Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 50

Search results for: Joon Hwa Rho

50 Transmission Line Inspection Using Drones

Authors: Jae Kyung Lee, Joon Young Park

Abstract:

Maintenance on power transmission lines requires a lot of works. Sometimes they should be maintained on live-line environment with high altitude. Therefore, there always exist risks of falling from height and electric shock. To decline those risks, drones are recently applying on the electric power industry. This paper presents new operational technology while inspecting power transmission line. This paper also describes a technique for creating a flight path of a drone for transmission line inspection and a technique for controlling the drones of different types. Its technical and economical feasibilities have confirmed through experiments.

Keywords: drones, transmission line, inspection, control system

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
49 In Vitro Evaluation of an Artificial Venous Valve

Authors: Joon Hock Yeo, Munirah Ismail

Abstract:

Chronic venous insufficiency is a condition where the venous wall or venous valves fail to operate properly. As such, it is difficult for the blood to return from the lower extremities back to the heart. Chronic venous insufficiency affects many people worldwide. In last decade, there have been many new and innovative designs of prosthetic venous valves to replace the malfunction native venous valves. However, thus far, to the authors’ knowledge, there is no successful prosthetic venous valve. In this project, we have developed a venous valve which could operate under low pressure. While further testing is warranted, this unique valve could potentially alleviate problems associated with chronic venous insufficiency.

Keywords: prosthetic venous valve, bi-leaflet valve, chronic venous insufficiency, valve hemodynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
48 Study of Drawing Characteristics due to Friction between the Materials by FEM

Authors: Won Jin Ryu, Mok Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon Hong Park, Sung Min Kim, Jong Bae Park

Abstract:

Pipes for offshore plants require specifications that satisfy both high strength and high corrosion resistance. Therefore, currently, clad pipes are used in offshore plants. Clad pipes can be made using either overlay welding or clad plates. The present study was intended to figure out the effects of friction between two materials, which is a factor that affects two materials, were figured out using FEM to make clad pipes through heterogenous material drawing instead of the two methods mentioned above. Therefore, FEM has conducted while all other variables that the variable friction was fixed. The experimental results showed increases in pullout force along with increases in the friction in the boundary layer.

Keywords: clad pipe, FEM, friction, pullout force

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47 A Measurement Device of Condensing Flow Rate, an Order of MilliGrams per Second

Authors: Hee Joon Lee

Abstract:

There are many difficulties in measuring a small flow rate of an order of milli grams per minute (LPM) or less using a conventional flowmeter. Therefore, a flow meter with minimal loss and based on a new concept was designed as part of this paper. A chamber was manufactured with a level transmitter and an on-off control valve. When the level of the collected condensed water reaches the top of the chamber, the valve opens to allow the collected water to drain back into the tank. To allow the water to continue to drain when the signal is lost, the valve is held open for a few seconds by a time delay switch and then closed. After an examination, the condensing flow rate was successfully measured with the uncertainty of ±5.7% of the full scale for the chamber.

Keywords: chamber, condensation, flow meter, milli-grams

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46 Application of the Discrete Rationalized Haar Transform to Distributed Parameter System

Authors: Joon-Hoon Park

Abstract:

In this paper the rationalized Haar transform is applied for distributed parameter system identification and estimation. A distributed parameter system is a dynamical and mathematical model described by a partial differential equation. And system identification concerns the problem of determining mathematical models from observed data. The Haar function has some disadvantages of calculation because it contains irrational numbers, for these reasons the rationalized Haar function that has only rational numbers. The algorithm adopted in this paper is based on the transform and operational matrix of the rationalized Haar function. This approach provides more convenient and efficient computational results.

Keywords: distributed parameter system, rationalized Haar transform, operational matrix, system identification

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45 Interface Analysis of Annealed Al/Cu Cladded Sheet

Authors: Joon Ho Kim, Tae Kwon Ha

Abstract:

Effect of aging treatment on microstructural aspects of interfacial layers of the Cu/Al clad sheet produced by Differential Speed Rolling (DSR) process were studied by Electron Back Scattered Diffraction (EBSD). Clad sheet of Al/Cu has been fabricated by using DSR, which caused severe shear deformation between Al and Cu plate to easily bond to each other. Rolling was carried out at 100°C with speed ratio of 2, in which the total thickness reduction was 45%. Interface layers of clad sheet were analyzed by EBSD after subsequent annealing at 400°C for 30 to 120 min. With increasing annealing time, thickness of interface layer and fraction of high angle grain boundary were increased and average grain size was decreased.

Keywords: aluminium/copper clad sheet, differential speed rolling, interface layer, microstructure, annealing, electron back scattered diffraction

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44 Phylogenetic Analysis of the Myxosporea Detected from Emaciated Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) in Korea

Authors: Seung Min Kim, Lyu Jin Jun, Joon Bum Jeong

Abstract:

The Myxosporea to cause emaciation disease in the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) is a pathogen to cause severe losses in the aquafarming industry in Korea. The 3,362 bp of DNA nucleotide sequences of four myxosporean strains (EM-HM-12, EM-MA-13, EM-JJ-14, and EM-MS-15) detected by PCR method from olive flounder suffering from emaciation disease in Korea during 2012-2015 were sequenced and deposited in GenBank database (GenBank accession numbers: KU377574, KT321705, KU377575 and KU377573, respectively). The homologies of DNA nucleotide sequences of four strains were compared to each other and were more than 99.7% homologous between the four strains. All of the strains were identified as Parvicapsula petunia based on the results of phylogenetic analysis. The results in this study would be useful for the research of emaciation disease in olive flounder of Korea.

Keywords: disease, emaciation, olive flounder, phylogenetic analysis

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43 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn

Abstract:

Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

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42 Fatigue Evaluation of Link Slab for Continuous Girder-Type Precast Modular Bridges

Authors: Jae-Joon Song, Sang-Yoon Lee, Bong-Chul Joo

Abstract:

The girder-type precast modular bridge has been developed as a simply supported bridge. The girder-type precast modular bridge could be applied to the multi-span bridges through the continuity method. The continuity of the girder-type precast modular bridge is achieved by using the link slab which is easy to construction and appropriate to the rapid construction. In this study, the link slab with transition zone was used for the continuity of the precast modular bridges, and the construction detail of link slab was modified. In addition, the modified iterative design method of link slab was proposed in this study. To verify the proposed design method, the fatigue test using the mock-up specimen was conducted with cycle loading condition up to two million cycles.

Keywords: precast, modular bridge, link slab

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41 A Study on the Relationship between Shear Strength and Surface Roughness of Lined Pipes by Cold Drawing

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Joon-Hong Park, Yeon-Jong Jeong

Abstract:

Diffusion bonding has been continuously studied. Temperature and pressure are the most important factors to increase the strength between diffusion bonded interfaces. Diffusion bonding is an important factor affecting the bonding strength of the lined pipe. The increase of the diffusion bonding force results in a high formability clad pipe. However, in the case of drawing, it is difficult to obtain a high pressure between materials due to a relatively small reduction in cross-section, and it is difficult to prevent elongation or to tear of material in heat drawing even if the reduction in section is increased. In this paper, to increase the diffusion bonding force, we derive optimal temperature and pressure to suppress material stretching and realize precise thickness precision.

Keywords: drawing speed, FEM (Finite Element Method), diffusion bonding, temperature, heat drawing, lined pipe

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40 A Study on Optimum Shape in According to Equivalent Stress Distributions at the Die and Plug in the Multi-Pass Drawing Process

Authors: Yeon-Jong Jeong, Mok-Tan Ahn, Seok-Hyeon Park, Seong-Hun Ha, Joon-Hong Park, Jong-Bae Park

Abstract:

Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factors influencing the productivity and formability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and formability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: multi-pass shape drawing, equivalent stress, FEM, finite element method, optimum shape

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39 Design and Development of a Bi-Leaflet Pulmonary Valve

Authors: Munirah Ismail, Joon Hock Yeo

Abstract:

Paediatric patients who require ventricular outflow tract reconstruction usually need valve construction to prevent valvular regurgitation. They would face problems like lack of suitable, affordable conduits and the need to undergo several operations in their lifetime due to the short lifespan of existing valves. Their natural growth and development are also of concern, even if they manage to receive suitable conduits. Current prosthesis including homografts, bioprosthetic valves, mechanical valves, and bovine jugular veins either do not have the long-term durability or the ability to adapt to the growth of such patients. We have developed a new design of bi-leaflet valve. This new technique accommodates patients’ annular size growth while maintaining valvular patency. A mock circulatory system was set up to assess the hemodynamic performance of the bi-leaflet pulmonary valve. It was found that the percentage regurgitation was acceptable and thus, validates this novel concept.

Keywords: bi-leaflet pulmonary valve, pulmonary heart valve, tetralogy of fallot, mock circulatory system

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38 Multi-Pass Shape Drawing Process Design for Manufacturing of Automotive Reinforcing Agent with Closed Cross-Section Shape using Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Mok-Tan Ahn, Hyeok Choi, Joon-Hong Park

Abstract:

Multi-stage drawing process is an important technique for forming a shape that cannot be molded in a single process. multi-stage drawing process in number of passes and the shape of the die are an important factor influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. The number and shape of the multi-path in the mold of the drawing process is very influencing the productivity and moldability of the product. Half angle of the die and mandrel affects the drawing force and it also affects the completion of the final shape. Thus reducing the number of pass and the die shape optimization are necessary to improve the formability of the billet. The purpose of this study, Analyzing the load on the die through the FEM analysis and in consideration of the formability of the material presents a die model.

Keywords: automotive reinforcing agent, multi-pass shape drawing, automotive parts, FEM analysis

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37 Design and Development of an Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene Valved Conduit with Sinus of Valsalva

Authors: Munirah Ismail, Joon Hock Yeo

Abstract:

Babies born with Tetralogy of Fallot, a congenital heart defect, are required to undergo reconstruction surgery to create a valved conduit. As the child matures, the partially reconstructed pulmonary conduit increases in diameter, while the size of the reconstructed valve remains the same. As a result, follow up surgery is required to replace the undersized valve. Thus, in this project, we evaluated the in-vitro performance of a bi-leaflet valve design in terms of percentage regurgitation with increasing artery (conduit) diameters. Results revealed percentage regurgitations ranging from 13% to 34% for conduits tested. It was observed that percentage of regurgitation increased exponentially with increasing diameters. While the amount of regurgitation may seem severe, it is deemed acceptable, and this valve could potentially reduce the frequency of re-operation in the lifetime of pediatric patients.

Keywords: pulmonary heart valve, tetralogy of fallot, expanded polytetrafluoroethylene valve, pediatric heart valve replacement

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36 Do Industry Expert Audit Engagement Partners Earn Fee Premiums? Evidence from Labor Usage and the Hourly Charge Rate

Authors: Gil Bae, Seung Uk Choi, Jae Eun Lee, Joon Hwa Rho

Abstract:

Using proprietary engagement partner identity information for the Big 4 audit firms in Korea over the 2001-2011 period, we find that expert engagement partners obtain significantly higher total compensation than do non-expert partners. Importantly, we also find that expert partners increase the number of audit hours compared to their non-expert counterparts. The hourly billing rate, calculated as total fees divided by total audit hours, of expert partners is not higher than that of non-expert partners, indicating that there is no expert partner premium reflected in the hourly rate. This finding suggests that the increase in total audit fees is attributable mainly to the increase in the quantity of audit hours that expert partners work, not from the higher fee per hour. The results are not attributable to auditor selection bias.

Keywords: industry expert partners, expert premiums, audit hours, hourly charge rate

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35 Collapse Performance of Steel Frame with Hysteric Energy Dissipating Devices

Authors: Hyung-Joon Kim, Jin-Young Park

Abstract:

Energy dissipating devices (EDDs) have become more popular as seismic-force-resisting systems for building structures. However, there is little information on the collapse capacities of frames employing EDDs which are an important criterion for their seismic design. This study investigates the collapse capacities of steel frames with TADAS hysteric energy dissipative devices (HEDDs) that become an alternative to steel braced frames. To do this, 5-story steel ordinary concentrically braced frame and steel frame with HEDDs are designed and modeled. Nonlinear dynamic analyses and incremental dynamic analysis with 40 ground motions scaled to maximum considered earthquake are carried out. It is shown from analysis results that the significant enhancement in terms of the collapse capacities is found due to the introduction HEDDs.

Keywords: collapse capacity, incremental dynamic analysis, steel braced frame, TADAS hysteric energy dissipative device

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34 Optimization of Urea Water Solution Injector for NH3 Uniformity Improvement in Urea-SCR System

Authors: Kyoungwoo Park, Gil Dong Kim, Seong Joon Moon, Ho Kil Lee

Abstract:

The Urea-SCR is one of the most efficient technologies to reduce NOx emissions in diesel engines. In the present work, the computational prediction of internal flow and spray characteristics in the Urea-SCR system was carried out by using 3D-CFD simulation to evaluate NH3 uniformity index (NH3 UI) and its activation time according to the official New European Driving Cycle (NEDC). The number of nozzle and its diameter, two types of injection directions, and penetration length were chosen as the design variables. The optimal solutions were obtained by coupling the CFD analysis with Taguchi method. The L16 orthogonal array and small-the-better characteristics of the Taguchi method were used, and the optimal values were confirmed to be valid with 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). The results show that the optimal solutions for the NH3 UI and activation time (NH3 UI 0.22) are obtained by 0.41 and 0,125 second, respectively, and their values are improved by 85.0% and 10.7%, respectively, compared with those of the base model.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, NH3 uniformity index, optimization, Taguchi method, Urea-SCR system, UWS injector

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33 Prerequisites for the Acquisition of Mammalian Pathogenicity by Influenza A Virus with a Prototypic Avian PB2 Gene

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Ilhwan Kim, Du-Min Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon

Abstract:

The polymerase of avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a heterotrimer composed of PB2, PB1 and PA. PB2 plays a role in overcoming the host barrier; however, the genetic prerequisites for avian PB2 to acquire mammalian pathogenic mutations have not been well elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that key amino acid mutations (I66M, I109V and I133V, collectively referred to as MVV) of prototypic avian PB2 increase the replication efficiency of recombinant PR8 virus carrying the mutated PB2 in both avian and mammalian hosts. The MVV mutations caused no weight loss in mice, but they did allow replication in infected lungs, and the viruses acquired fatal mammalian pathogenic mutations such as Q591R/K, E627K, or D701N in the infected lungs. The MVV mutations are located at the interfaces of the trimer and are predicted to increase the strength of this structure. Thus, gaining MVV mutations might be the first step for AIV to acquire mammalian pathogenicity. These results provide new insights into the evolution of AIV in birds and mammals.

Keywords: avian influenza A virus, prototypic PB2, polymerase activity, mammalian pathogenicity, first-step mutations

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32 Optimal Design of Shape for Increasing the Bonding Pressure Drawing of Hot Clad Pipes by Finite Element Method Analysis

Authors: Seok-Hyeon Park, Joon-Hong Park, Mok-Tan-Ahn, Seong-Hun Ha

Abstract:

Clad Pipe is made of a different kind of material, which is different from the internal and external materials, for the corrosive crude oil transportation tube. Most of the clad pipes are produced by hot rolling. However, problems arise due to high product prices and excessive process numbers. Therefore, in this study, the hot drawing process with excellent product cost, process number and productivity is applied. Due to the nature of the drawing process, the shape of the mold greatly influences the formability of the material and the bonding pressure of the two materials because it is a process of drawing the material to the die and reducing the cross-sectional area. Also, in case of hot drawing, if the mold shape is not suitable due to the increased fluidity of the material, it may cause problems such as tearing and stretching. Therefore, in this study, we try to find the shape of the mold which suppresses the occurrence of defects in the hot drawing process and maximizes the bonding pressure between the two materials through the mold shape optimization design by FEM analysis.

Keywords: clad pipe, hot drawing, bonding pressure, mold shape

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31 Structural Analysis of Multi-Pressure Integrated Vessel for Sport-Multi-Artificial Environment System

Authors: Joon-Ho Lee, Jeong-Hwan Yoon, Jung-Hwan Yoon, Sangmo Kang, Su-Yeon Hong, Hyun-Woo Jeong, Jaeick Chae

Abstract:

There are several dedicated individual chambers for sports that are supplied and used, but none of them are multi-pressured all-in-one chambers that can provide a sports multi-environment simultaneously. In this study, we design a multi-pressure (positive/atmospheric/negative pressure) integrated vessel that can be used for the sport-multi-artificial environment system. We presented additional vessel designs with enlarged space for the tall users; with reinforcement pads added to reduce the maximum stress in the joints of its shells, and then carried out numerical analysis for the structural analysis with maximum stress and structural safety. Under the targeted allowable pressure conditions, maximum stresses occurred at the joint of the shell, and the entrance, the safety of the structure was checked with the allowable stress of its material.

Keywords: structural analysis, multi-pressure, integrated vessel, sport-multi-artificial environment

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30 Effect of the Initial Billet Shape Parameters on the Final Product in a Backward Extrusion Process for Pressure Vessels

Authors: Archana Thangavelu, Han-Ik Park, Young-Chul Park, Joon-Hong Park

Abstract:

In this numerical study, we have proposed a method for evaluation of backward extrusion process of pressure vessel made up of steel. Demand for lighter and stiffer products have been increasing in the last years especially in automobile engineering. Through detailed finite element analysis, effective stress, strain and velocity profile have been obtained with optimal range. The process design of a forward and backward extrusion axe-symmetric part has been studied. Forging is mainly carried out because forged products are highly reliable and possess superior mechanical properties when compared to normal products. Performing computational simulations of 3D hot forging with various dimensions of billet and optimization of weight is carried out using Taguchi Orthogonal Array (OA) Optimization technique. The technique used in this study can be used for newly developed materials to investigate its forgeability for much complicated shapes in closed hot die forging process.

Keywords: backward extrusion, hot forging, optimization, finite element analysis, Taguchi method

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29 Effect of Welding Heat Input on Intergranular Corrosion of Inconel 625 Overlay Weld Metal

Authors: Joon-Suk Kim, Hae-Woo Lee

Abstract:

This study discusses the effect of welding heat input on intergranular corrosion of the weld metal of Inconel 625 alloy. A specimen of Inconel 625 with a weld metal that controlled welding heat input was manufactured, and aging heat treatment was conducted to investigate sensitization by chromium carbides. The electrochemical SL and DL EPR experiments, together with the chemical ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, were conducted to determine intergranular corrosion susceptibility between the specimens. In the SL and DL EPR experiments, specimens were stabilized in the weld metal, and therefore intergranular corrosion susceptibility could not be determined. However, in the ferric sulfate-sulfuric acid and nitric acid tests, the corrosion speed increased as heat input increased. This was because the amount of diluted Fe increased as the welding heat input increased, leading to microsegregation between the dendrites, which had a negative effect on the corrosion resistance.

Keywords: Inconel 625, weling, overlay, heat input, intergranular corrosion

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28 The Predictive Value of Serum Bilirubin in the Post-Transplant De Novo Malignancy: A Data Mining Approach

Authors: Nasim Nosoudi, Amir Zadeh, Hunter White, Joshua Conrad, Joon W. Shim

Abstract:

De novo Malignancy has become one of the major causes of death after transplantation, so early cancer diagnosis and detection can drastically improve survival rates post-transplantation. Most previous work focuses on using artificial intelligence (AI) to predict transplant success or failure outcomes. In this work, we focused on predicting de novo malignancy after liver transplantation using AI. We chose the patients that had malignancy after liver transplantation with no history of malignancy pre-transplant. Their donors were cancer-free as well. We analyzed 254,200 patient profiles with post-transplant malignancy from the US Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN). Several popular data mining methods were applied to the resultant dataset to build predictive models to characterize de novo malignancy after liver transplantation. Recipient's bilirubin, creatinine, weight, gender, number of days recipient was on the transplant waiting list, Epstein Barr Virus (EBV), International normalized ratio (INR), and ascites are among the most important factors affecting de novo malignancy after liver transplantation

Keywords: De novo malignancy, bilirubin, data mining, transplantation

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27 Improvement of Performance of Anti-Splash Device for Cargo Oil Tank Vent Pipe Using CFD Simulation

Authors: Sung-Min Kim, Joon-Hong Park, Hyuk Choi

Abstract:

This study is focused on the comparative analysis and improvement to grasp the flow characteristic of the anti-splash device located under the P/V valve and new concept design models using the CFD. The P/V valve located upper deck to solve the pressure rising and vacuum condition of inner tank of the liquid cargo ships occurred oil outflow accident by transverse and longitudinal sloshing force. Anti-splash device is fitted to improve and prevent this problem in the shipbuilding industry, but the oil outflow accidents are still reported by ship owners. Thus, 4 types of new design model are presented by this study, and then comparative analysis is conducted with new models and existing model. Mostly the key criterion of this problem is flux in the outlet of the anti-splash device. Therefore, the flow and velocity are grasped by transient analysis, and then it decided optimum model and design parameters to develop model. Later, it is needed to develop an anti-splash device by flow test to get certification and verification using experiment equipments.

Keywords: anti-splash device, P/V valve, sloshing, CFD

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26 Reliability Verification of the Performance Evaluation of Multiphase Pump

Authors: Joon-Hyung Kim, Him-Chan Lee, Jin-Hyuk Kim, Yong-Kab Lee, Young-Seok Choi

Abstract:

The crude oil in an oil well exists in various phases such as gas, seawater, and sand, as well as oil. Therefore, a phase separator is needed at the front of a single-phase pump for pressurization and transfer. On the other hand, the application of a multiphase pump can provide such advantages as simplification of the equipment structure and cost savings, because there is no need for a phase separation process. Therefore, the crude oil transfer method using a multiphase pump is being applied to recently developed oil wells. Due to this increase in demand, technical demands for the development of multiphase pumps are sharply increasing, but the progress of research into related technologies is insufficient, due to the nature of multiphase pumps that require high levels of skills. This study was conducted to verify the reliability of pump performance evaluation using numerical analysis, which is the basis of the development of a multiphase pump. For this study, a model was designed by selecting the specifications of the pump under study. The performance of the designed model was evaluated through numerical analysis and experiment, and the results of the performance evaluation were compared to verify the reliability of the result using numerical analysis.

Keywords: multiphase pump, numerical analysis, experiment, performance evaluation, reliability verification

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25 Seismic Fragility Functions of RC Moment Frames Using Incremental Dynamic Analyses

Authors: Seung-Won Lee, JongSoo Lee, Won-Jik Yang, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

A capacity spectrum method (CSM), one of methodologies to evaluate seismic fragilities of building structures, has been long recognized as the most convenient method, even if it contains several limitations to predict the seismic response of structures of interest. This paper proposes the procedure to estimate seismic fragility curves using an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) rather than the method adopting a CSM. To achieve the research purpose, this study compares the seismic fragility curves of a 5-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame obtained from both methods, an IDA method and a CSM. Both seismic fragility curves are similar in slight and moderate damage states whereas the fragility curve obtained from the IDA method presents less variation (or uncertainties) in extensive and complete damage states. This is due to the fact that the IDA method can properly capture the structural response beyond yielding rather than the CSM and can directly calculate higher mode effects. From these observations, the CSM could overestimate seismic vulnerabilities of the studied structure in extensive or complete damage states.

Keywords: seismic fragility curve, incremental dynamic analysis, capacity spectrum method, reinforced concrete moment frame

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24 An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

Authors: Kyung-Suk Choi, Hyung-Joon Kim

Abstract:

Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. Their structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that the load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of a traditional steel moment-resisting system. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEM) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the structural influence of access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities, and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections.

Keywords: unit modular frame, steel moment connection, nonlinear analytical model, moment-rotation relation

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23 Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Jae-Hong Kim

Abstract:

A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.

Keywords: avian influenza virus, egg adaptation, H9N2, N-glycosylation, stalk deletion of neuraminidase

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22 Rationalized Haar Transforms Approach to Design of Observer for Control Systems with Unknown Inputs

Authors: Joon-Hoon Park

Abstract:

The fundamental concept of observability is important in both theoretical and practical points of modern control systems. In modern control theory, a control system has criteria for determining the design solution exists for the system parameters and design objectives. The idea of observability relates to the condition of observing or estimating the state variables from the output variables that is generally measurable. To design closed-loop control system, the practical problems of implementing the feedback of the state variables must be considered and implementing state feedback control problem has been existed in this case. All the state variables are not available, so it is requisite to design and implement an observer that will estimate the state variables form the output parameters. However sometimes unknown inputs are presented in control systems as practical cases. This paper presents a design method and algorithm for observer of control system with unknown input parameters based on Rationalized Haar transform. The proposed method is more advantageous than the other numerical method.

Keywords: orthogonal functions, rationalized Haar transforms, control system observer, algebraic method

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21 Investigate and Control Thermal Spectra in Nanostructures and 2D Van der Waals Materials

Authors: Joon Sang Kang, Ming Ke, Yongjie Hu

Abstract:

Controlling heat transfer and thermal properties of materials is important to many fields such as energy efficiency and thermal management of integrated circuits. Significant progress over the past decade has been made to improve material performance through structuring at the nanoscale, however a clear relationship between structure dimensions, interfaces, and thermal properties remains to be established. The main challenge comes from the unknown intrinsic spectral contribution from different phonons. Here, we describe our current progress on quantifying and controlling thermal spectra based on our recently developed technical approach using ultrafast optical spectroscopy. Our work brings further the promise of rational material design to achieve high performance through a synergistic experimental-modeling approach. This approach can be broadly applicable to a wide range of materials and energy systems. In particular, we demonstrate in-situ characterization and tunable thermal properties of 2D van der waals materials through ionic intercalations. The significant impacts of this research in improving the efficiency of thermal energy conversion and management will also be illustrated.

Keywords: energy, mean free path, nanoscale heat transfer, nanostructure, phonons, TDTR, thermoelectrics, 2D materials

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