Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Search results for: Jyosthna Khanna Goli

31 Pretreatment of Aquatic Weed Typha latifolia with Sodium Bisulphate for Enhanced Acid and Enzyme Hydrolysis for Production of Xylitol and Bioethanol

Authors: Jyosthna Khanna Goli, Shaik Naseeruddin, Hameeda Bee

Abstract:

Employing lignocellulosic biomass in fermentative production of xylitol and bioethanol is gaining interest as it is renewable, cheap, and abundantly available. Xylitol is a polyol, gaining its importance in the food and pharmacological industry due to its low calorific value and anti-cariogenic nature. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass is widely accepted as an alternative fuel for transportation with reduced CO₂ emissions, thus reducing the greenhouse effect. Typha latifolia, an aquatic weed, was found to be promising lignocellulosic substrate as it posses a high amount of sugars and does not compete with arable lands and interfere with food and feed competition. In the present study, xylose from hemicellulosic fraction of typha is converted to xylitol by isolate Jfh5 (Candida. tropicalis) and cellulose part to ethanol using Saccharomyces cerevisiaeVS3. Initially, alkali pretreatment of typha using sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, ammonium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, sodium bisulphate and sodium dithionate for overnight (18h) at room temperature (28 ± 2°C), resulted in maximum delignification of 75% with 2% (v/v) sodium bisulphate. Later, pretreated biomass was subjected to acid hydrolysis with 1%, 1.5%, 2%, and 3% H₂SO₄ at 110 °C and 121°C for 30 and 60 min, respectively. 2% H₂SO₄ at 121°C for 60 min was found to release 13.5 g /l sugars, which on detoxification and fermentation produced 8.1g/l xylitol with yield and productivity of 0.65g/g and 0.112g/l/h respectively. Further enzymatic hydrolysis of the residual substrate obtained after acid hydrolysis released 11g/l sugar, which on fermentation with VS3 produced 4.9g/l ethanol with yield and productivity of 0.22g/g and 0.136g/l/h respectively.

Keywords: delignification, xylitol, bioethanol, acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis

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30 Developing an Active Leisure Wear Range: A Dilemma for Khanna Enterprises

Authors: Jagriti Mishra, Vasundhara Chaudhary

Abstract:

Introduction: The case highlights various issues and challenges faced by Khanna Enterprises while conceptualizing and execution of launching Active Leisure wear in the domestic market, where different steps involved in the range planning and production have been elaborated. Although Khanna Enterprises was an established company which dealt in the production of knitted and woven garments, they took the risk of launching a new concept- Active Leisure wear for Millennials. Methodology: It is based on primary and secondary research where data collection has been done through survey, in-depth interviews and various reports, forecasts, and journals. Findings: The research through primary and secondary data and execution of active leisure wear substantiated the acceptance, not only by the millennials but also by the generation X. There was a demand of bigger sizes as well as more muted colours. Conclusion: The sales data paved the way for future product development in tune with the strengths of Khanna Enterprises.

Keywords: millennials, range planning, production, active leisure wear

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29 The Next Generation’s Learning Ability, Memory, as Well as Cognitive Skills Is under the Influence of Paternal Physical Activity (An Intergenerational and Trans-Generational Effect): A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Parvin Goli, Amirhosein Kefayat, Rezvan Goli

Abstract:

Background: It is well established that parents can influence their offspring's neurodevelopment. It is shown that paternal environment and lifestyle is beneficial for the progeny's fitness and might affect their metabolic mechanisms; however, the effects of paternal exercise on the brain in the offspring have not been explored in detail. Objective: This study aims to review the impact of paternal physical exercise on memory and learning, neuroplasticity, as well as DNA methylation levels in the off-spring's hippocampus. Study design: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, an electronic literature search was conducted in databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. Eligible studies were those with an experimental design, including an exercise intervention arm, with the assessment of any type of memory function, learning ability, or any type of brain plasticity as the outcome measures. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed as effect size. Results: The systematic review revealed the important role of environmental enrichment in the behavioral development of the next generation. Also, offspring of exercised fathers displayed higher levels of memory ability and lower level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. A significant effect of paternal exercise on the hippocampal volume was also reported in the few available studies. Conclusion: These results suggest an intergenerational effect of paternal physical activity on cognitive benefit, which may be associated with hippocampal epigenetic programming in offspring. However, the biological mechanisms of this modulation remain to be determined.

Keywords: hippocampal plasticity, learning ability, memory, parental exercise

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28 Privatising Higher Education: Imparting Quality in Academics

Authors: Manish Khanna

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Higher education seeks to preserve, transmit and advance knowledge. It is one of the most important instruments of change and progress. The observation of Kothari Commission (1964-66) is true even today; The destiny of India is now being shaped in her classrooms. This, we believe, is no more rhetoric. In the world based on science and technology it is education that determines the level of prosperity, welfare, and security of the people. On the quality and number of persons coming out of our schools and colleges will depend our success in the great enterprise of national reconstruction.

Keywords: higher education, quality in academics, Kothari commission, privatising higher education

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27 Performance Analysis of BPJLT with Different Gate and Spacer Materials

Authors: Porag Jyoti Ligira, Gargi Khanna

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The paper presents a simulation study of the electrical characteristic of Bulk Planar Junctionless Transistor (BPJLT) using spacer. The BPJLT is a transistor without any PN junctions in the vertical direction. It is a gate controlled variable resistor. The characteristics of BPJLT are analyzed by varying the oxide material under the gate. It can be shown from the simulation that an ideal subthreshold slope of ~60 mV/decade can be achieved by using highk dielectric. The effects of variation of spacer length and material on the electrical characteristic of BPJLT are also investigated in the paper. The ION / IOFF ratio improvement is of the order of 107 and the OFF current reduction of 10-4 is obtained by using gate dielectric of HfO2 instead of SiO2.

Keywords: spacer, BPJLT, high-k, double gate

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26 Experimental Analysis of Tools Used for Doxing and Proposed New Transforms to Help Organizations Protect against Doxing Attacks

Authors: Parul Khanna, Pavol Zavarsky, Dale Lindskog

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Doxing is a term derived from documents, and hence consists of collecting information on an organization or individual through social media websites, search engines, password cracking methods, social engineering tools and other sources of publicly displayed information. The main purpose of doxing attacks is to threaten, embarrass, harass and humiliate the organization or individual. Various tools are used to perform doxing. Tools such as Maltego visualize organization’s architecture which helps in determining weak links within the organization. This paper discusses limitations of Maltego Chlorine CE 3.6.0 and suggests measures as to how organizations can use these tools to protect themselves from doxing attacks.

Keywords: advanced persistent threat, FOCA, OSINT, PII

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25 Garden Culture in Islamic Civilization: A Glance at the Birth, Development and Current Situation

Authors: Parisa Göker

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With the birth of Islam, the definitions of paradise in Quran have spread across three continents since 7th century, showing itself in the palace gardens as a reflection of Islamic Culture. The design characteristics of Islamic gardens come forth with the influence of religious beliefs, as well as taking its form as per the cultural, climatic and soil characteristics of its geography, and showing its difference. It is possible to see these differences from the garden examples that survived to present time from the civilizations in the lands of Islamic proliferation. The main material of this research is the Islamic gardens in Iran and Spain. Field study was carried out in Alhambra Palace in Spain, Granada and Shah Goli garden in Iran, Tabriz. In this study, the birth of Islamic gardens, spatial perception of paradise, design principles, spatial structure, along with the structural/plantation materials used are examined. Also the characteristics and differentiation of the gardens examined in different cultures and geographies have been revealed. In the conclusion section, Iran and Spain Islamic garden samples were evaluated and their properties were determined.

Keywords: Islamic civilization, Islamic architecture, cultural landscape, Islamic garden

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24 Effects of Spray Dryer Atomizer Speed on Casein Micelle Size in Whole Fat Milk Powder and Physicochemical Properties of White Cheese

Authors: Mohammad Goli, Akram Sharifi, Mohammad Yousefi Jozdani, Seyed Ali Mortazavi

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An industrial spray dryer was used, and the effects of atomizer speed on the physicochemical properties of milk powder, the textural and sensory characteristics of white cheese made from this milk powder, were evaluated. For this purpose, whole milk was converted into powder by using three different speeds (10,000, 11,000, and 12,000 rpm). Results showed that with increasing atomizer speed in the spray dryer, the average size of casein micelle is significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas no significant effect is observed on the chemical properties of milk powder. White cheese characteristics indicated that with increasing atomizer speed, texture parameters, such as hardness, mastication, and gumminess, were significantly reduced (p < 0.05). Sensory evaluation also revealed that cheese samples prepared with dried milk produced at 12,000 rpm were highly accepted by panelists. Overall, the findings suggested that 12,000 rpm is the optimal atomizer speed for milk powder production.

Keywords: spray drying, powder technology, atomizer speed, particle size, white cheese physical properties

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23 Stress Field Induced By an Interfacial Edge Dislocation in a Multi-Layered Medium

Authors: Aditya Khanna, Andrei Kotousov

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A novel method is presented for obtaining the stress field induced by an edge dislocation in a multilayered composite. To demonstrate the applications of the obtained solution, we consider the problem of an interfacial crack in a periodically layered bimaterial medium. The crack is modeled as a continuous distribution of edge dislocations and the Distributed Dislocation Technique (DDT) is utilized to obtain numerical results for the energy release rate (ERR). The numerical results correspond well with previously published results and the comparison serves as a validation of the obtained dislocation solution.

Keywords: distributed dislocation technique, edge dislocation, elastic field, interfacial crack, multi-layered composite

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22 The Effects of Information Technology in Urban Health

Authors: Safdari Reza, Zahmatkeshan Maryam, Goli Arji

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Background and Aim: Urban health is one of the challenges of the 21st century. Rapid growth and expanding urbanization have implications for health. In this regard, information technology can remove a large number of modern cities’ problems. Therefore, the present article aims to study modern information technologies in the development of urban health. Materials and Methods:. This is a review article based on library research and Internet searches on valid websites such as Science Direct, Magiran, Springer and advanced searches in Google. Some 164 domestic and foreign texts were studied on such topics as the application of ICT tools including cell phones and wireless tools, GIS, and RFID in the field of urban health in 2011. Finally, 30 sources were used. Conclusion: Information and communication technologies play an important role in improving people's health and enhancing the quality of their lives. Effective utilization of information and communication technologies requires the identification of opportunities and constraints, and the formulation of appropriate planning principles with regard to social and economic factors together with preparing the technological, communication and telecommunications, legal and administrative infrastructures.

Keywords: Urban Health, Information Technology, Information & Communication, Technology

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21 Extraction of Strontium Ions through Ligand Assisted Ionic Liquids

Authors: Pradeep Kumar, Abhishek Kumar Chandra, Ashok Khanna

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Extraction of Strontium by crown ether (DCH18C6) hasbeen investigated in [BMIM][TF2N] Ionic Liquid (IL) giving higher extraction ~98% and distribution ratio as compared to other organic solvents (Dodecane, Hexane, & Isodecyl alcohol + Dodecane). Distribution ratio of Sr in IL at 0.15M DCH18C6 indicates an enhancement of 20000, 2000, 500 times over Dodecane, Hexane and 5% Isodecyl Alcohol + 95 % Dodecane at 0.01M aqueous acidity respectively. In presence of IL, Sr extraction decreases with increase in HNO3 concentration in aqueous phase whereas opposite trend was observed with organic solvents.Extraction of Sr initially increases with increase in DCH18C6 concentration in IL, finally reaching an asymptotic constant.

Keywords: distribution ratio, ionic liquid, ligand, organic solvent, stripping

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20 Prevalence of Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Recurrent Aphthous Stomatitis

Authors: Arghavan Tonkaboni, Shamsolmolouk Najafi, Mohmmad Taghi Kiani, Mehrzad Gholampour, Touraj Goli

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Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is a multifactorial recurrent oral lesion; which is an autoimmune disease. TH1 cytokines are the most important etiological factors. Autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases and generally coexists with other autoimmune diseases. This study assessed the prevalence of thyroid disease in patients with recurrent aphthous stomatitis. Materials and Methods: This case control study assessed 100 known RAS patients who were diagnosed clinically by oral medicine specialists; venous blood samples were analyzed for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (fT3), total thyroxine (fT4), thyroglobulin, anti-thyroid peroxidase antibody (anti-TPO) and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (anti-TG) levels. Results: Fifty patients with RAS aged between 18-42 years (28.5±5.8) and 50 healthy volunteers aged 19-45 years (27.3±5.4) participated. In RAS patients, fT3 and TSH levels were significantly higher (P=0.031, P=0.706); however, fT4 level was lower in the RAS group (P=0.447). Anti TG and anti-TPO levels were significantly higher in the RAS group (P=0.008, P=0.067). Conclusion: Our study showed that ATD prevalence was significantly higher in RAS patients. Based on this study, we recommend assessment of thyroid hormones and antibodies in RAS patients.

Keywords: recurrent aphthous stomatitis, thyroid antibodies, thyroid hormone, thyroid autoimmune disease

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19 Cost-Based Analysis of Cloud and Traditional ERP Systems in Small and Medium Enterprises

Authors: Indu Saini, Ashu Khanna, S. K. Peddoju

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Cloud computing is the new buzz word today attracting high interest among various domains like business enterprises, Particularly in Small and Medium Enterprises. As it is a pay-per-use model, SMEs have high expectations that adapting this model will not only make them flexible, hassle-free but also economic. In view of such expectations, this paper analyses the possibility of adapting cloud computing technologies in SMEs in light of economic concerns. In this paper, two hypotheses are developed to compare the average annual per-user costs of using Enterprise Resource Planning systems in two ways, The traditional approach and the cloud approach. A web based survey is conducted apart from the Interviews with the peers to collect the data across the selected SMEs and t-test is performed to compare both the technologies on the proposed hypothesis. Results achieved are produced and discussed.

Keywords: cloud computing, small and medium enterprises, enterprise resource solutions, interviews

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18 A Sector-Wise Study on Detecting Earnings Management in India

Authors: Raghuveer Kaur, Kartikay Sharma, Ashu Khanna

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Earnings management has been present from times immemorial. The recent downfall of giant enterprises like Enron, Satyam and WorldCom has brought a lot of focus on the study and detection of earnings management. The present study is an attempt to study earnings management in one of the fastest emerging economy - India. The study makes an attempt to understand earnings management in different sectors of the economy. The paper first tests a hypothesis to check whether different sectors of India are engaged in earnings management or not. In the later section the paper aims to study the level of earnings management in 6 popular sectors of India: IT&BPO, Retail, Telecom, Biotech, Hotels and coffee. To measure earnings management two popular techniques of detecting earnings management has been employed: Modified Jones Model and Beniesh M Score. A total of 332 companies were studied. Publicly available data from Capitaline database has been used. The paper also classifies the top and bottom five performers on the basis of sales turnover in each sector and identifies whether they manage their earnings or not.

Keywords: earnings management, India, modified Jones model, Beneish M score

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17 Stochastic Programming and C-Somga: Animal Ration Formulation

Authors: Pratiksha Saxena, Dipti Singh, Neha Khanna

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A self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm(C-SOMGA) is developed for animal diet formulation. This paper presents animal diet formulation using stochastic and genetic algorithm. Tri-objective models for cost minimization and shelf life maximization are developed. These objectives are achieved by combination of stochastic programming and C-SOMGA. Stochastic programming is used to introduce nutrient variability for animal diet. Self-organizing migrating genetic algorithm provides exact and quick solution and presents an innovative approach towards successful application of soft computing technique in the area of animal diet formulation.

Keywords: animal feed ration, feed formulation, linear programming, stochastic programming, self-migrating genetic algorithm, C-SOMGA technique, shelf life maximization, cost minimization, nutrient maximization

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16 A Comparative Study of the Athlete Health Records' Minimum Data Set in Selected Countries and Presenting a Model for Iran

Authors: Robab Abdolkhani, Farzin Halabchi, Reza Safdari, Goli Arji

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Background and purpose: The quality of health record depends on the quality of its content and proper documentation. Minimum data set makes a standard method for collecting key data elements that make them easy to understand and enable comparison. The aim of this study was to determine the minimum data set for Iranian athletes’ health records. Methods: This study is an applied research of a descriptive comparative type which was carried out in 2013. By using internal and external forms of documentation, a checklist was created that included data elements of athletes health record and was subjected to debate in Delphi method by experts in the field of sports medicine and health information management. Results: From 97 elements which were subjected to discussion, 85 elements by more than 75 percent of the participants (as the main elements) and 12 elements by 50 to 75 percent of the participants (as the proposed elements) were agreed upon. In about 97 elements of the case, there was no significant difference between responses of alumni groups of sport pathology and sports medicine specialists with medical record, medical informatics and information management professionals. Conclusion: Minimum data set of Iranian athletes’ health record with four information categories including demographic information, health history, assessment and treatment plan was presented. The proposed model is available for manual and electronic medical records.

Keywords: Documentation, Health record, Minimum data set, Sports medicine

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15 Photoresponse of Epitaxial GaN Films Grown by Plasma-Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Authors: Nisha Prakash, Kritika Anand, Arun Barvat, Prabir Pal, Sonachand Adhikari, Suraj P. Khanna

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Group-III nitride semiconductors (GaN, AlN, InN and their ternary and quaternary compounds) have attracted a great deal of attention for the development of high-performance Ultraviolet (UV) photodetectors. Any midgap defect states in the epitaxial grown film have a direct influence on the photodetectors responsivity. The proportion of the midgap defect states can be controlled by the growth parameters. To study this we have grown high quality epitaxial GaN films on MOCVD- grown GaN template using plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) with different growth parameters. Optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by room temperature photoluminescence and photoconductivity measurements, respectively. The observed persistent photoconductivity behaviour is proportional to the yellow luminescence (YL) and the absolute responsivity has been found to decrease with decreasing YL. The results will be discussed in more detail later.

Keywords: gallium nitride, plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy, photoluminescence, photoconductivity, persistent photoconductivity, yellow luminescence

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14 Enhancement of Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Plasma Nitrided Low Alloy Tool Steel

Authors: Kalimi Trinadh, Corinne Nouveau, A. S. Khanna, Karanveer S. Aneja, K. Ram Mohan Rao

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This study concerns improving the corrosion resistance of low alloy steel after plasma nitriding performed at variable time and temperature. Nitriding carried out in the temperature range of 450-550ᵒC for a various time period of 1-8 hrs. at 500Pa in a glow discharge plasma of H₂ and N₂ (80:20). The substrate was kept biased negatively at 250V. Following nitriding the X-ray diffraction studies shown that the phases formed were mainly γ′ (Fe₄N) and ε (Fe₂₋₃N). The ε (Fe₂₋₃N) phase found to be the dominating phase. Cross sections of the samples under scanning electron microscope point analyses revealed the presence of nitrogen in the surface region. For the assessment of corrosion resistance property, potentiodynamic polarization tests were performed in 3.5% NaCl solution. It has been shown that the plasma nitriding significantly improved the corrosion resistance when compared to the as-received steel. Furthermore, it has also been found that nitriding for 6h has more corrosion resistance than nitriding for the 8h duration. The hardness of the nitrided samples was measured by Vicker’s microhardness tester. The hardness of the nitrided steel was found to be improved much above the hardness of the steel in the as-received condition. It was found to be around two-fold of the initial hardness.

Keywords: corrosion, steel, plasma nitriding, X-ray diffraction

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13 An Empirical Evaluation of Performance of Machine Learning Techniques on Imbalanced Software Quality Data

Authors: Ruchika Malhotra, Megha Khanna

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The development of change prediction models can help the software practitioners in planning testing and inspection resources at early phases of software development. However, a major challenge faced during the training process of any classification model is the imbalanced nature of the software quality data. A data with very few minority outcome categories leads to inefficient learning process and a classification model developed from the imbalanced data generally does not predict these minority categories correctly. Thus, for a given dataset, a minority of classes may be change prone whereas a majority of classes may be non-change prone. This study explores various alternatives for adeptly handling the imbalanced software quality data using different sampling methods and effective MetaCost learners. The study also analyzes and justifies the use of different performance metrics while dealing with the imbalanced data. In order to empirically validate different alternatives, the study uses change data from three application packages of open-source Android data set and evaluates the performance of six different machine learning techniques. The results of the study indicate extensive improvement in the performance of the classification models when using resampling method and robust performance measures.

Keywords: change proneness, empirical validation, imbalanced learning, machine learning techniques, object-oriented metrics

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12 Analysis of Secondary Stage Creep in Thick-Walled Composite Cylinders Subjected to Rotary Inertia

Authors: Tejeet Singh, Virat Khanna

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Composite materials have drawn considerable attention of engineers due to their light weight and application at high thermo-mechanical loads. With regard to the prediction of the life of high temperature structural components like rotating cylinders and the evaluation of their deterioration with time, it is essential to have a full knowledge of creep characteristics of these materials. Therefore, in the present study the secondary stage creep stresses and strain rates are estimated in thick-walled composite cylinders subjected to rotary inertia at different angular speeds. The composite cylinder is composed of aluminum matrix (Al) and reinforced with silicon carbide (SiC) particles which are uniformly mixed. The creep response of the material of the cylinder is described by threshold stress based creep law. The study indicates that with the increase in angular speed, the radial, tangential, axial and effective stress increases to a significant value. However, the radial stress remains zero at inner radius and outer radius due to imposed boundary conditions of zero pressure. Further, the stresses are tensile in nature throughout the entire radius of composite cylinder. The strain rates are also influenced in the same manner as that of creep stresses. The creep rates will increase significantly with the increase of centrifugal force on account of rotation.

Keywords: composite, creep, rotating cylinder, angular speed

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11 Optimization of a Hand-Fan Shaped Microstrip Patch Antenna by Means of Orthogonal Design Method of Design of Experiments for L-Band and S-Band Applications

Authors: Jaswinder Kaur, Nitika, Navneet Kaur, Rajesh Khanna

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A hand-fan shaped microstrip patch antenna (MPA) for L-band and S-band applications is designed, and its characteristics have been reconnoitered. The proposed microstrip patch antenna with double U-slot defected ground structure (DGS) is fabricated on an FR4 substrate which is a very readily available and inexpensive material. The suggested antenna is optimized using Orthogonal Design Method (ODM) of Design of Experiments (DOE) to cover the frequency range from 0.91-2.82 GHz for L-band and S-band applications. The L-band covers the frequency range of 1-2 GHz, which is allocated to telemetry, aeronautical, and military systems for passive satellite sensors, weather radars, radio astronomy, and mobile communication. The S-band covers the frequency range of 2-3 GHz, which is used by weather radars, surface ship radars and communication satellites and is also reserved for various wireless applications such as Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (Wi-MAX), super high frequency radio frequency identification (SHF RFID), industrial, scientific and medical bands (ISM), Bluetooth, wireless broadband (Wi-Bro) and wireless local area network (WLAN). The proposed method of optimization is very time efficient and accurate as compared to the conventional evolutionary algorithms due to its statistical strategy. Moreover, the antenna is tested, followed by the comparison of simulated and measured results.

Keywords: design of experiments, hand fan shaped MPA, L-Band, orthogonal design method, S-Band

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10 Enhancement of Hydrophobicity of Thermally Evaporated Bi Thin Films by Oblique Angle Deposition

Authors: Ravish K. Jain, Jatinder Kaur, Shaira Arora, Arun Kumar, Amit K. Chawla, Atul Khanna

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Surface-dependent properties such as hydrophobicity can be modified significantly by oblique angle deposition technique. Bi thin films were studied for their hydrophobic nature. The effects of oblique angle deposition on structural, surface morphology, electrical and wettability properties of Bi thin films have been studied and a comparison of these physical properties of normally deposited and obliquely deposited Bi films has been carried out in this study. X-ray diffraction studies found that films have highly oriented hexagonal crystal structure and crystallite size is smaller for obliquely deposited (70 nm) film as compared to that of the normally deposited film (111 nm). Raman spectra of the films consist of peaks corresponding to E_g and A_1g first-order Raman modes of bismuth. The atomic force and scanning electron microscopy studies show that the surface roughness of obliquely deposited film is higher as compared to that of normally deposited film. Contact angle measurements revealed that both films are strongly hydrophobic in nature with the contact angles of 105ᵒ and 119ᵒ for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively. Oblique angle deposition enhances the hydrophobicity of the film. The electrical conductivity of the film is significantly reduced by oblique angle deposition. The activation energies for electrical conduction were determined by four-probe measurements and are 0.016 eV and 0.018 eV for normally and obliquely deposited films respectively.

Keywords: bi thin films, hydrophobicity, oblique angle deposition, surface morphology

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9 Comparing Performance of Neural Network and Decision Tree in Prediction of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Reza Safdari, Goli Arji, Robab Abdolkhani Maryam zahmatkeshan

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Background and purpose: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common diseases in all societies. The most important step in minimizing myocardial infarction and its complications is to minimize its risk factors. The amount of medical data is increasingly growing. Medical data mining has a great potential for transforming these data into information. Using data mining techniques to generate predictive models for identifying those at risk for reducing the effects of the disease is very helpful. The present study aimed to collect data related to risk factors of heart infarction from patients’ medical record and developed predicting models using data mining algorithm. Methods: The present work was an analytical study conducted on a database containing 350 records. Data were related to patients admitted to Shahid Rajaei specialized cardiovascular hospital, Iran, in 2011. Data were collected using a four-sectioned data collection form. Data analysis was performed using SPSS and Clementine version 12. Seven predictive algorithms and one algorithm-based model for predicting association rules were applied to the data. Accuracy, precision, sensitivity, specificity, as well as positive and negative predictive values were determined and the final model was obtained. Results: five parameters, including hypertension, DLP, tobacco smoking, diabetes, and A+ blood group, were the most critical risk factors of myocardial infarction. Among the models, the neural network model was found to have the highest sensitivity, indicating its ability to successfully diagnose the disease. Conclusion: Risk prediction models have great potentials in facilitating the management of a patient with a specific disease. Therefore, health interventions or change in their life style can be conducted based on these models for improving the health conditions of the individuals at risk.

Keywords: decision trees, neural network, myocardial infarction, Data Mining

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8 Behavior, Temperament and Food Intake of Urban Indian Adolescents

Authors: Preeti Khanna, Bani T. Aeri

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Background: Recent studies have indicated challenges that hamper health and wellbeing of a vast majority of adolescents in developing countries. Many modifiable factors like behavior and temperament related to food intake among adolescents have not been adequately explored. The aim of the proposed research is to study the impact of behavior and temperament on food intake and diet quality of adolescents. Objectives: In the present study data on dietary behavior and anthropometry of adolescent boys & girls (aged 13-16 years) studying in public schools of Delhi will be gathered to ascertain the quality of diet among adolescent boys and girls and to study the effect of behavior and temperament on diet quality of adolescents. Methods: In total, 400 adolescents will participate in this cross-sectional study. Weight and height of adolescents will be measured and BMI will be calculated. Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their Food Choices and diet quality such as body image perception, Behavior, temperament, locus of control and parental influence. Expected results: Several direct effects of adolescent traits and behavior on food intake will be observed. Maturational patterns and gender differences in behavior traits will be assessed. By profiling of the behavior and temperament traits, we will have a better understanding of impact of these factors on weight and eating behaviors in overweight/obese or even underweight adolescents. Conclusions: The proposed study will highlight the association of behavioral factors with nutritional status of adolescents. It will also serve as a strategic approach for the obesity prevention and health management policies designed for adolescents.

Keywords: behaviour, temperament, food intake, adolescents

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7 Space Utilisation during Meal Preparation in an Indian Kitchen Belonging to Middle-Income Group Family

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, P. Seetharaman

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A kitchen is a major workplace in any home. A large variety of tasks, mainly related to meal preparation is performed here. The types of activities performed are varied and vast. In a way, it is the activities performed that determine the way the space within the kitchen is going to be utilised. A study was conducted in 510 Indian kitchens belonging to middle-income group families living in Delhi. It was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non-working homemakers were interviewed and questions pertaining to their personal characteristics, meal preparation and physical aspects related to the kitchen were asked. In the second phase, the technique of Path Process Chart was developed. Subsequently, a sub-sample of 50 homemakers was selected from the larger group. The activity of meal preparation was carried out by the homemakers themselves in their kitchens. A time and motion study was conducted using the technique of Path Process Chart. The results were analysed using the appropriate analysis sheets and conclusions were drawn. It was found that the entire kitchen and more specifically, the counter had been 'divided' into a number of workplaces. These workplaces were being used either for performing operations or for the purpose of storage. In many cases, it was used for both. On the whole, in 50 kitchens studied, 21 workplaces were identified which were used for performing operations related to meal preparation and 17 for storage It was also observed that almost the entire kitchen was used for the purpose of storage of some item or the other. The major workplaces where operations were performed were the range, workplaces to the right and left of range and sink and workplaces to the right or left of the sink. The same workplaces were also used for the purpose of storage. There were some workplaces outside the kitchen too, which were used for operations or storage. These were the dining table, courtyard or balcony, bedroom cupboard. On the whole, the range centre and the sink centre were found to be the two most important centres in an Indian kitchen belonging to urban middle-income group family.

Keywords: kitchen, workplace, meal preparation, path process chart

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6 Fluid Prescribing Post Laparotomies

Authors: Gusa Hall, Barrie Keeler, Achal Khanna

Abstract:

Introduction: NICE guidelines have highlighted the consequences of IV fluid mismanagement. The main aim of this study was to audit fluid prescribing post laparotomies to identify if fluids were prescribed in accordance to NICE guidelines. Methodology: Retrospective database search of eight specific laparotomy procedures (colectomy right and left, Hartmann’s procedure, small bowel resection, perforated ulcer, abdominal perineal resection, anterior resection, pan proctocolectomy, subtotal colectomy) highlighted 29 laparotomies between April 2019 and May 2019. Two of 29 patients had secondary procedures during the same admission, n=27 (patients). Database case notes were reviewed for date of procedure, length of admission, fluid prescribed and amount, nasal gastric tube output, daily bloods results for electrolytes sodium and potassium and operational losses. Results: n=27 based on 27 identified patients between April 2019 – May 2019, 93% (25/27) received IV fluids, only 19% (5/27) received the correct IV fluids in accordance to NICE guidelines, 93% (25/27) who received IV fluids had the correct electrolytes levels (sodium & potassium), 100% (27/27) patients received blood tests (U&E’s) for correct electrolytes levels. 0% (0/27) no documentation on operational losses. IV fluids matched nasogastric tube output in 100% (3/3) of the number of patients that had a nasogastric tube in situ. Conclusion: A PubMed database literature review on barriers to safer IV prescribing highlighted educational interventions focused on prescriber knowledge rather than how to execute the prescribing task. This audit suggests IV fluids post laparotomies are not being prescribed consistently in accordance to NICE guidelines. Surgical management plans should be clearer on IV fluids and electrolytes requirements for the following 24 hours after the plan has been initiated. In addition, further teaching and training around IV prescribing is needed together with frequent surgical audits on IV fluid prescribing post-surgery to evaluate improvements.

Keywords: audit, IV Fluid prescribing, laparotomy, NICE guidelines

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5 Time and Energy Saving Kitchen Layout

Authors: Poonam Magu, Kumud Khanna, Premavathy Seetharaman

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The two important resources of any worker performing any type of work at any workplace are time and energy. These are important inputs of the worker and need to be utilised in the best possible manner. The kitchen is an important workplace where the homemaker performs many essential activities. Its layout should be so designed that optimum use of her resources can be achieved.Ideally, the shape of the kitchen, as determined by the physical space enclosed by the four walls, can be square, rectangular or irregular. But it is the shape of the arrangement of counter that one normally refers to while talking of the layout of the kitchen. The arrangement can be along a single wall, along two opposite walls, L shape, U shape or even island. A study was conducted in 50 kitchens belonging to middle income group families. These were DDA built kitchens located in North, South, East and West Delhi.The study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase, 510 non working homemakers were interviewed. The data related to personal characteristics of the homemakers was collected. Additional information was also collected regarding the kitchens-the size, shape , etc. The homemakers were also questioned about various aspects related to meal preparation-people performing the task, number of items cooked, areas used for meal preparation , etc. In the second phase, a suitable technique was designed for conducting time and motion study in the kitchen while the meal was being prepared. This technique was called Path Process Chart. The final phase was carried out in 50 kitchens. The criterion for selection was that all items for a meal should be cooked at the same time. All the meals were cooked by the homemakers in their own kitchens. The meal preparation was studied using the Path Process Chart technique. The data collected was analysed and conclusions drawn. It was found that of all the shapes, it was the kitchen with L shape arrangement in which, on an average a homemaker spent minimum time on meal preparation and also travelled the minimum distance. Thus, the average distance travelled in a L shaped layout was 131.1 mts as compared to 181.2 mts in an U shaped layout. Similarly, 48 minutes was the average time spent on meal preparation in L shaped layout as compared to 53 minutes in U shaped layout. Thus, the L shaped layout was more time and energy saving layout as compared to U shaped.

Keywords: kitchen layout, meal preparation, path process chart technique, workplace

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4 Electrodeposition of Silicon Nanoparticles Using Ionic Liquid for Energy Storage Application

Authors: Anjali Vanpariya, Priyanka Marathey, Sakshum Khanna, Roma Patel, Indrajit Mukhopadhyay

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Silicon (Si) is a promising negative electrode material for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs) due to its low cost, non-toxicity, and a high theoretical capacity of 4200 mAhg⁻¹. The primary challenge of the application of Si-based LiBs is large volume expansion (~ 300%) during the charge-discharge process. Incorporation of graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNTs), morphological control, and nanoparticles was utilized as effective strategies to tackle volume expansion issues. However, molten salt methods can resolve the issue, but high-temperature requirement limits its application. For sustainable and practical approach, room temperature (RT) based methods are essentially required. Use of ionic liquids (ILs) for electrodeposition of Si nanostructures can possibly resolve the issue of temperature as well as greener media. In this work, electrodeposition of Si nanoparticles on gold substrate was successfully carried out in the presence of ILs media, 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium-bis (trifluoromethyl sulfonyl) imide (BMImTf₂N) at room temperature. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) suggests the sequential reduction of Si⁴⁺ to Si²⁺ and then Si nanoparticles (SiNs). The structure and morphology of the electrodeposited SiNs were investigated by FE-SEM and observed interconnected Si nanoparticles of average particle size ⁓100-200 nm. XRD and XPS data confirm the deposition of Si on Au (111). The first discharge-charge capacity of Si anode material has been found to be 1857 and 422 mAhg⁻¹, respectively, at current density 7.8 Ag⁻¹. The irreversible capacity of the first discharge-charge process can be attributed to the solid electrolyte interface (SEI) formation via electrolyte decomposition, and trapped Li⁺ inserted into the inner pores of Si. Pulverization of SiNs results in the creation of a new active site, which facilitates the formation of new SEI in the subsequent cycles leading to fading in a specific capacity. After 20 cycles, charge-discharge profiles have been stabilized, and a reversible capacity of 150 mAhg⁻¹ is retained. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) data shows the decrease in Rct value from 94.7 to 47.6 kΩ after 50 cycles of charge-discharge, which demonstrates the improvements of the interfacial charge transfer kinetics. The decrease in the Warburg impedance after 50 cycles of charge-discharge measurements indicates facile diffusion in fragmented and smaller Si nanoparticles. In summary, Si nanoparticles deposited on gold substrate using ILs as media and characterized well with different analytical techniques. Synthesized material was successfully utilized for LiBs application, which is well supported by CV and EIS data.

Keywords: silicon nanoparticles, ionic liquid, electrodeposition, cyclic voltammetry, Li-ion battery

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3 Evidence-Based Health System Strengthening in Urban India: Drawing Insights from Rapid Assessment Study

Authors: Anisur Rahman, Sabyasachi Behera, Pawan Pathak, Benazir Patil, Rajesh Khanna

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Background: Nearly half of India’s population is expected to reside in urban areas by 2030. The extent to which India's health system can provide for this large and growing city-based population will determine the country's success in achieving universal health coverage and improved national health indices. National Urban Health Mission (NUHM) strive for improving access to primary health care in urban areas. Implementation of NUHM solicits sensitive, effective and sustainable strategies to strengthen the service delivery mechanisms. The Challenge Initiative for Healthy Cities (TCIHC) is working with the Government of India and three provincial states to develop effective service delivery mechanisms for reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) through a health systems approach for the urban poor. Method: A rapid assessment study was conceptualized and executed to generate evidence in order to address the challenges impeding in functioning of urban health facilities to deliver effective, efficient and equitable health care services in 7 cities spread across two project States viz. Madhya Pradesh and Odisha. Results: The findings of the assessment reflect: 1. The overall ecosystem pertaining to planning and management of public health interventions is not conducive. 2. The challenges regarding population dynamics like migration keeps on influencing the demand-supply-enabling environment triangle for both public and private service providers. 3. Lack of norms for planning and benchmark for service delivery further impedes urban health system as a whole. 4. Operationalization of primary level services have enough potential to meet the demand of slum dwellers at large. 5. Lack of policy driven strategies on how to integrate the NUHM with other thematic areas of Maternal, Newborn & Child Health (MNCH) and Family Planning (FP). 5. The inappropriate capacity building and acute shortage of Human Resources has huge implication on service provisioning and adherence to the service delivery protocols. Conclusion: The findings from rapid assessment are aimed to inform pertinent stakeholders to develop a multiyear city health action plan to strengthen the health systems in order to improve the efficacy of service delivery mechanism in urban settings.

Keywords: city health plan, health system, rapid assessment, urban mission

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2 Endometrial Biopsy Curettage vs Endometrial Aspiration: Better Modality in Female Genital Tuberculosis

Authors: Rupali Bhatia, Deepthi Nair, Geetika Khanna, Seema Singhal

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Introduction: Genital tract tuberculosis is a chronic disease (caused by reactivation of organisms from systemic distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis) that often presents with low grade symptoms and non-specific complaints. Patients with genital tuberculosis are usually young women seeking workup and treatment for infertility. Infertility is the commonest presentation due to involvement of the fallopian tubes, endometrium and ovarian damage with poor ovarian volume and reserve. The diagnosis of genital tuberculosis is difficult because of the fact that it is a silent invader of genital tract. Since tissue cannot be obtained from fallopian tubes, the diagnosis is made by isolation of bacilli from endometrial tissue obtained by endometrial biopsy curettage and/or aspiration. Problems are associated with sampling technique as well as diagnostic modality due to lack of adequate sample volumes and the segregation of the sample for various diagnostic tests resulting in non-uniform distribution of microorganisms. Moreover, lack of an efficient sampling technique universally applicable for all specific diagnostic tests contributes to the diagnostic challenges. Endometrial sampling plays a key role in accurate diagnosis of female genital tuberculosis. It may be done by 2 methods viz. endometrial curettage and endometrial aspiration. Both endometrial curettage and aspirate have their own limitations as curettage picks up strip of the endometrium from one of the walls of the uterine cavity including tubal osteal areas whereas aspirate obtains total tissue with exfoliated cells present in the secretory fluid of the endometrial cavity. Further, sparse and uneven distribution of the bacilli remains a major factor contributing to the limitations of the techniques. The sample that is obtained by either technique is subjected to histopathological examination, AFB staining, culture and PCR. Aim: Comparison of the sampling techniques viz. endometrial biopsy curettage and endometrial aspiration using different laboratory methods of histopathology, cytology, microbiology and molecular biology. Method: In a hospital based observational study, 75 Indian females suspected of genital tuberculosis were selected on the basis of inclusion criteria. The women underwent endometrial tissue sampling using Novaks biopsy curette and Karmans cannula. One part of the specimen obtained was sent in formalin solution for histopathological testing and another part was sent in normal saline for acid fast bacilli smear, culture and polymerase chain reaction. The results so obtained were correlated using coefficient of correlation and chi square test. Result: Concordance of results showed moderate agreement between both the sampling techniques. Among HPE, AFB and PCR, maximum sensitivity was observed for PCR, though the specificity was not as high as other techniques. Conclusion: Statistically no significant difference was observed between the results obtained by the two sampling techniques. Therefore, one may use either EA or EB to obtain endometrial samples and avoid multiple sampling as both the techniques are equally efficient in diagnosing genital tuberculosis by HPE, AFB, culture or PCR.

Keywords: acid fast bacilli (AFB), histopatholgy examination (HPE), polymerase chain reaction (PCR), endometrial biopsy curettage

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