further, there is a willingness to use the same product under a different scope when it loses its functionality–they recycle their belongings in a customized and sustainable way. Permanently disposing of the product: The study reveals two dominant disposal methods: burning in front of their homes and throwing away in the physical environment. Respondents clearly recognized the disadvantages of burning toxic durables, like electronics. Giving a product away as a gift supports the integration of individuals in their peer networks of family and friends. Temporarily disposing of the product: Was not mentioned–to be specific, rent or lend a product to someone else was out of question. Contrasting the background to which extend poor people are aware of the consequences of their disposal decisions and how they feel about and rationalize their actions were quite unexpected. Respondents reported that they are worried about future consequences with impacts they cannot anticipate now–they are aware that their behaviors harm their health and the environment. Additionally, they expressed concern about the impact this disposal behavior would have on others’ well-being and are therefore sensitive to the waste that surrounds them. Concluding, the BoP-framed life and Westernized consumption, both fit in a circular economy pattern, but the nature of how to recycle and dispose separates these two societal groups. Both systems own a solid waste management system, but people living in slum-type districts and rural areas of poor countries are less interested in connecting to the system–they are primarily afraid of the costs. Further, it can be said that a consumer’s perceived effectiveness is distinct from environmental concerns, but contributes to forecasting certain pro-ecological behaviors. Considering the rationales underlying disposal decisions, thoughtfulness is a well-established determinant of disposition behavior. The precipitating events, emotions and decisions associated with the act of disposing of products are important because these decisions can trigger different results for the disposal process.

Keywords: Solid Waste, base of the pyramid, disposal behavior, poor consumers

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1 Multimodal Integration of EEG, fMRI and Positron Emission Tomography Data Using Principal Component Analysis for Prognosis in Coma Patients

Authors: Andreas Bender, Denis Jordan, Daniel Golkowski, Mathias Lukas, Katharina Merz, Caroline Mlynarcik, Max Maurer, Valentin Riedl, Stefan Foerster, Eberhard F. Kochs, Ruediger Ilg

Abstract:

Introduction: So far, clinical assessments that rely on behavioral responses to differentiate coma states or even predict outcome in coma patients are unreliable, e.g. because of some patients’ motor disabilities. The present study was aimed to provide prognosis in coma patients using markers from electroencephalogram (EEG), blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET). Unsuperwised principal component analysis (PCA) was used for multimodal integration of markers. Methods: Approved by the local ethics committee of the Technical University of Munich (Germany) 20 patients (aged 18-89) with severe brain damage were acquired through intensive care units at the Klinikum rechts der Isar in Munich and at the Therapiezentrum Burgau (Germany). At the day of EEG/fMRI/PET measurement (date I) patients (<3.5 month in coma) were grouped in the minimal conscious state (MCS) or vegetative state (VS) on the basis of their clinical presentation (coma recovery scale-revised, CRS-R). Follow-up assessment (date II) was also based on CRS-R in a period of 8 to 24 month after date I. At date I, 63 channel EEG (Brain Products, Gilching, Germany) was recorded outside the scanner, and subsequently simultaneous FDG-PET/fMRI was acquired on an integrated Siemens Biograph mMR 3T scanner (Siemens Healthineers, Erlangen Germany). Power spectral densities, permutation entropy (PE) and symbolic transfer entropy (STE) were calculated in/between frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital EEG channels. PE and STE are based on symbolic time series analysis and were already introduced as robust markers separating wakefulness from unconsciousness in EEG during general anesthesia. While PE quantifies the regularity structure of the neighboring order of signal values (a surrogate of cortical information processing), STE reflects information transfer between two signals (a surrogate of directed connectivity in cortical networks). fMRI was carried out using SPM12 (Wellcome Trust Center for Neuroimaging, University of London, UK). Functional images were realigned, segmented, normalized and smoothed. PET was acquired for 45 minutes in list-mode. For absolute quantification of brain’s glucose consumption rate in FDG-PET, kinetic modelling was performed with Patlak’s plot method. BOLD signal intensity in fMRI and glucose uptake in PET was calculated in 8 distinct cortical areas. PCA was performed over all markers from EEG/fMRI/PET. Prognosis (persistent VS and deceased patients vs. recovery to MCS/awake from date I to date II) was evaluated using the area under the curve (AUC) including bootstrap confidence intervals (CI, *: p<0.05). Results: Prognosis was reliably indicated by the first component of PCA (AUC=0.99*, CI=0.92-1.00) showing a higher AUC when compared to the best single markers (EEG: AUC<0.96*, fMRI: AUC<0.86*, PET: AUC<0.60). CRS-R did not show prediction (AUC=0.51, CI=0.29-0.78). Conclusion: In a multimodal analysis of EEG/fMRI/PET in coma patients, PCA lead to a reliable prognosis. The impact of this result is evident, as clinical estimates of prognosis are inapt at time and could be supported by quantitative biomarkers from EEG, fMRI and PET. Due to the small sample size, further investigations are required, in particular allowing superwised learning instead of the basic approach of unsuperwised PCA.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Entropy, Principal Component Analysis, Positron Emission Tomography, electroencephalogram, coma states and prognosis, functional magnetic resonance imaging

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