Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 256

Search results for: Juan Guillermo Jiménez Jiménez

76 Comparison of Low Velocity Impact Test on Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

The most common controlled method to obtain impact strength of composites materials is performing a Charpy Impact Test which consists of a pendulum with calibrated mass and length released from a known height. In fact, composites components experience impact events in normal operations such as when a tool drops or a foreign object strikes it. These events are categorized into low velocity impact (LVI) which typically occurs at velocities below 10m/s. In this study, the major aim was to calculate the absorbed energy during the impact. Tests were performed on three types of composite panels: fiberglass laminated panels, coir fiber reinforced polyester and coir fiber reinforced polyester subjected to water immersion for 48 hours. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. They were alkali treated in 5% aqueous NaOH solution for 2h periods. Three type of shape impactors were used on drop-weight impact test including hemispherical, ogive and pointed. Failure mechanisms and failure modes of specimens were examined using an optical microscope. Results demonstrate a reduction in absorbed energy correlated with the increment of water absorption of the panels. For each level of absorbed energy, it was possible to associate a different fracture state. This study compares results of energy absorbed obtained from two impact test methods.

Keywords: coir fiber, polyester composites, low velocity impact, Charpy impact test, drop-weight impact test

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75 Educational Fieldworks towards Urban Biodiversity Preservation: Case Study of Japanese Gardens Management of Kanazawa City, Japan

Authors: Aida Mammadova, Juan Pastor Ivars

Abstract:

Japanese gardens can be considered as the unique hubs to preserve urban biodiversity, as they provide the habitat for the diverse network of living organisms, facilitating to the movement of the rare species around the urban landscape, became the refuge for the moss and many endangered species. For the centuries, Japanese gardens were considered as ecologically sustainable and well-organized ecosystems, due to the skilled maintenances and management. However, unfortunately, due to the depopulations and ageing in Japanese societies, gardens are becoming more abandoned, and there is an urgent need to increase the awareness about the importance of the Japanese gardens to preserve the urban biodiversity. In this study, we have conducted the participatory educational field trips for 12 students into the to the five gardens protected by Kanazawa City and learned about the preservation activities conducted at the governmental, municipal, and local levels. After the courses, students have found a strong linkage between the gardens with the traditional culture. Kanazawa City, for more than 400 years is famous with traditional craft makings and tea ceremonies, and it was noticed that the cultural diversity of the city was strongly supported by the biodiversity of the gardens, and loss of the gardens would bring to the loss of the traditional culture. Using the experiential approach during the fieldworks, it was observed by the students that the linkage between the bio-cultural diversity strongly depends on humans’ activities. The continuous management and maintenance of the gardens are the contributing factor for the preservation of urban diversity. However, garden management is very time and capital consuming process, and it was also noticed that there is a big need to attract all levels of the society to preserve the urban biodiversity through the participatory urbanism.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Conservation, educational fieldwork, Japanese gardens

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74 Effect of Food Supplies Holstein Calves Supplemented with Bacillus Subtilis PB6 in Morbidity and Mortality

Authors: Banca Patricia Pena Revuelta, Ramiro Gonzalez Avalos, Juan Leonardo Rocha Valdez, Jose Gonzalez Avalos, Karla Rodriguez Hernandez

Abstract:

Probiotics are a promising alternative to improve productivity and animals' health. In addition, they can be part of the composition of different types of products, including foods (functional foods), medicines, and dietary supplements. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of the feeding of Holstein calves supplemented with bacillus subtilis PB6 in morbidity and mortality. 60 newborn animals were used, randomly included in 1 of 3 treatments. The treatments were as follows: T1 = control, T2 = 10 g / calf / day. The first takes within 20 min after birth, T3 = 10 g / calf/day. The first takes between 12 and 24 h after birth. In all the treatments, 432 L of pasteurized whole milk divided into two doses/day 07:00 and 15:00, respectively, were given for 60 days. The addition of bacillus subtilis PB6 was carried out in the milk tub at the time of feeding them. The first colostrum intake (2 L • intake) was given within 2 h after birth, after which they were given a second 6 h after the first one. The diseases registered to monitor the morbidity and mortality of the calves were: diarrhea and pneumonia. The registry was carried out from birth to 60 days of life. The parameter evaluated was food consumption. The variable statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, and comparison of means was performed using the Tukey test. The value of P < 0.05 was used to consider the statistical difference. The results of the present study in relation to the consumption of food show no statistical difference P < 0.05 between treatments (14,762, 11,698, and 12,403 kg of food average, respectively). Calves group to which they were not provided Bacillus subtilis PB6 obtained higher feed intake. The addition of Bacillus subtilis PB6 in feeding calves does not increase feed intake.

Keywords:

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73 Fluid-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade Made with Natural Fiber Based Composite Material

Authors: Manuel Martinez, Ivan D. Ortega, Juan D. Castro, Alberto Pertuz

Abstract:

One of the problems considered when scientists talk about climate change is the necessity of utilizing renewable sources of energy, on this category there are many approaches to the problem, one of them is wind energy and wind turbines whose designs have frequently changed along many years trying to achieve a better overall performance on different conditions. From that situation, we get the two main types known today: Vertical and Horizontal axis wind turbines, which have acronyms VAWT and HAWT, respectively. This research aims to understand how well suited a composite material, which is still in development, made with natural origin fibers is for its implementation on vertical axis wind turbines blades under certain wind loads. The study consisted on acquiring the mechanical properties of the materials to be used which where bactris guineenis, also known as pama de lata in Colombia, and adhesive that acts as the matrix which had not been previously studied to the point required for this project. Then, a simplified 3D model of the airfoil was developed and tested under some preliminary loads using finite element analysis (FEA), these loads were acquired in the Colombian Chicamocha Canyon. Afterwards, a more realistic pressure profile was obtained using computational fluid dynamics which took into account the 3D shape of the complete blade and its rotation. Finally, the blade model was subjected to the wind loads using what is known as one way fluidstructure interaction (FSI) and its behavior analyzed to draw conclusions. The observed overall results were positive since the material behaved fairly as expected. Data suggests the material would be really useful in this kind of applications in small to medium size turbines if it is given more attention and time to develop.

Keywords: CFD, Natural Fiber, FEA, VAWT, FSI

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
72 Spontaneous Generation of Wrinkled Patterns on pH-Sensitive Smart-Hydrogel Films

Authors: Carmen M. Gonzalez-Henriquez, Mauricio A. Sarabia-Vallejos, Juan Rodriguez-Hernandez

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DMAEMA, as a monomer, has been widely studied and used in several application fields due to their pH-sensitive capacity (tertiary amine protonation), being relevant in the biomedical area as a potential carrier for drugs focused on the treatment of genetic or acquired diseases (efficient gene transfection), among others. Additionally, the inhibition of bacterial growth and, therefore, their antimicrobial activity, can be used as dual-functional antifogging/antimicrobial polymer coatings. According to their interesting physicochemical characteristics and biocompatible properties, DMAEMA was used as a monomer to synthesize a smart pH-sensitive hydrogel, namely poly(HEMA-co-PEGDA575-co-DMAEMA). Thus, different mole ratios (ranging from 5:1:0 to 0:1:5, according to the mole ratio between HEMA, PEGDA, and DEAEMA, respectively) were used in this research. The surface patterns formed via a two-step polymerization (redox- and photo-polymerization) were first chemically studied via 1H-NMR and elemental analysis. Secondly, the samples were morphologically analyzed by using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques. Then, a particular relation between HEMA, PEGDA, and DEAEMA (0:1:5) was also characterized at three different pH (5.4, 7.4 and 8.3). The hydrodynamic radius and zeta potential of the micro-hydrogel particles (emulsion) were carried out as a possible control for morphology, exploring the effect that produces hydrogel micelle dimensions in the wavelength, height, and roughness of the wrinkled patterns. Finally, contact angle and cross-hatch adhesion test was carried out for the hydrogels supported on glass using TSM-silanized surfaces in order to measure their mechanical properties.

Keywords: wrinkled patterns, smart pH-sensitive hydrogels, hydrogel micelle diameter, adhesion tests

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71 Coupled Hydro-Geomechanical Modeling of Oil Reservoir Considering Non-Newtonian Fluid through a Fracture

Authors: Juan Huang, Hugo Ninanya

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Oil has been used as a source of energy and supply to make materials, such as asphalt or rubber for many years. This is the reason why new technologies have been implemented through time. However, research still needs to continue increasing due to new challenges engineers face every day, just like unconventional reservoirs. Various numerical methodologies have been applied in petroleum engineering as tools in order to optimize the production of reservoirs before drilling a wellbore, although not all of these have the same efficiency when talking about studying fracture propagation. Analytical methods like those based on linear elastic fractures mechanics fail to give a reasonable prediction when simulating fracture propagation in ductile materials whereas numerical methods based on the cohesive zone method (CZM) allow to represent the elastoplastic behavior in a reservoir based on a constitutive model; therefore, predictions in terms of displacements and pressure will be more reliable. In this work, a hydro-geomechanical coupled model of horizontal wells in fractured rock was developed using ABAQUS; both extended element method and cohesive elements were used to represent predefined fractures in a model (2-D). A power law for representing the rheological behavior of fluid (shear-thinning, power index <1) through fractures and leak-off rate permeating to the matrix was considered. Results have been showed in terms of aperture and length of the fracture, pressure within fracture and fluid loss. It was showed a high infiltration rate to the matrix as power index decreases. A sensitivity analysis is conclusively performed to identify the most influential factor of fluid loss.

Keywords: Numerical Analysis, fracture, Sensitivity Analysis, non-Newtonian fluid, hydro-geomechanical model

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70 Design of 3D Bioprinted Scaffolds for Cartilage Regeneration

Authors: Gloria Pinilla, Jose Manuel Baena, Patricia Gálvez-Martín, Juan Antonio Marchad

Abstract:

Cartilage is a dense connective tissue with limited self-repair properties. Currently, the therapeutic use of autologous or allogenic chondrocytes makes up an alternative therapy to the pharmacological treatment. The design of a bioprinted 3D cartilage with chondrocytes and biodegradable biomaterials offers a new therapeutic alternative able of bridging the limitations of current therapies in the field. We have developed an enhanced printing processes-Injection Volume Filling (IVF) to increase the viability and survival of the cells when working with high-temperature thermoplastics without the limitation of the scaffold geometry in contact with cells. We have demonstrated the viability of the printing process using chondrocytes for cartilage regeneration. This development will accelerate the clinical uptake of the technology and overcomes the current limitation when using thermoplastics as scaffolds. An alginate-based hydrogel combined with human chondrocytes (isolated from osteoarthritis patients) was formulated as bioink-A and the polylactic acid as bioink-B. The bioprinting process was carried out with the REGEMAT V1 bioprinter (Regemat 3D, Granada-Spain) through a IVF. The printing capacity of the bioprinting plus the viability and cell proliferation of bioprinted chondrociytes was evaluated after five weeks by confocal microscopy and Alamar Blue Assay (Biorad). Results showed that the IVF process does not decrease the cell viability of the chondrocytes during the printing process as the cells do not have contact with the thermoplastic at elevated temperatures. The viability and cellular proliferation of the bioprinted artificial 3D cartilage increased after 5 weeks. In conclusion, this study demonstrates the potential use of Regemat V1 for 3D bioprinting of cartilage and the viability of bioprinted chondrocytes in the scaffolds for application in regenerative medicine.

Keywords: bioprinting, chondrocyte, Scaffold, bioink, cartilage regeneration

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69 Influence of Local Soil Conditions on Optimal Load Factors for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sonia E. Ruiz, Juan Bojorquez, Miguel A. Orellana

Abstract:

Optimal load factors (dead, live and seismic) used for the design of buildings may be different, depending of the seismic ground motion characteristics to which they are subjected, which are closely related to the type of soil conditions where the structures are located. The influence of the type of soil on those load factors, is analyzed in the present study. A methodology that is useful for establishing optimal load factors that minimize the cost over the life cycle of the structure is employed; and as a restriction, it is established that the probability of structural failure must be less than or equal to a prescribed value. The life-cycle cost model used here includes different types of costs. The optimization methodology is applied to two groups of reinforced concrete buildings. One set (consisting on 4-, 7-, and 10-story buildings) is located on firm ground (with a dominant period Ts=0.5 s) and the other (consisting on 6-, 12-, and 16-story buildings) on soft soil (Ts=1.5 s) of Mexico City. Each group of buildings is designed using different combinations of load factors. The statistics of the maximums inter-story drifts (associated with the structural capacity) are found by means of incremental dynamic analyses. The buildings located on firm zone are analyzed under the action of 10 strong seismic records, and those on soft zone, under 13 strong ground motions. All the motions correspond to seismic subduction events with magnitudes M=6.9. Then, the structural damage and the expected total costs, corresponding to each group of buildings, are estimated. It is concluded that the optimal load factors combination is different for the design of buildings located on firm ground than that for buildings located on soft soil.

Keywords: Reinforced Concrete Buildings, life-cycle cost, optimal load factors, total costs, type of soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
68 Perception of Public Transport Quality of Service among Regular Private Vehicle Users in Five European Cities

Authors: Juan de Ona, Esperanza Estevez, Rocío de Ona

Abstract:

Urban traffic levels can be reduced by drawing travelers away from private vehicles over to using public transport. This modal change can be achieved by either introducing restrictions on private vehicles or by introducing measures which increase people’s satisfaction with public transport. For public transport users, quality of service affects customer satisfaction, which, in turn, influences the behavioral intentions towards the service. This paper intends to identify the main attributes which influence the perception private vehicle users have about the public transport services provided in five European cities: Berlin, Lisbon, London, Madrid and Rome. Ordinal logit models have been applied to an online panel survey with a sample size of 2,500 regular private vehicle users (approximately 500 inhabitants per city). To achieve a comprehensive analysis and to deal with heterogeneity in perceptions, 15 models have been developed for the entire sample and 14 user segments. The results show differences between the cities and among the segments. Madrid was taken as reference city and results indicate that the inhabitants are satisfied with public transport in Madrid and that the most important public transport service attributes for private vehicle users are frequency, speed and intermodality. Frequency is an important attribute for all the segments, while speed and intermodality are important for most of the segments. An analysis by segments has identified attributes which, although not important in most cases, are relevant for specific segments. This study also points out important differences between the five cities. Findings from this study can be used to develop policies and recommendations for persuading.

Keywords: Segmentation, public transportation, Service Quality, satisfaction, ordered logit, private vehicle users, car users

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67 Solid State Fermentation Process Development for Trichoderma asperellum Using Inert Support in a Fixed Bed Fermenter

Authors: Mauricio Cruz, Andrés Díaz García, Martha Isabel Gómez, Juan Carlos Serrato Bermúdez

Abstract:

The disadvantages of using natural substrates in SSF processes have been well recognized and mainly are associated to gradual decomposition of the substrate, formation of agglomerates and decrease of porosity bed generating limitations in the mass and heat transfer. Additionally, in several cases, materials with a high agricultural value such as sour milk, beets, rice, beans and corn have been used. Thus, the use of economic inert supports (natural or synthetic) in combination with a nutrient suspension for the production of biocontrol microorganisms is a good alternative in SSF processes, but requires further studies in the fields of modeling and optimization. Therefore, the aim of this work is to compare the performance of two inert supports, a synthetic (polyurethane foam) and a natural one (rice husk), identifying the factors that have the major effects on the productivity of T. asperellum Th204 and the maximum specific growth rate in a PROPHYTA L05® fixed bed bioreactor. For this, the six factors C:N ratio, temperature, inoculation rate, bed height, air moisture content and airflow were evaluated using a fractional design. The factors C:N and air flow were identified as significant on the productivity (expressed as conidia/dry substrate•h). The polyurethane foam showed higher maximum specific growth rate (0.1631 h-1) and productivities of 3.89 x107 conidia/dry substrate•h compared to rice husk (2.83x106) and natural substrate based on rice (8.87x106) used as control. Finally, a quadratic model was generated and validated, obtaining productivities higher than 3.0x107 conidia/dry substrate•h with air flow at 0.9 m3/h and C:N ratio at 18.1.

Keywords: Bioprocess, Scale up, Air Flow, fractional design, C:N ratio

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66 Historical Analysis of the Landscape Changes and the Eco-Environment Effects on the Coastal Zone of Bohai Bay, China

Authors: Yu Wang, Xing Wang, Juan Zhou, Lusan Liu, Yanzhong Zhu, Kuixuan Lin, Wenqian Cai

Abstract:

During the past few decades, there has been an increase in the number of coastal land reclamation projects for residential, commercial and industrial purposes in more and more coastal cities of China, which led to the destruction of the wetlands and loss of the sensitive marine habitats. Meanwhile, the influences and nature of these projects attract widespread public and academic concern. For identifying the trend of landscape (esp. Coastal reclamation) and ecological environment changes, understanding of which interacted, and offering a general science for the development of regional plans. In the paper, a case study was carried out in Bohai Bay area, based on the analysis of remote sensing data. Land use maps were created for 1954, 1970, 1981, 1990, 2000 and 2010. Landscape metrics were calculated and illustrated that the degree of reclamation changes was linked to the hydrodynamic environment and macrobenthos community. The results indicated that the worst of the loss of initial areas occurred during 1954-1970, with 65.6% lost mostly to salt field; to 2010, Coastal reclamation area increased more than 200km² as artificial landscape. The numerical simulation of tidal current field in 2003 and 2010 respectively showed that the flow velocity in offshore became faster (from 2-5 cm/s to 10-20 cm/s), and the flow direction seem to go astray. These significant changes of coastline were not conducive to the spread of pollutants and degradation. Additionally, the dominant macrobenthos analysis from 1958 to 2012 showed that Musculus senhousei (Benson, 1842) spread very fast and had been the predominant species in the recent years, which was a disturbance tolerant species.

Keywords: Landscape Change, spatial patterns, Bohai Bay, coastal reclamation

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
65 A Prototype for Biological Breakdown of Plastic Bags in Desert Areas

Authors: Yassets Egaña, Patricio Núñez, Juan C. Rios, Ivan Balic, Alex Manquez, Yarela Flores, Maria C. Gatica, Sergio Diez De Medina, Rocio Tijaro-Rojas

Abstract:

Globally, humans produce millions of tons of waste per year. An important percentage of this waste is plastic, which frequently ends up in landfills and oceans. During the last decades, the greatest plastics production in history have been made, a few amount of this plastic is recycled, the rest ending up as plastic pollution in soils and seas. Plastic pollution is disastrous for the environment, affecting essential species, quality of consumption water, and some economic activities such as tourism, in different parts of the world. Due to its durability and decomposition on micro-plastics, animals and humans are accumulating a variety of plastic components without having clear their effects on human health, economy, and wildlife. In dry regions as the Atacama Desert, up to 95% of the water consumption comes from underground reservoirs, therefore preventing the soil pollution is an urgent need. This contribution focused on isolating, genotyping and optimizing microorganisms that use plastic waste as the only source of food to construct a batch-type bioreactor able to degrade in a faster way the plastic waste before it gets the desert soils and groundwater consumed by people living in this areas. Preliminary results, under laboratory conditions, has shown an improved degradation of polyethylene when three species of bacteria and three of fungi act on a selected plastic material. These microorganisms have been inoculated in dry soils, initially lacking organic matter, under environmental conditions in the laboratory. Our team designed and constructed a prototype using the natural conditions of the region and the best experimental results.

Keywords: prototype, biological breakdown, plastic bags, desert regions

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64 Use of Smartwatches for the Emotional Self-Regulation of Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

Authors: Juan C. Torrado, Javier Gomez, Guadalupe Montero, German Montoro, M. Dolores Villalba

Abstract:

One of the most challenging aspects of the executive dysfunction of people with Autism Spectrum Disorders is the behavior control. This is related to a deficit in their ability to regulate, recognize and manage their own emotions. Some researchers have developed applications for tablets and smartphones to practice strategies of relaxation and emotion recognition. However, they cannot be applied to the very moment of temper outbursts, anger episodes or anxiety, since they require to carry the device, start the application and be helped by caretakers. Also, some of these systems are developed for either obsolete technologies (old versions of tablet devices, PDAs, outdated operative systems of smartphones) or specific devices (self-developed or proprietary ones) that create differentiation between the users and the rest of the individuals in their context. For this project we selected smartwatches. Focusing on emergent technologies ensures a wide lifespan of the developed products, because the derived products are intended to be available in the same moment the very technology gets popularized, not later. We also focused our research in commercial versions of smartwatches, since this way differentiation is easily avoided, so the users’ abandonment rate lowers. We have developed a smartwatch system along with a smartphone authoring tool to display self-regulation strategies. These micro-prompting strategies are conformed of pictograms, animations and temporizers, and they are designed by means of the authoring tool: When both devices synchronize their data, the smartwatch holds the self-regulation strategies, which are triggered when the smartwatch sensors detect a remarkable rise of heart rate and movement. The system is being currently tested in an educational center of people with ASD of Madrid, Spain.

Keywords: Human-Computer Interaction, Assistive Technologies, emotion regulation, smartwatches

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63 Effects of Accelerated Environment Aging on the Mechanical Properties of a Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composite

Authors: Ricardo Mendoza, Jason Briceño, Juan F. Santa, Gabriel Peluffo, Mauricio Márquez, Beatriz Cardozo, Carlos Gutiérrez

Abstract:

Coir natural fiber reinforced polyester composites were exposed to an accelerated environment aging in order to study the influence on the mechanical properties. Coir fibers were obtained in local plantations of the Caribbean coast of Colombia. A physical and mechanical characterization was necessary to found the best behavior between three types of coconut. Composites were fabricated by hand lay-up technique and samples were cut by water jet technique. An accelerated aging test simulates environmental climate conditions in a hygrothermal and ultraviolet chamber. Samples were exposed to the UV/moisture rich environment for 500 and 1000 hours. The tests were performed in accordance with ASTM G154. An additional water absorption test was carried out by immersing specimens in a water bath. Mechanical behaviors of the composites were tested by tensile, flexural and impact test according to ASTM standards, after aging and compared with unaged composite specimens. It was found that accelerated environment aging affects mechanical properties in comparison with unaged ones. Tensile and flexural strength were lower after aging, meantime elongation at break and flexural deflection increased. Impact strength was found that reduced after aging. Other result revealed that the percentage of moisture uptake increased with aging. This results showed that composite materials reinforced with natural fibers required an improvement adding a protective barrier to reduce water absorption and increase UV resistance.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, coir fiber, polyester composites, environmental aging

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
62 Using Problem-Based Learning on Teaching Early Intervention for College Students

Authors: Chen-Ya Juan

Abstract:

In recent years, the increasing number of children with special needs has brought a lot of attention by many scholars and experts in education, which enforced the preschool teachers face the harsh challenge in the classroom. To protect the right of equal education for all children, enhance the quality of children learning, and take care of the needs of children with special needs, the special education paraprofessional becomes one of the future employment trends for students of the department of the early childhood care and education. Problem-based learning is a problem-oriented instruction, which is different from traditional instruction. The instructor first designed an ambiguous problem direction, following the basic knowledge of early intervention, students had to find clues to solve the problem defined by themselves. In the class, the total instruction included 20 hours, two hours per week. The primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship of student academic scores, self-awareness, learning motivation, learning attitudes, and early intervention knowledge. A total of 105 college students participated in this study and 97 questionnaires were effective. The effective response rate was 90%. The student participants included 95 females and two males. The average age of the participants was 19 years old. The questionnaires included 125 questions divided into four major dimensions: (1) Self-awareness, (2) learning motivation, (3) learning attitudes, and (4) early intervention knowledge. The results indicated (1) the scores of self-awareness were 58%; the scores of the learning motivations was 64.9%; the scores of the learning attitudes was 55.3%. (2) After the instruction, the early intervention knowledge has been increased to 64.2% from 38.4%. (3) Student’s academic performance has positive relationship with self-awareness (p < 0.05; R = 0.506), learning motivation (p < 0.05; R = 0.487), learning attitudes (p < 0.05; R = 0.527). The results implied that although students had gained early intervention knowledge by using PBL instruction, students had medium scores on self-awareness and learning attitudes, medium high in learning motivations.

Keywords: Problem-Based Learning, college students, learning motivation, children with special needs

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61 Free Energy Computation of A G-Quadruplex-Ligand Structure: A Classical Molecular Dynamics and Metadynamics Simulation Study

Authors: Juan Antonio Mondragon Sanchez, Ruben Santamaria

Abstract:

The DNA G-quadruplex is a four-stranded DNA structure formed by stacked planes of four base paired guanines (G-quartet). Guanine rich DNA sequences appear in many sites of genomic DNA and can potential form G-quadruplexes, such as those occurring at 3'-terminus of the human telomeric DNA. The formation and stabilization of a G-quadruplex by small ligands at the telomeric region can inhibit the telomerase activity. In turn, the ligands can be used to down regulate oncogene expression making G-quadruplex an attractive target for anticancer therapy. Many G-quadruplex ligands have been proposed with a planar core to facilitate the pi–pi stacking and electrostatic interactions with the G-quartets. However, many drug candidates are impossibilitated to discriminate a G-quadruplex from a double helix DNA structure. In this context, it is important to investigate the site topology for the interaction of a G-quadruplex with a ligand. In this work, we determine the free energy surface of a G-quadruplex-ligand to study the binding modes of the G-quadruplex (TG4T) with the daunomycin (DM) drug. The complex TG4T-DM is studied using classical molecular dynamics in combination with metadynamics simulations. The metadynamics simulations permit an enhanced sampling of the conformational space with a modest computational cost and obtain free energy surfaces in terms of the collective variables (CV). The free energy surfaces of TG4T-DM exhibit other local minima, indicating the presence of additional binding modes of daunomycin that are not observed in short MD simulations without the metadynamics approach. The results are compared with similar calculations on a different structure (the mutated mu-G4T-DM where the 5' thymines on TG4T-DM have been deleted). The results should be of help to design new G-quadruplex drugs, and understand the differences in the recognition topology sites of the duplex and quadruplex DNA structures in their interaction with ligands.

Keywords: Cancer, Molecular Dynamics, G-Quadruplex, metadynamics

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60 Testifying in Court as a Victim of Crime for Persons with Little or No Functional Speech: Vocabulary Implications

Authors: Robyn White, Juan Bornman, Ensa Johnson

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People with disabilities are at a high risk of becoming victims of crime. Individuals with little or no functional speech (LNFS) face an even higher risk. One way of reducing the risk of remaining a victim of crime is to face the alleged perpetrator in court as a witness – therefore it is important for a person with LNFS who has been a victim of crime to have the required vocabulary to testify in court. The aim of this study was to identify and describe the core and fringe legal vocabulary required by illiterate victims of crime, who have little or no functional speech, to testify in court as witnesses. A mixed-method, the exploratory sequential design consisting of two distinct phases was used to address the aim of the research. The first phase was of a qualitative nature and included two different data sources, namely in-depth semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions. The overall aim of this phase was to identify and describe core and fringe legal vocabulary and to develop a measurement instrument based on these results. Results from Phase 1 were used in Phase 2, the quantitative phase, during which the measurement instrument (a custom-designed questionnaire) was socially validated. The results produced six distinct vocabulary categories that represent the legal core vocabulary and 99 words that represent the legal fringe vocabulary. The findings suggested that communication boards should be individualised to the individual and the specific crime. It is believed that the vocabulary lists developed in this study act as a valid and reliable springboard from which communication boards can be developed. Recommendations were therefore made to develop an Alternative and Augmentative Communication Resource Tool Kit to assist the legal justice system.

Keywords: augmentative and alternative communication, person with little or no functional speech, sexual crimes, testifying in court, victim of crime, witness competency

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59 Adhesive Bonded Joints Characterization and Crack Propagation in Composite Materials under Cyclic Impact Fatigue and Constant Amplitude Fatigue Loadings

Authors: Juan P. Casas, Andres Bautista, Alicia Porras, Maribel Silva

Abstract:

The Colombian aeronautical industry has stimulated research in the mechanical behavior of materials under different loading conditions aircrafts are generally exposed during its operation. The Calima T-90 is the first military aircraft built in the country, used for primary flight training of Colombian Air Force Pilots, therefore, it may be exposed to adverse operating situations such as hard landings which cause impact loads on the aircraft that might produce the impact fatigue phenomenon. The Calima T-90 structure is mainly manufactured by composites materials generating assemblies and subassemblies of different components of it. The main method of bonding these components is by using adhesive joints. Each type of adhesive bond must be studied on its own since its performance depends on the conditions of the manufacturing process and operating characteristics. This study aims to characterize the typical adhesive joints of the aircraft under usual loads. To this purpose, the evaluation of the effect of adhesive thickness on the mechanical performance of the joint under quasi-static loading conditions, constant amplitude fatigue and cyclic impact fatigue using single lap-joint specimens will be performed. Additionally, using a double cantilever beam specimen, the influence of the thickness of the adhesive on the crack growth rate for mode I delamination failure, as a function of the critical energy release rate will be determined. Finally, an analysis of the fracture surface of the test specimens considering the mechanical interaction between the substrate (composite) and the adhesive, provide insights into the magnitude of the damage, the type of failure mechanism that occurs and its correlation with the way crack propagates under the proposed loading conditions.

Keywords: Composites, Fatigue, crack propagation, adhesive

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58 Assesments of Some Environment Variables on Fisheries at Two Levels: Global and Fao Major Fishing Areas

Authors: Hyelim Park, Juan Martin Zorrilla

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Climate change influences very widely and in various ways ocean ecosystem functioning. The consequences of climate change on marine ecosystems are an increase in temperature and irregular behavior of some solute concentrations. These changes would affect fisheries catches in several ways. Our aim is to assess the quantitative contribution change of fishery catches along the time and express them through four environment variables: Sea Surface Temperature (SST4) and the concentrations of Chlorophyll (CHL), Particulate Inorganic Carbon (PIC) and Particulate Organic Carbon (POC) at two spatial scales: Global and the nineteen FAO Major Fishing Areas divisions. Data collection was based on the FAO FishStatJ 2014 database as well as MODIS Aqua satellite observations from 2002 to 2012. Some data had to be corrected and interpolated using some existing methods. As the results, a multivariable regression model for average Global fisheries captures contained temporal mean of SST4, standard deviation of SST4, standard deviation of CHL and standard deviation of PIC. Global vector auto-regressive (VAR) model showed that SST4 was a statistical cause of global fishery capture. To accommodate varying conditions in fishery condition and influence of climate change variables, a model was constructed for each FAO major fishing area. From the management perspective it should be recognized some limitations of the FAO marine areas division that opens to possibility to the discussion of the subdivision of the areas into smaller units. Furthermore, it should be treated that the contribution changes of fishery species and the possible environment factor for specific species at various scale levels.

Keywords: granger causality, chlorophyll, VaR, fisheries-catch, FAO FishStatJ, MODIS Aqua, sea surface temperature (SST), particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), particulate organic carbon (POC)

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57 Evaluation of the Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity of Chemical Material in Filters PM2.5 of the Monitoring Stations of the Network of Air Quality in the Valle De Aburrá, Colombia

Authors: Alejandra Betancur Sánchez, Carmen Elena Zapata Sánchez, Juan Bautista López Ortiz

Abstract:

Adverse effects and increased air pollution has raised concerns about regulatory policies and has fostered the development of new air quality standards; this is due to the complexity of the composition and the poorly understood reactions in the atmospheric environment. Toxic compounds act as environmental agents having various effects, from irritation to death of cells and tissues. A toxic agent is defined an adverse response in a biological system. There is a particular class that produces some kind of alteration in the genetic material or associated components, so they are recognized as genotoxic agents. Within cells, they interact directly or indirectly with DNA, causing mutations or interfere with some enzymatic repair processes or in the genesis or polymerization of proteinaceous material involved in chromosome segregation. An air pollutant may cause or contribute to increased mortality or serious illness and even pose a potential danger to human health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on the viability and the genotoxic potential on the cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and peripheral blood of particulate matter PM T lymphocytes 2.5 obtained from filters collected three monitoring stations network air quality Aburrá Valley. Tests, reduction of MTT, trypan blue, NRU, comet assay, sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and chromosomal aberrations allowed evidence reduction in cell viability in cell lines CHO-K1 and Jurkat and damage to the DNA from cell line CHOK1, however, no significant effects were observed in the number of SCEs and chromosomal aberrations. The results suggest that PM2.5 material has genotoxic potential and can induce cancer development, as has been suggested in other studies.

Keywords: Genotoxicity, Cytotoxicity, PM2.5, cell line Jurkat, cell line CHO-K1

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56 Healing the Scars of the Past: The Great Challenge and Failed Attempt of European Union to Create a Supranational Identity

Authors: David Martínez Rico, Juan Pablo Farid Cuéllar Martínez

Abstract:

After more than half a century that the first treaty of European cooperation was created, the final result of a difficult and long historical process, which is the current European Union, is facing economical and social challenges. The barriers of policies differences and national sovereignties seem to be being defeated in the last and present decades. However, the last crisis of 2008 brought back problems as xenophobia and nationalism. In this ambit of identity, European Union has made many efforts to reinforce a European identity and leave behind the radical nationalisms which generated World Wars. Nevertheless, these social problems are increasing and becoming more present in the life of many Europeans. Even, in the last Euro Parliamentarian Elections of the present year, 2014, the extreme right parties, in favor of xenophobic and anti European ideals, got more seats and are increasing their presence in Euro Parliament. This essay approaches to this controversial topic of European identity. Taking as start point the nationalist divisions that are causing internal divergences in Europe, the authors of this research study the role and contributions of the Memorials of the fallen soldiers and heroes of World Wars, present in many cities as Amsterdam, Brussels and Paris, to the impossibility to reach an European identity, it means that Europeans feel first part of Europe in place to feel first part of a nation. The objective of this essay is to reaffirm the thesis that establishes that the European Union won´t reach the longed supranational identity with just with the current strategies, because yet there are many cultural elements in its member states societies which exalt the heroes and soldiers of the past wars, increasing nationalism feelings. Besides, in it are promoted some interesting ideas that could change the course in this quest of a European social identity.

Keywords: Identity, Nationalism, memorials, European identity, proposals

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55 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Giant Reef Clam Periglypta multicostata (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes

Abstract:

Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the giant reef clam P. multicostata under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 8) with an average valvar length of 118,4 ± 5,8 mm, which were collected near of the Puerto Santa Rosa (2° 12' 30'' S, 80° 58' 28'' W), Santa Elena Province. During a short acclimation stage, the eight adults of giant reef clam P. multicostata were exposed to thermal stress. Briefly, the experimental protocol for spawning induction was based on the application of 20°C for 1 h and 30°C for 1 h on P. multicostata broodstock at least three consecutive times by one day. After spawning, collected sexual material was released for external fertilization process. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 3,25 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 56 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 2,5 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 68 ± 5 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 73 ± 4 µm and trochophore stage at 15 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 4 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 82 ± 6 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 148 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results worldwide can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited P. multicostata and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Ecuador, larval development, spawning induction, Periglypta multicostata

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54 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García

Abstract:

Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, homeopathy, complementary therapies, acupuncture analgesia

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53 Women Mayors and Management of Spanish Councils: An Empirical Analysis

Authors: Antonio Minguez-Vera, Carmen Maria Hernandez-Nicolas, Juan Francisco Martín-Ugedo

Abstract:

This paper analyses the influence of gender of the mayors of Spanish local governments on different budget items using a sample of 8,243 town councils between 2002 and 2010 period and 64,361 observations. The system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique was employed to examine this panel data. This powerful methodology allows controlling for the endogenity of the variables and the heterogeneity of the sample. Unlike previous works focused on the study of gender influence on firm decisions, the present work analyzes the influence of the gender of the major in the council’s decisions. Specifically, we examine the differences in financial liabilities, security, protection and social promotion expenses and income items relating to public management. In addition, the study focuses on the Spanish context, which is characterized by the presence of decentralization of public responsibility to a greater extent than in neighboring countries, feeding the debate on the operational efficiency of local government increased with an open debate on the importance of gender in public management. The results show that female mayors tend to have lower expenses in general without significant differences in incomes obtained for men and women majors. We also find that female majors incur fewer financial liabilities, one of the most important problems in the Spanish public sector. However, despite of cutting in the public sector, these councils have higher expenditure on security, protection and social promotion. According to these evidences, the presence of women in politics may serve to improve the councils’ economic situation and it is not only necessary for social justice but for economics efficiency. Besides, in councils with more inhabitants, women mayors are more common, but women who served for a very long time are less common.

Keywords: Gender, Public Management, councils, local budgets, women mayors

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52 Integrated Genetic-A* Graph Search Algorithm Decision Model for Evaluating Cost and Quality of School Renovation Strategies

Authors: Yu-Ching Cheng, Yi-Kai Juan, Daniel Castro

Abstract:

Energy consumption of buildings has been an increasing concern for researchers and practitioners in the last decade. Sustainable building renovation can reduce energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions; meanwhile, it also can extend existing buildings useful life and facilitate environmental sustainability while providing social and economic benefits to the society. School buildings are different from other designed spaces as they are more crowded and host the largest portion of daily activities and occupants. Strategies that focus on reducing energy use but also improve the students’ learning environment becomes a significant subject in sustainable school buildings development. A decision model is developed in this study to solve complicated and large-scale combinational, discrete and determinate problems such as school renovation projects. The task of this model is to automatically search for the most cost-effective (lower cost and higher quality) renovation strategies. In this study, the search process of optimal school building renovation solutions is by nature a large-scale zero-one programming determinate problem. A* is suitable for solving deterministic problems due to its stable and effective search process, and genetic algorithms (GA) provides opportunities to acquire global optimal solutions in a short time via its indeterminate search process based on probability. These two algorithms are combined in this study to consider trade-offs between renovation cost and improved quality, this decision model is able to evaluate current school environmental conditions and suggest an optimal scheme of sustainable school buildings renovation strategies. Through adoption of this decision model, school managers can overcome existing limitations and transform school buildings into spaces more beneficial to students and friendly to the environment.

Keywords: Genetic Algorithm, school buildings, sustainable renovation, decision model, A* search algorithm

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51 Climate Change Impact Due to Timber Product Imports in the UK

Authors: Juan A. Ferriz-Papi, Allan L. Nantel, Talib E. Butt

Abstract:

Buildings are thought to consume about 50% of the total energy in the UK. The use stage in a building life cycle has the largest energy consumption, although different assessments are showing that the construction can equal several years of maintenance and operations. The selection of materials with lower embodied energy is very important to reduce this consumption. For this reason, timber is one adequate material due to its low embodied energy and the capacity to be used as carbon storage. The use of timber in the construction industry is very significant. Sawn wood, for example, is one of the top 5 construction materials consumed in the UK according to National Statistics. Embodied energy for building products considers the energy consumed in extraction and production stages. However, it is not the same consideration if this product is produced locally as when considering the resource produced further afield. Transport is a very relevant matter that profoundly influences in the results of embodied energy. The case of timber use in the UK is important because the balance between imports and exports is far negative, industry consuming more imported timber than produced. Nearly 80% of sawn softwood used in construction is imported. The imports-exports deficit for sawn wood accounted for more than 180 million pounds during the first four-month period of 2016. More than 85% of these imports come from Europe (83% from the EU). The aim of this study is to analyze climate change impact due to transport for timber products consumed in the UK. An approximate estimation of energy consumed and carbon emissions are calculated considering the timber product’s import origin. The results are compared to the total consumption of each product, estimating the impact of transport on the final embodied energy and carbon emissions. The analysis of these results can help deduce that one big challenge for climate change is the reduction of external dependency, with the associated improvement of internal production of timber products. A study of different types of timber products produced in the UK and abroad is developed to understand the possibilities for this country to improve sustainability and self-management. Reuse and recycle possibilities are also considered.

Keywords: Climate Change, Transport, Timber, Co2 Emissions, embodied energy

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50 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modeling and Optimization of Conidiospore Production of Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Maria G. Serna-Diaz, Alejandro Tellez-Jurado, Juan C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Eva S. Hernandez-Gress, Iaina P. Medina-Serna

Abstract:

Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that has been utilized as a low-cost fungicide for biological control of pests, and it is important to determine the optimal conditions to produce the highest amount of conidiospores of Trichoderma harzianum. In this work, the conidiospore production of Trichoderma harzianum is modeled and optimized by using Artificial Neural Networks (AANs). In order to gather data of this process, 30 experiments were carried out taking into account the number of hours of culture (10 distributed values from 48 to 136 hours) and the culture humidity (70, 75 and 80 percent), obtained as a response the number of conidiospores per gram of dry mass. The experimental results were used to develop an iterative algorithm to create 1,110 ANNs, with different configurations, starting from one to three hidden layers, and every hidden layer with a number of neurons from 1 to 10. Each ANN was trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, which is used to learn the relationship between input and output values. The ANN with the best performance was chosen in order to simulate the process and be able to maximize the conidiospores production. The obtained ANN with the highest performance has 2 inputs and 1 output, three hidden layers with 3, 10 and 10 neurons in each layer, respectively. The ANN performance shows an R2 value of 0.9900, and the Root Mean Squared Error is 1.2020. This ANN predicted that 644175467 conidiospores per gram of dry mass are the maximum amount obtained in 117 hours of culture and 77% of culture humidity. In summary, the ANN approach is suitable to represent the conidiospores production of Trichoderma harzianum because the R2 value denotes a good fitting of experimental results, and the obtained ANN model was used to find the parameters to produce the biggest amount of conidiospores per gram of dry mass.

Keywords: Modeling, Optimization, Artificial Neural Network, Trichoderma harzianum

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49 Spawning Induction and Early Larval Development of the Penshell Atrina maura (Sowerby, 1835) under Controlled Conditions in Ecuador

Authors: Jose Melena, Rosa Santander, Tanya Gonzalez, Richard Duque, Juan Illanes

Abstract:

Ecuador is one of the countries with the greatest aquatic biodiversity worldwide. In particular, there are at least a dozen native marine species with great aquaculture potential locally. This research concerns one of those species. It has proposed to implement experimental protocols in order to induce spawning and to generate the early larval development of the penshell Atrina maura under controlled conditions. Bioassays were carried out with one adult batch (n= 26) with an average valvar length of 307,6 ± 9,4 mm, which were collected in the Puerto El Morro Mangrove (2° 42' 33'' S, 80° 14' 28'' W), Guayas Province. During a short acclimation stage, five adults of penshell A. maura were sacrificed in order to determine their sexual maturity degree and to estimate their sex ratio. Dissection showed that three were ripe females (60%) and two were ripe males (40%). Later, three groups (n= 7 by each) were tested with two treatments in order to induce the broodstock spawning: thermal stress, osmotic shock, and one control. Spawning induction was achieved by the immersion in water to 0 g L⁻¹ per 1 h and immersion in sea water to 34 g L⁻¹ per 1 h. After the delivery of gametes, it was achieved 1,35 × 10⁶ viable zygotes. As results, fertilized eggs had 60 µm diameter; while first and second cell divisions were observed to 1 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 65 ± 4 µm and polar body. Latter cell divisions, including gastrula stage, appeared at 9 h post-fertilization, with individual average length of 71 ± 4 µm; and trochophore stage at 16 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 75 ± 5 µm. In addition, veliger stage was registered at 20 h post-fertilization with individual average length of 81 ± 5 µm. Umboned larvae appeared at day 8 post-fertilization, with individual average length of 145 ± 6 µm. These pioneering results in Ecuador can strengthen the local conservation process of the overexploited A. maura and to encourage its production for commercial purposes.

Keywords: Ecuador, larval development, Atrina maura, spawning induction

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48 Teaching Audiovisual Translation (AVT):Linguistic and Technical Aspects of Different Modes of AVT

Authors: Juan-Pedro Rica-Peromingo

Abstract:

Teachers constantly need to innovate and redefine materials for their lectures, especially in areas such as Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and Translation Studies (TS). It is therefore essential for the lecturers to be technically skilled to handle the never-ending evolution in software and technology, which are necessary elements especially in certain courses at university level. This need becomes even more evident in Audiovisual Translation (AVT) Modules and Courses. AVT has undergone considerable growth in the area of teaching and learning of languages for academic purposes. We have witnessed the development of a considerable number of masters and postgraduate courses where AVT becomes a tool for L2 learning. The teaching and learning of different AVT modes are components of undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Universities, in which AVT is offered as part of their teaching programme or training, make use of professional or free software programs. This paper presents an approach in AVT withina specific university context, in which technology is used by means of professional and nonprofessional software. Students take an AVT subject as part of their English Linguistics Master’s Degree at the Complutense University (UCM) in which they are using professional (Spot) and nonprofessional (Subtitle Workshop, Aegisub, Windows Movie Maker) software packages. The students are encouraged to develop their tasks and projects simulating authentic professional experiences and contexts in the different AVT modes: subtitling for hearing and deaf and hard of hearing population, audio description and dubbing. Selected scenes from TV series such as X-Files, Gossip girl, IT Crowd; extracts from movies: Finding Nemo, Good Will Hunting, School of Rock, Harry Potter, Up; and short movies (Vincent) were used. Hence, the complexity of the audiovisual materials used in class as well as the activities for their projects were graded. The assessment of the diverse tasks carried out by all the students are expected to provide some insights into the best way to improve their linguistic accuracy and oral and written productions with the use of different AVT modes in a very specific ESP university context.

Keywords: Teaching, Technology, ESP, audiovisual translation, university teaching

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47 New Roles of Telomerase and Telomere-Associated Proteins in the Regulation of Telomere Length

Authors: Fan Zhang, Qin Yang, Juan Du, Chongkui Sun, Krishna Kota, Yun-Ling Zheng

Abstract:

Telomeres are specialized structures at chromosome ends consisting of tandem repetitive DNA sequences [(TTAGGG)n in humans] and associated proteins, which are necessary for telomere function. Telomere lengths are tightly regulated within a narrow range in normal human somatic cells, the basis of cellular senescence and aging. Previous studies have extensively focused on how short telomeres are extended and have demonstrated that telomerase plays a central role in telomere maintenance through elongating the short telomeres. However, the molecular mechanisms of regulating excessively long telomeres are unknown. Here, we found that telomerase enzymatic component hTERT plays a dual role in the regulation of telomeres length. We analyzed single telomere alterations at each chromosomal end led to the discoveries that hTERT shortens excessively long telomeres and elongates short telomeres simultaneously, thus maintaining the optimal telomere length at each chromosomal end for an efficient protection. The hTERT-mediated telomere shortening removes large segments of telomere DNA rapidly without inducing telomere dysfunction foci or affecting cell proliferation, thus it is mechanistically distinct from rapid telomere deletion. We found that expression of hTERT generates telomeric circular DNA, suggesting that telomere homologous recombination may be involved in this telomere shortening process. Moreover, the hTERT-mediated telomere shortening is required its enzymatic activity, but telomerase RNA component hTR is not involved in it. Furthermore, shelterin protein TPP1 interacts with hTERT and recruits it on telomeres to mediate telomere shortening. In addition, telomere-associated proteins, DKC1 and TCAB1 also play roles in this process. This novel hTERT-mediated telomere shortening mechanism not only exists in cancer cells, but also in primary human cells. Thus, the hTERT-mediated telomere shortening is expected to shift the paradigm on current molecular models of telomere length maintenance, with wide-reaching consequences in cancer and aging fields.

Keywords: Aging, Telomeres, telomerase, hTERT, human cells

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