Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5888

Search results for: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators

5888 Approximation by Generalized Lupaş-Durrmeyer Operators with Two Parameter α and β

Authors: Preeti Sharma

Abstract:

This paper deals with the Stancu type generalization of Lupaş-Durrmeyer operators. We establish some direct results in the polynomial weighted space of continuous functions defined on the interval [0, 1]. Also, Voronovskaja type theorem is studied.

Keywords: Lupas-Durrmeyer operators, polya distribution, weighted approximation, rate of convergence, modulus of continuity

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5887 Approximation of Analytic Functions of Several Variables by Linear K-Positive Operators in the Closed Domain

Authors: Tulin Coskun

Abstract:

We investigate the approximation of analytic functions of several variables in polydisc by the sequences of linear k-positive operators in Gadjiev sence. The approximation of analytic functions of complex variable by linear k-positive operators was tackled, and k-positive operators and formulated theorems of Korovkin's type for these operators in the space of analytic functions on the unit disc were introduced in the past. Recently, very general results on convergence of the sequences of linear k-positive operators on a simply connected bounded domain within the space of analytic functions were proved. In this presentation, we extend some of these results to the approximation of analytic functions of several complex variables by sequences of linear k-positive operators.

Keywords: analytic functions, approximation of analytic functions, Linear k-positive operators, Korovkin type theorems

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5886 Statistical Convergence of the Szasz-Mirakjan-Kantorovich-Type Operators

Authors: Rishikesh Yadav, Ramakanta Meher, Vishnu Narayan Mishra

Abstract:

The main aim of this article is to investigate the statistical convergence of the summation of integral type operators and to obtain the weighted statistical convergence. The rate of statistical convergence by means of modulus of continuity and function belonging to the Lipschitz class are also studied. We discuss the convergence of the defined operators by graphical representation and put a better rate of convergence than the Szasz-Mirakjan-Kantorovich operators. In the last section, we extend said operators into bivariate operators to study about the rate of convergence in sense of modulus of continuity and by means of Lipschitz class by using function of two variables.

Keywords: The Szasz-Mirakjan-Kantorovich operators, statistical convergence, modulus of continuity, Peeters K-functional, weighted modulus of continuity

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5885 On Kantorovich-Stancu Type Operators with the Variation Detracting Property

Authors: Özlem Öksüzer

Abstract:

In this paper, we introduce variation detracting property of Kantorovich-Stancu type operators in the space of functions of bounded variation. These problems are studied with respect to the variation seminorm.

Keywords: Kantorovich-Stancu type operators, variation seminorm, variation detracting property, absolutely continuous function

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
5884 The Effect of Program Type on Mutation Testing: Comparative Study

Authors: B. Falah, N. E. Abakouy

Abstract:

Due to its high computational cost, mutation testing has been neglected by researchers. Recently, many cost and mutants’ reduction techniques have been developed, improved, and experimented, but few of them has relied the possibility of reducing the cost of mutation testing on the program type of the application under test. This paper is a comparative study between four operators’ selection techniques (mutants sampling, class level operators, method level operators, and all operators’ selection) based on the program code type of each application under test. It aims at finding an alternative approach to reveal the effect of code type on mutation testing score. The result of our experiment shows that the program code type can affect the mutation score and that the programs using polymorphism are best suited to be tested with mutation testing.

Keywords: equivalent mutant, killed mutant, mutation score, mutation testing, program code type, software testing

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5883 A Three-Step Iterative Process for Common Fixed Points of Three Contractive-Like Operators

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan, H. Fukhar-ud-Din

Abstract:

The concept of quasi-contractive type operators was given by Berinde and extended by Imoru and Olatinwo. They named this new type as contractive-like operators. On the other hand, Xu and Noo introduced a three-step-one-mappings iterative process which can be seen as a generalization of Mann and Ishikawa iterative processes. Approximating common fixed points has its own importance as it has a direct link with minimization problem. Motivated by this, in this paper, we first extend the iterative process of Xu and Noor to the case of three-step-three-mappings and then prove a strong convergence result using contractive-like operators for this iterative process. In general, this generalizes corresponding results using Mann, Ishikawa and Xu-Noor iterative processes with quasi-contractive type operators. It is to be pointed out that our results can also be proved with iterative process involving error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, common fixed point, strong convergence

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5882 Stability of Property (gm) under Perturbation and Spectral Properties Type Weyl Theorems

Authors: M. H. M. Rashid

Abstract:

A Banach space operator T obeys property (gm) if the isolated points of the spectrum σ(T) of T which are eigenvalues are exactly those points λ of the spectrum for which T − λI is a left Drazin invertible. In this article, we study the stability of property (gm), for a bounded operator acting on a Banach space, under perturbation by finite rank operators, by nilpotent operators, by quasi-nilpotent operators, or more generally by algebraic operators commuting with T.

Keywords: Weyl's Theorem, Weyl Spectrum, Polaroid operators, property (gm)

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5881 Durrmeyer Type Modification of q-Generalized Bernstein Operators

Authors: Ruchi, A. M. Acu, Purshottam N. Agrawal

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper to introduce the Durrmeyer type modification of q-generalized-Bernstein operators which include the Bernstein polynomials in the particular α = 0. We investigate the rate of convergence by means of the Lipschitz class and the Peetre’s K-functional. Also, we define the bivariate case of Durrmeyer type modification of q-generalized-Bernstein operators and study the degree of approximation with the aid of the partial modulus of continuity and the Peetre’s K-functional. Finally, we introduce the GBS (Generalized Boolean Sum) of the Durrmeyer type modification of q- generalized-Bernstein operators and investigate the approximation of the Bögel continuous and Bögel differentiable functions with the aid of the Lipschitz class and the mixed modulus of smoothness.

Keywords: Bögel continuous, Bögel differentiable, generalized Boolean sum, Peetre’s K-functional, Lipschitz class, mixed modulus of smoothness

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5880 On the Fractional Integration of Generalized Mittag-Leffler Type Functions

Authors: Christian Lavault

Abstract:

In this paper, the generalized fractional integral operators of two generalized Mittag-Leffler type functions are investigated. The special cases of interest involve the generalized M-series and K-function, both introduced by Sharma. The two pairs of theorems established herein generalize recent results about left- and right-sided generalized fractional integration operators applied here to the M-series and the K-function. The note also results in important applications in physics and mathematical engineering.

Keywords: Fox–Wright Psi function, generalized hypergeometric function, generalized Riemann– Liouville and Erdélyi–Kober fractional integral operators, Saigo's generalized fractional calculus, Sharma's M-series and K-function

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5879 Statistical Convergence for the Approximation of Linear Positive Operators

Authors: Neha Bhardwaj

Abstract:

In this paper, we consider positive linear operators and study the Voronovskaya type result of the operator then obtain an error estimate in terms of the higher order modulus of continuity of the function being approximated and its A-statistical convergence. Also, we compute the corresponding rate of A-statistical convergence for the linear positive operators.

Keywords: Poisson distribution, Voronovskaya, modulus of continuity, a-statistical convergence

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
5878 Comparative Analysis of Edge Detection Techniques for Extracting Characters

Authors: Rana Gill, Chandandeep Kaur

Abstract:

Segmentation of images can be implemented using different fundamental algorithms like edge detection (discontinuity based segmentation), region growing (similarity based segmentation), iterative thresholding method. A comprehensive literature review relevant to the study gives description of different techniques for vehicle number plate detection and edge detection techniques widely used on different types of images. This research work is based on edge detection techniques and calculating threshold on the basis of five edge operators. Five operators used are Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, LoG and Canny. Segmentation of characters present in different type of images like vehicle number plate, name plate of house and characters on different sign boards are selected as a case study in this work. The proposed methodology has seven stages. The proposed system has been implemented using MATLAB R2010a. Comparison of all the five operators has been done on the basis of their performance. From the results it is found that Canny operators produce best results among the used operators and performance of different edge operators in decreasing order is: Canny>Log>Sobel>Prewitt>Roberts.

Keywords: segmentation, edge detection, text, extracting characters

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5877 Some New Hesitant Fuzzy Sets Operator

Authors: G. S. Thakur

Abstract:

In this paper, four new operators (O1, O2, O3, O4) are proposed, defined and considered to study the new properties and identities on hesitant fuzzy sets. These operators are useful for different operation on hesitant fuzzy sets. The various theorems are proved using the new operators. The study of the proposed new operators has opened a new area of research and applications.

Keywords: vague sets, hesitant fuzzy sets, intuitionistic fuzzy set, fuzzy sets, fuzzy multisets

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5876 Spectral Properties of Commutants of Unbounded Self-Adjoint Operators with Simple Spectra

Authors: Fidelis Mukudi, Justus Mile, Lucy Chikamai, Shem Aywa

Abstract:

An operator B is a commutant of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra F if FB is an extension of BF. The properties of the commutant are determined by those of the operator F. In this article, we use the spectral decomposition of Self-adjoint Unbounded operators and the structure of the underlying space to determine the nature of the commutants. We have shown that the spectrum of these commutants is a subset of the real number set and also established the effect of the spectral properties of the unbounded Self-adjoint operators with simple spectra to the spectrum of its commutants. Finally, we have shown that the spectral measure of the unbounded Selfadjoint operator with simple spectra is a scalar multiple of that of its commutant.

Keywords: unbounded operators, self-adjoint operators, spectral theorem, operators with simple spectra

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5875 Augmented Reality for Maintenance Operator for Problem Inspections

Authors: Chong-Yang Qiao, Teeravarunyou Sakol

Abstract:

Current production-oriented factories need maintenance operators to work in shifts monitoring and inspecting complex systems and different equipment in the situation of mechanical breakdown. Augmented reality (AR) is an emerging technology that embeds data into the environment for situation awareness to help maintenance operators make decisions and solve problems. An application was designed to identify the problem of steam generators and inspection centrifugal pumps. The objective of this research was to find the best medium of AR and type of problem solving strategies among analogy, focal object method and mean-ends analysis. Two scenarios of inspecting leakage were temperature and vibration. Two experiments were used in usability evaluation and future innovation, which included decision-making process and problem-solving strategy. This study found that maintenance operators prefer build-in magnifier to zoom the components (55.6%), 3D exploded view to track the problem parts (50%), and line chart to find the alter data or information (61.1%). There is a significant difference in the use of analogy (44.4%), focal objects (38.9%) and mean-ends strategy (16.7%). The marked differences between maintainers and operators are of the application of a problem solving strategy. However, future work should explore multimedia information retrieval which supports maintenance operators for decision-making.

Keywords: augmented reality, situation awareness, decision-making, problem-solving

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5874 Lyapunov Type Inequalities for Fractional Impulsive Hamiltonian Systems

Authors: Kazem Ghanbari, Yousef Gholami

Abstract:

This paper deals with study about fractional order impulsive Hamiltonian systems and fractional impulsive Sturm-Liouville type problems derived from these systems. The main purpose of this paper devotes to obtain so called Lyapunov type inequalities for mentioned problems. Also, in view point on applicability of obtained inequalities, some qualitative properties such as stability, disconjugacy, nonexistence and oscillatory behaviour of fractional Hamiltonian systems and fractional Sturm-Liouville type problems under impulsive conditions will be derived. At the end, we want to point out that for studying fractional order Hamiltonian systems, we will apply recently introduced fractional Conformable operators.

Keywords: fractional derivatives and integrals, Hamiltonian system, Lyapunov-type inequalities, stability, disconjugacy

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5873 Fault Location Detection in Active Distribution System

Authors: R. Rezaeipour, A. R. Mehrabi

Abstract:

Recent increase of the DGs and microgrids in distribution systems, disturbs the tradition structure of the system. Coordination between protection devices in such a system becomes the concern of the network operators. This paper presents a new method for fault location detection in the active distribution networks, independent of the fault type or its resistance. The method uses synchronized voltage and current measurements at the interconnection of DG units and is able to adapt to changes in the topology of the system. The method has been tested on a 38-bus distribution system, with very encouraging results.

Keywords: fault location detection, active distribution system, micro grids, network operators

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5872 Probability Fuzzy Aggregation Operators in Vehicle Routing Problem

Authors: Anna Sikharulidze, Gia Sirbiladze

Abstract:

For the evaluation of unreliability levels of movement on the closed routes in the vehicle routing problem, the fuzzy operators family is constructed. The interactions between routing factors in extreme conditions on the roads are considered. A multi-criteria decision-making model (MCDM) is constructed. Constructed aggregations are based on the Choquet integral and the associated probability class of a fuzzy measure. Propositions on the correctness of the extension are proved. Connections between the operators and the compositions of dual triangular norms are described. The conjugate connections between the constructed operators are shown. Operators reflect interactions among all the combinations of the factors in the fuzzy MCDM process. Several variants of constructed operators are used in the decision-making problem regarding the assessment of unreliability and possibility levels of movement on closed routes.

Keywords: vehicle routing problem, associated probabilities of a fuzzy measure, choquet integral, fuzzy aggregation operator

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5871 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing: The Drivers, Benefits, and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Rashad Harb Riad Ismail

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the potential of Dynamic Pricing if deployed by mobile operators and analyse its effects from both operators and consumers side. Furthermore, to conclude, throughout the research study, the recommended conditions for successful Dynamic Pricing deployment, recommended factors identifying the type of markets where Dynamic Pricing can be effective, and proposal for a Dynamic Pricing stakeholders’ framework were presented. Currently, the mobile telecommunications industry is witnessing a dramatic growth rate in the data consumption, being fostered mainly by higher data speed technology as the 4G LTE and by the smart devices penetration rates. However, operators’ revenue from data services lags behind and is decupled from this data consumption growth. Pricing strategy is a key factor affecting this ecosystem. Since the introduction of the 4G LTE technology will increase the pace of data growth in multiples, consequently, if pricing strategies remain constant, then the revenue and usage gap will grow wider, risking the sustainability of the ecosystem. Therefore, this research study is focused on Dynamic Pricing for 4G LTE data services, researching the drivers, benefits and challenges of 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing and the feasibility of its deployment in practice from different perspectives including operators, regulators, consumers, and telecommunications equipment manufacturers point of views.

Keywords: LTE, dynamic pricing, EPC, research

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5870 Fixed Points of Contractive-Like Operators by a Faster Iterative Process

Authors: Safeer Hussain Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we prove a strong convergence result using a recently introduced iterative process with contractive-like operators. This improves and generalizes corresponding results in the literature in two ways: the iterative process is faster, operators are more general. In the end, we indicate that the results can also be proved with the iterative process with error terms.

Keywords: contractive-like operator, iterative process, fixed point, strong convergence

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5869 Numerical Applications of Tikhonov Regularization for the Fourier Multiplier Operators

Authors: Fethi Soltani, Adel Almarashi, Idir Mechai

Abstract:

Tikhonov regularization and reproducing kernels are the most popular approaches to solve ill-posed problems in computational mathematics and applications. And the Fourier multiplier operators are an essential tool to extend some known linear transforms in Euclidean Fourier analysis, as: Weierstrass transform, Poisson integral, Hilbert transform, Riesz transforms, Bochner-Riesz mean operators, partial Fourier integral, Riesz potential, Bessel potential, etc. Using the theory of reproducing kernels, we construct a simple and efficient representations for some class of Fourier multiplier operators Tm on the Paley-Wiener space Hh. In addition, we give an error estimate formula for the approximation and obtain some convergence results as the parameters and the independent variables approaches zero. Furthermore, using numerical quadrature integration rules to compute single and multiple integrals, we give numerical examples and we write explicitly the extremal function and the corresponding Fourier multiplier operators.

Keywords: fourier multiplier operators, Gauss-Kronrod method of integration, Paley-Wiener space, Tikhonov regularization

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5868 Identification of Training Topics for the Improvement of the Relevant Cognitive Skills of Technical Operators in the Railway Domain

Authors: Giulio Nisoli, Jonas Brüngger, Karin Hostettler, Nicole Stoller, Katrin Fischer

Abstract:

Technical operators in the railway domain are experts responsible for the supervisory control of the railway power grid as well as of the railway tunnels. The technical systems used to master these demanding tasks are constantly increasing in their degree of automation. It becomes therefore difficult for technical operators to maintain the control over the technical systems and the processes of their job. In particular, the operators must have the necessary experience and knowledge in dealing with a malfunction situation or unexpected event. For this reason, it is of growing importance that the skills relevant for the execution of the job are maintained and further developed beyond the basic training they receive, where they are educated in respect of technical knowledge and the work with guidelines. Training methods aimed at improving the cognitive skills needed by technical operators are still missing and must be developed. Goals of the present study were to identify which are the relevant cognitive skills of technical operators in the railway domain and to define which topics should be addressed by the training of these skills. Observational interviews were conducted in order to identify the main tasks and the organization of the work of technical operators as well as the technical systems used for the execution of their job. Based on this analysis, the most demanding tasks of technical operators could be identified and described. The cognitive skills involved in the execution of these tasks are those, which need to be trained. In order to identify and analyze these cognitive skills a cognitive task analysis (CTA) was developed. CTA specifically aims at identifying the cognitive skills that employees implement when performing their own tasks. The identified cognitive skills of technical operators were summarized and grouped in training topics. For every training topic, specific goals were defined. The goals regard the three main categories; knowledge, skills and attitude to be trained in every training topic. Based on the results of this study, it is possible to develop specific training methods to train the relevant cognitive skills of the technical operators.

Keywords: cognitive skills, cognitive task analysis, technical operators in the railway domain, training topics

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5867 Machine Learning Approach for Mutation Testing

Authors: Michael Stewart

Abstract:

Mutation testing is a type of software testing proposed in the 1970s where program statements are deliberately changed to introduce simple errors so that test cases can be validated to determine if they can detect the errors. Test cases are executed against the mutant code to determine if one fails, detects the error and ensures the program is correct. One major issue with this type of testing was it became intensive computationally to generate and test all possible mutations for complex programs. This paper used reinforcement learning and parallel processing within the context of mutation testing for the selection of mutation operators and test cases that reduced the computational cost of testing and improved test suite effectiveness. Experiments were conducted using sample programs to determine how well the reinforcement learning-based algorithm performed with one live mutation, multiple live mutations and no live mutations. The experiments, measured by mutation score, were used to update the algorithm and improved accuracy for predictions. The performance was then evaluated on multiple processor computers. With reinforcement learning, the mutation operators utilized were reduced by 50 – 100%.

Keywords: automated-testing, machine learning, mutation testing, parallel processing, reinforcement learning, software engineering, software testing

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5866 Hand Gesture Recognition for Sign Language: A New Higher Order Fuzzy HMM Approach

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Magda M. Madbouly, Murad B. Khorsheed

Abstract:

Sign Languages (SL) are the most accomplished forms of gestural communication. Therefore, their automatic analysis is a real challenge, which is interestingly implied to their lexical and syntactic organization levels. Hidden Markov models (HMM’s) have been used prominently and successfully in speech recognition and, more recently, in handwriting recognition. Consequently, they seem ideal for visual recognition of complex, structured hand gestures such as are found in sign language. In this paper, several results concerning static hand gesture recognition using an algorithm based on Type-2 Fuzzy HMM (T2FHMM) are presented. The features used as observables in the training as well as in the recognition phases are based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). SVD is an extension of Eigen decomposition to suit non-square matrices to reduce multi attribute hand gesture data to feature vectors. SVD optimally exposes the geometric structure of a matrix. In our approach, we replace the basic HMM arithmetic operators by some adequate Type-2 fuzzy operators that permits us to relax the additive constraint of probability measures. Therefore, T2FHMMs are able to handle both random and fuzzy uncertainties existing universally in the sequential data. Experimental results show that T2FHMMs can effectively handle noise and dialect uncertainties in hand signals besides a better classification performance than the classical HMMs. The recognition rate of the proposed system is 100% for uniform hand images and 86.21% for cluttered hand images.

Keywords: hand gesture recognition, hand detection, type-2 fuzzy logic, hidden Markov Model

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5865 Bivariate Generalization of q-α-Bernstein Polynomials

Authors: Tarul Garg, P. N. Agrawal

Abstract:

We propose to define the q-analogue of the α-Bernstein Kantorovich operators and then introduce the q-bivariate generalization of these operators to study the approximation of functions of two variables. We obtain the rate of convergence of these bivariate operators by means of the total modulus of continuity, partial modulus of continuity and the Peetre’s K-functional for continuous functions. Further, in order to study the approximation of functions of two variables in a space bigger than the space of continuous functions, i.e. Bögel space; the GBS (Generalized Boolean Sum) of the q-bivariate operators is considered and degree of approximation is discussed for the Bögel continuous and Bögel differentiable functions with the aid of the Lipschitz class and the mixed modulus of smoothness.

Keywords: Bögel continuous, Bögel differentiable, generalized Boolean sum, K-functional, mixed modulus of smoothness

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5864 Weight Comparison of Oil and Dry Type Distribution Transformers

Authors: Murat Toren, Mehmet Çelebi

Abstract:

Reducing the weight of transformers while providing good performance, cost reduction and increased efficiency is important. Weight is one of the most significant factors in all electrical machines, and as such, many transformer design parameters are related to weight calculations. This study presents a comparison of the weight of oil type transformers and dry type transformer weight. Oil type transformers are mainly used in industry; however, dry type transformers are becoming more widespread in recent years. MATLAB is typically used for designing transformers and design parameters (rated voltages, core loss, etc.) along with design in ANSYS Maxwell. Similar to other studies, this study presented that the dry type transformer option is limited. Moreover, the commonly-used 50 kVA distribution transformers in the industry are oil type and dry type transformers are designed and considered in terms of weight. Currently, the preference for low-cost oil-type transformers would change if costs for dry-type transformer were more competitive. The aim of this study was to compare the weight of transformers, which is a substantial cost factor, and to provide an evaluation about increasing the use of dry type transformers.

Keywords: weight, optimization, oil-type transformers, dry-type transformers

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5863 Hermite–Hadamard Type Integral Inequalities Involving k–Riemann–Liouville Fractional Integrals and Their Applications

Authors: Artion Kashuri, Rozana Liko

Abstract:

In this paper, some generalization integral inequalities of Hermite–Hadamard type for functions whose derivatives are s–convex in modulus are given by using k–fractional integrals. Some applications to special means are obtained as well. Some known versions are recovered as special cases from our results. We note that our inequalities can be viewed as new refinements of the previous results. Finally, our results have a deep connection with various fractional integral operators and interested readers can find new interesting results using our idea and technique as well.

Keywords: Hermite-Hadamard's inequalities, Hölder's inequality, k-Riemann-Liouville fractional integral, special means

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5862 Exoskeleton-Enhanced Manufacturing: A Study Exploring Psychological and Physical Effects on Assembly Operators' Wellbeing

Authors: Iveta Eimontaite, Sarah R. Fletcher, Michele Surico, Alfio Minissale, Fabio F. Abba

Abstract:

Industry 4.0 offers possibilities for increased production volumes and greater efficiency whilst at the same time presenting new opportunities and challenges for the human workforce. Exoskeletons have been used in healthcare and are now starting to be adopted in manufacturing. The potential benefits of reducing fatigue and physical strain are attractive prospects of the technology for industry; however, the novelty of exoskeletons and surrounding ethical issues raise concerns amongst the stakeholders. The current case study investigated the introduction of an upper body exoskeleton designed to support posture but not increase physical strength in a factory over three time points: before the exoskeleton was introduced, and one and two months post-introduction once operators had experienced working with it. The main focus was to evaluate changes in operators' workload, situation awareness, technology self-efficacy, and physical discomfort following the introduction of the exoskeleton. After using the exoskeleton over two months, operators reported a decrease in temporal demand and an increase in performance of the NASA TLX instrument. Furthermore, over the second month, operators' self-reported technology self-efficacy scores increased, but at the same time, their situation awareness decreased. Interestingly, operators' physical discomfort after using the exoskeleton for two months increased from not uncomfortable to quite uncomfortable in the shoulder, arm, and middle back regions. The results suggest that self-perceived task efficiency improved; however, increased discomfort and decreased situation awareness scores indicate that two months might not be long enough for the exoskeleton to be integrated into operators’ mental body schema. The paper will discuss further implications and suggestions for exoskeleton introduction to manufacturing environments.

Keywords: exoskeleton, manufacturing, mental workload, physical discomfort, situation awareness, technology self-efficacy

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5861 An Approach for Reducing Morphological Operator Dataset and Recognize Optical Character Based on Significant Features

Authors: Ashis Pradhan, Mohan P. Pradhan

Abstract:

Pattern Matching is useful for recognizing character in a digital image. OCR is one such technique which reads character from a digital image and recognizes them. Line segmentation is initially used for identifying character in an image and later refined by morphological operations like binarization, erosion, thinning, etc. The work discusses a recognition technique that defines a set of morphological operators based on its orientation in a character. These operators are further categorized into groups having similar shape but different orientation for efficient utilization of memory. Finally the characters are recognized in accordance with the occurrence of frequency in hierarchy of significant pattern of those morphological operators and by comparing them with the existing database of each character.

Keywords: binary image, morphological patterns, frequency count, priority, reduction data set and recognition

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5860 Establishment of Standardized Bill of Material for Korean Urban Rail Transit System

Authors: J. E. Jung, J. M. Yang, J. W. Kim

Abstract:

The railway market across the world has been standardized with the globalization strategy of Europe. On the other hand, the Korean urban railway system is operated by 10 operators which have established their standards and independently managed BOMs. When operators manage different BOMs, lack of system compatibility prevents them from sharing information and hinders work linkage and efficiency. Europe launched a large-scale railway project in 1993 when the European Union went into effect. In particular, the recent standardization efforts of the EU-funded MODTRAIN project are similar to the approach of the urban rail system standardization research that is underway in Korea. This paper looks into the BOMs of Koran urban rail transit operators and suggests the standard BOM for the rail transit system in Korea by reviewing rail vehicle technologies and the MODTRAIN project of Europe. The standard BOM is structured up to the key device level or module level, and it allows vehicle manufacturers and component manufacturers to manage their lower-level BOMs and share them with each other and with operators.

Keywords: BOM, Korean rail, urban rail, standardized

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5859 Whole-Body Vibration Exposure and Ergonomic Issues of Heavy Earth Moving Machine Operators in Surface Mines: A Major Health Concern

Authors: Rahul Upadhyay, Ashis Bhattacharjee, Aditya Patra

Abstract:

Heavy machinery is being widely used in different industries with the advancement in industrial development. Occupational exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) is accredited as one of the major risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the workplace. Mining operators of heavy earthmoving machinery (HEMMs) such as dozer, dumper, shovel, and drill are exposed to WBV during the production processes of surface mining. This study focuses on a coal mine, an iron ore mine, and a chromite mine which are located in the eastern part of India, to assess the WBV exposure of dumper operators. This work included the measurement of vibration parameters such as frequency weighted RMS acceleration, crest factor (CF) and vibration dose value (VDV) in x, y and z axes and the results were compared with the ISO 2631-1:1997 standards. The results revealed that the frequency-weighted RMS acceleration of dumper operators was highest in the z-axis (dominant axis) in all the three aforementioned mines. The mean frequency-weighted RMS acceleration values of dumper operators in the coal, iron ore and chromite mine in the z-axis (the dominant axis) were 0.63 m s-2, 0.47 m s-2, 0.87 m s-2 respectively, which exceeded the lower limit of ISO-2631-1997, signifying the moderate health risk. Crest factor values in x, y, and z axes in all three mines indicated that the dumper operators are exposed to multiple shocks. Based on the VDV(8) values, 81%, 90% and 50% of the operators in coal, iron ore and chromite mine respectively were found to be exceeding the ISO-2631-1997 lower limit, indicating a moderate health risk. In order to reduce the WBV exposure, an ergonomic process assessment is needed. Ergonomic process assessment essentially requires the measurement of relevant body dimensions such as sitting height, knee height, and buttock popliteal length, which may influence the WBV exposure as well as the occurrence of MSDs. These measurements allow us to judge the compatibility of the seat dimensions of dumpers with operators’ body dimensions and to assess the comfort/discomfort of the operators while operating the dumpers. The results revealed that the height of the backrest of dumper’s seat for above 80% of the operators was shorter than the sitting height of operators in all three mines.. Similarly, there was a mismatch of the length of a seat with buttock popliteal length of operators, which often culminates in working in awkward posture and leads to MSDs in the long term. Based on the above pilot study, it is recommended that all machines in all mines must be tested for WBV exposure so that they do not exceed the lower limit of ISO 2631-1:1997; and seat design, as well as other parameters that influence the WBV exposure, should be explored through ergonomic process assessment to improve the health and safety of dumper operators in mines

Keywords: WBV exposure, dumper operators, occupational health, MSD risk

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