Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 730

Search results for: Jihyun Park

580 The Design Optimization for Sound Absorption Material of Multi-Layer Structure

Authors: Un-Hwan Park, Jun-Hyeok Heo, In-Sung Lee, Tae-Hyeon Oh, Dae-Kyu Park


Sound absorbing material is used as automotive interior material. Sound absorption coefficient should be predicted to design it. But it is difficult to predict sound absorbing coefficient because it is comprised of several material layers. So, its targets are achieved through many experimental tunings. It causes a lot of cost and time. In this paper, we propose the process to estimate the sound absorption coefficient with multi-layer structure. In order to estimate the coefficient, physical properties of each material are used. These properties also use predicted values by Foam-X software using the sound absorption coefficient data measured by impedance tube. Since there are many physical properties and the measurement equipment is expensive, the values predicted by software are used. Through the measurement of the sound absorption coefficient of each material, its physical properties are calculated inversely. The properties of each material are used to calculate the sound absorption coefficient of the multi-layer material. Since the absorption coefficient of multi-layer can be calculated, optimization design is possible through simulation. Then, we will compare and analyze the calculated sound absorption coefficient with the data measured by scaled reverberation chamber and impedance tubes for a prototype. If this method is used when developing automotive interior materials with multi-layer structure, the development effort can be reduced because it can be optimized by simulation. So, cost and time can be saved.

Keywords: sound absorption coefficient, optimization design, sound absorption material, sound impedance tube

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579 Disaster Adaptation Mechanism and Disaster Prevention Adaptation Planning Strategies for Industrial Parks in Response to Climate Change and Different Socio-Economic Disasters

Authors: Jen-Te Pai, Jao-Heng Liu, Shin-En Pai


The impact of climate change has intensified in recent years, causing Taiwan to face higher frequency and serious natural disasters. Therefore, it is imperative for industrial parks manufacturers to promote adaptation policies in response to climate change. On the other hand, with the rise of the international anti-terrorism situation, once a terrorist attack occurs, it will attract domestic and international media attention, especially the strategic and economic status of the science park. Thus, it is necessary to formulate adaptation and mitigation strategies under climate change and social economic disasters. After reviewed the literature about climate change, urban disaster prevention, vulnerability assessment, and risk communication, the study selected 62 industrial parks compiled by the Industrial Bureau of the Ministry of Economic Affairs of Taiwan as the research object. This study explored the vulnerability and disaster prevention and disaster relief functional assessment of these industrial parks facing of natural and socio-economic disasters. Furthermore, this study explored planned adaptation of industrial parks management section and autonomous adaptation of corporate institutions in the park. The conclusion of this study is that Taiwan industrial parks with a higher vulnerability to natural and socio-economic disasters should employ positive adaptive behaviours.

Keywords: Vulnerability, analytic network process, adaptive behaviours, industrial parks

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578 Temporal Change in Bonding Strength and Antimicrobial Effect of a Zirconia after Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment

Authors: Chan Park, Sang-Won Park, Kwi-Dug Yun, Hyun-Pil Lim


Purpose: Plasma treatment under various conditions has been studied to increase the bonding strength and surface sterilization of dental ceramic materials. We assessed the evolution of the shear bond strength (SBS) and antimicrobial effect of nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma (NTAPP) treatment over time. Methods: Presintered zirconia specimens were manufactured as discs (diameter: 15 mm, height: 2 mm) after final sintering. The specimens then received a 30-min treatment with argon gas (Ar², 99.999%; 10 L/min) using an NTAPP device. Five post-treatment intervals were evaluated: control (no treatment), P0 (within 1 h), P1 (24 h), P2 (48 h), and P3 (72 h). This study investigated the surface characteristics, SBS of two different resin cement (RelyXTM U200 self-adhesive resin cement, Panavia F2.0 methacryloyloxydecyl dihydrogen phosphate (MDP)-based resin cement), and Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation. Results: The SBS of RelyXTM U200 increased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days following plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2). For Panavia F 2.0, a significant decrease (p < 0.05) was detected only in the group that had undergone cementation immediately after plasma treatment (P0). S. mutans adhesion decreased significantly (p < 0.05) within 2 days of plasma treatment (P0, P1, P2) compared to the control group. The P0 group displayed a lower biofilm thickness than the P1 and P2 groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: After NTAPP treatment of zirconia, the effects on bonding strength and antimicrobial growth persist for a limited duration. The effect of NTAPP treatment on bonding strength depends on the resin cement.

Keywords: antimicrobial effect, zirconia, SBS, NTAPP

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577 Direct and Indirect Impacts of Predator Conflict in Kanha National Park, India

Authors: Diane H. Dotson, Shari L. Rodriguez


Habitat for predators is on the decline worldwide, which often brings humans and predators into conflict over remaining shared space and common resources. While the direct impacts of human predator conflict on humans (i.e., attacks on livestock or humans resulting in injury or death) are well documented, the indirect impacts of conflict on humans (i.e., downstream effects such as fear, stress, opportunity costs, PTSD) have not been addressed. We interviewed 437 people living in 54 villages on the periphery of Kanha National Park, India, to assess the amount and severity of direct and indirect impacts of predator conflict. ​While 58% of livestock owners believed that predator attacks on livestock guards occurred frequently and 62% of those who collect forest products believed that predator attacks on those collecting occurred frequently, less than 20% of all participants knew of someone who had experienced an attack. Data related to indirect impacts suggest that such impacts are common; 76% of participants indicated they were afraid a predator will physically injure them. Livestock owners reported that livestock guarding took time away from their primary job (61%) and getting enough sleep (73%), and believed that it increased their vulnerability to illnesses (80%). These results suggest that the perceptions of risk of predator attack are likely inflated, yet the costs of human predator impacts may be substantially higher than previously estimated, particularly related to human well-being, making the implementation of appropriate and effective conservation and conflict mitigation strategies and policies increasingly urgent.

Keywords: India, direct impacts, indirect impacts, human-predator conflict

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576 Soil-Vegetation Relationship in the Watersheds of the Tonga and OubeïRa Lakes, Algeria

Authors: Nafaa Zaafour


Located at the north eastern of Algeria, the National Park of El-Kala (PNEK) is a set of landscapes whose bioclimatic stages of vegetation extend from sub-humid to humid. In order to know the soil occupation in this complex, an initiated ecological soil cartography using a stratified sampling plan of vegetation had made, the study area occupies two-thirds of the northern National Park of El Kala, it has been divided into 380 plots of 1km2 of which, 76 were the subject of a detailed floristic inventory and sampling of soils. The inventory of vegetation carried out on different sites has allowed identifying several plant groups that share the soil cover with the following distribution: The group of cork oak, this formation occupies the biggest part of the area, it develops mainly on Incepttisols, Alfisols and Mollisols; The group of kermes oak, occupies a large area, it grows on Mollisols and Alfisols; The group of maritime pine, it occupies the same soils as the Kermes Oak; The group of Mirbeck oak, installed on Regosols, it is located in the Eastern part, on the Algerian-Tunisian border; The group of eucalyptus, it grows mainly on Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols; The group of wetland, it grows along the banks of lakes and rivers, which primarily develops on Histosols soil Mollisols and Vertisols; The cultures, distributed mainly around the lakes occupy several soil types on Histosols, the Inceptisols, Mollisols of, and Vertisols. This great diversity of vegetation is linked not only to the soil variability but also to climate, hydrological and geological variability.

Keywords: Cartography, Vegetation, Soil, Algeria

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575 Sustainable Environmental Management through the Comparative Study of Two Recreational Parks in Nigeria

Authors: Oluwagbemiga Paul Agboola, Cornelius Olatunji Omojola, Dayo Martins Oyeshomo


The role of a recreational park in human and environmental development has attracted much interest in the recent time. Recreation parks' development could act as an effective planning strategy to enhance environmental sustainability, social cohesiveness, and users' quality of life. Similarly, parks enhance neighbourhood's aesthetics, refresh the air and enhance humans' contact with nature. In this connection, recreation parks create natural surroundings of rural areas for leisure, relaxation, recreation, psychological and physical comfort of the people. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of the two recreational parks' development as a strategy for neighbourhood's environmental improvement, sustainability and the recreationists' cohesiveness. A total number of 158 survey questionnaires were distributed to the tourists at Ikogosi cold and warm spring in Ekiti state as well as Olumirin waterfalls, Erin-Ijesa, Osun State, in South-West, Nigeria. The quantitative results of the analyzed data with Relative Importance Index (RII) revealed that recreation parks provide optimum opportunities for users' social cohesiveness and well-being while parks' sustainable environment could be enhanced base on the provision of essential facilities, services, and future developmental plans. It is recommended that for recreation parks to realize their full potential in environmental sustainability, adequate maintenance and provision of essential facilities becomes imperative.

Keywords: Environmental Sustainability, Nigeria, neighbourhood development, recreational park

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574 Language Shapes Thought: An Experimental Study on English and Mandarin Native Speakers' Sequencing of Size

Authors: Hsi Wei


Does the language we speak affect the way we think? This question has been discussed for a long time from different aspects. In this article, the issue is examined with an experiment on how speakers of different languages tend to do different sequencing when it comes to the size of general objects. An essential difference between the usage of English and Mandarin is the way we sequence the size of places or objects. In English, when describing the location of something we may say, for example, ‘The pen is inside the trashcan next to the tree at the park.’ In Mandarin, however, we would say, ‘The pen is at the park next to the tree inside the trashcan.’ It’s clear that generally English use the sequence of small to big while Mandarin the opposite. Therefore, the experiment was conducted to test if the difference of the languages affects the speakers’ ability to do the different sequencing. There were two groups of subjects; one consisted of English native speakers, another of Mandarin native speakers. Within the experiment, three nouns were showed as a group to the subjects as their native languages. Before they saw the nouns, they would first get an instruction of ‘big to small’, ‘small to big’, or ‘repeat’. Therefore, the subjects had to sequence the following group of nouns as the instruction they get or simply repeat the nouns. After completing every sequencing and repetition in their minds, they pushed a button as reaction. The repetition design was to gather the mere reading time of the person. As the result of the experiment showed, English native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequencing of ‘small to big’; on the other hand, Mandarin native speakers reacted more quickly to the sequence ‘big to small’. To conclude, this study may be of importance as a support for linguistic relativism that the language we speak do shape the way we think.

Keywords: Language, Sequencing, size, linguistic relativism

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573 Identification of Spam Keywords Using Hierarchical Category in C2C E-Commerce

Authors: Seong-Bae Park, Shao Bo Cheng, Yong-Jin Han, Se Young Park


Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) E-commerce has been growing at a very high speed in recent years. Since identical or nearly-same kinds of products compete one another by relying on keyword search in C2C E-commerce, some sellers describe their products with spam keywords that are popular but are not related to their products. Though such products get more chances to be retrieved and selected by consumers than those without spam keywords, the spam keywords mislead the consumers and waste their time. This problem has been reported in many commercial services like e-bay and taobao, but there have been little research to solve this problem. As a solution to this problem, this paper proposes a method to classify whether keywords of a product are spam or not. The proposed method assumes that a keyword for a given product is more reliable if the keyword is observed commonly in specifications of products which are the same or the same kind as the given product. This is because that a hierarchical category of a product in general determined precisely by a seller of the product and so is the specification of the product. Since higher layers of the hierarchical category represent more general kinds of products, a reliable degree is differently determined according to the layers. Hence, reliable degrees from different layers of a hierarchical category become features for keywords and they are used together with features only from specifications for classification of the keywords. Support Vector Machines are adopted as a basic classifier using the features, since it is powerful, and widely used in many classification tasks. In the experiments, the proposed method is evaluated with a golden standard dataset from Yi-han-wang, a Chinese C2C e-commerce, and is compared with a baseline method that does not consider the hierarchical category. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the baseline in F1-measure, which proves that spam keywords are effectively identified by a hierarchical category in C2C e-commerce.

Keywords: E-Commerce, spam keyword, keyword features, spam filtering

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572 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho


Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Optimal Design, parametric study, hybrid bridge

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571 Landscape Strategies for the Transformation of Abandoned Airports in the Context of Landscape Urbanism: Case Study of Ataturk Airport

Authors: D. Ciftci, M. Erdem Kaya


There are emerging discussions about two important airports when considering airport and landscape design in Istanbul, Turkey, recently. The opening of the Istanbul Airport let to the transformation of the function of the Ataturk Airport to a 'Public Garden'. Although this proposed green area stands out with the claim of the third largest park in the world, landscape design and planning proposals have not been explained in detail. With its dense and complex infrastructure, it becomes essential for a metropolitan city like Istanbul to produce design and planning principles for the area in the process of transformation into urban park so that it could contribute to the city in ecological, sociocultural, and economical aspects. In this context, referring on the theory of landscape urbanism, which synthesizes and manages natural and cultural processes ultimately in the transformation of urban areas, such as Ataturk Airport, into parks with ecological, sociological and economic functions based on contemporary design and planning principles is substantial, rather than analyzing them in a picturesque framework. The aim of this study is to present different principles that are prominent in the context of landscape urbanism by examining airport projects in different geographies of the world that were reconsidered as urban parks and to reveal the landscape based strategies that can be guiding in the planning and design process in the metamorphosis of Ataturk Airport. This study aims to discuss airport transformation within the framework of landscape urbanism and to evaluate emerging principles aligned to the forthcoming design of the Ataturk Airport. The proposed strategies suggest alternatives that contribute to more ecological, sociological and economic approaches in the processes of transformation into new urban parks.

Keywords: Landscape Urbanism, Urban Parks, Airport landscape, Ataturk airport

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570 Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Urban Parks Using Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems Techniques

Authors: Hira Jabbar, Tanzeel-Ur Rehman


Urban parks and open spaces play a significant role in improving physical and mental health of the citizens, strengthen the societies and make the cities more attractive places to live and work. As the world’s cities continue to grow, continuing to value green space in cities is vital but is also a challenge, particularly in developing countries where there is pressure for space, resources, and development. Offering equal opportunity of accessibility to parks is one of the important issues of park distribution. The distribution of parks should allow all inhabitants to have close proximity to their residence. Remote sensing and Geographic information systems (GIS) can provide decision makers with enormous opportunities to improve the planning and management of Park facilities. This study exhibits the capability of GIS and RS techniques to provide baseline knowledge about the distribution of parks, level of accessibility and to help in identification of potential areas for such facilities. For this purpose Landsat OLI imagery for year 2016 was acquired from USGS Earth Explorer. Preprocessing models were applied using Erdas Imagine 2014v for the atmospheric correction and NDVI model was developed and applied to quantify the land use/land cover classes including built up, barren land, water, and vegetation. The parks amongst total public green spaces were selected based on their signature in remote sensing image and distribution. Percentages of total green and parks green were calculated for each town of Lahore City and results were then synchronized with the recommended standards. ANGSt model was applied to calculate the accessibility from parks. Service area analysis was performed using Network Analyst tool. Serviceability of these parks has been evaluated by employing statistical indices like service area, service population and park area per capita. Findings of the study may contribute in helping the town planners for understanding the distribution of parks, demands for new parks and potential areas which are deprived of parks. The purpose of present study is to provide necessary information to planners, policy makers and scientific researchers in the process of decision making for the management and improvement of urban parks.

Keywords: geographic information systems (GIS), accessible natural green space standards (ANGSt), remote sensing (RS), United States geological survey (USGS)

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569 Integrated Simulation and Optimization for Carbon Capture and Storage System

Authors: Sungho Kim, Jong Min Lee, Taekyoon Park, Ung Lee, Chonghun Han, Seokgoo Lee


CO2 capture and storage/sequestration (CCS) is a key technology for addressing the global warming issue. This paper proposes an integrated model for the whole chain of CCS, from a power plant to a reservoir. The integrated model is further utilized to determine optimal operating conditions and study responses to various changes in input variables.

Keywords: Simulation, Optimization, Carbon capture and storage, CCS, caron dioxide

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568 Identifying the Conservation Gaps in Poorly Studied Protected Area in the Philippines: A Study Case of Sibuyan Island

Authors: Roven Tumaneng, Angelica Kristina Monzon, Ralph Sedricke Lapuz, Jose Don De Alban, Jennica Paula Masigan, Joanne Rae Pales, Laila Monera Pornel, Dennis Tablazon, Rizza Karen Veridiano, Jackie Lou Wenceslao, Edmund Leo Rico, Neil Aldrin Mallari


Most protected area management plans in the Philippines, particularly the smaller and more remote islands suffer from insufficient baseline data, which should provide the bases for formulating measureable conservation targets and appropriate management interventions for these protected areas. Attempts to synthesize available data particularly on cultural and socio-economic characteristic of local peoples within and outside protected areas also suffer from the lack of comprehensive and detailed inventories, which should be considered in designing adaptive management interventions to be used for those protected areas. Mt Guiting-guiting Natural Park (MGGNP) located in Sibuyan Island is one of the poorly studied protected areas in the Philippines. In this study, we determined the highly biologically important areas of the protected area using Maximum Entropy approach (MaxEnt) from environmental predictors (i.e., topographic, bioclimatic,land cover, and soil image layers) derived from global remotely sensed data and point occurrence data of species of birds and trees recorded during field surveys on the island. A total of 23 trigger species of birds and trees was modeled and stacked to generate species richness maps for biological high conservation value areas (HCVAs). Forest habitat change was delineated using dual-polarised L-band ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data at 25 meter spatial resolution, taken at two acquisition years 2007 and 2009 to provide information on forest cover ad habitat change in the island between year 2007 and 2009. Determining the livelihood guilds were also conducted using the data gathered from171 household interviews, from which demographic and livelihood variables were extracted (i.e., age, gender, number of household members, educational attainment, years of residency, distance from forest edge, main occupation, alternative sources of food and resources during scarcity months, and sources of these alternative resources).Using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Kruskal-Wallis test, the diversity and patterns of forest resource use by people in the island were determined with particular focus on the economic activities that directly and indirectly affect the population of key species as well as to identify levels of forest resource use by people in different areas of the park.Results showed that there are gaps in the area occupied by the natural park, as evidenced by the mismatch of the proposed HCVAs and the existing perimeters of the park. We found out that subsistence forest gathering was the possible main driver for forest degradation out of the eight livelihood guilds that were identified in the park. Determining the high conservation areas and identifyingthe anthropogenic factors that influence the species richness and abundance of key species in the different management zone of MGGNP would provide guidance for the design of a protected area management plan and future monitoring programs. However, through intensive communication and consultation with government stakeholders and local communities our results led to setting conservation targets in local development plans and serve as a basis for the reposition of the boundaries and reconfiguration of the management zones of MGGNP.

Keywords: protected area, MaxEnt, conservation gaps, livelihood guilds

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567 Bridge Members Segmentation Algorithm of Terrestrial Laser Scanner Point Clouds Using Fuzzy Clustering Method

Authors: Junkyeong Kim, Seunghee Park, Gichun Cha, Donghwan Lee, Jooyoung Park


3D shape models of the existing structure are required for many purposes such as safety and operation management. The traditional 3D modeling methods are based on manual or semi-automatic reconstruction from close-range images. It occasions great expense and time consuming. The Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is a common survey technique to measure quickly and accurately a 3D shape model. This TLS is used to a construction site and cultural heritage management. However there are many limits to process a TLS point cloud, because the raw point cloud is massive volume data. So the capability of carrying out useful analyses is also limited with unstructured 3-D point. Thus, segmentation becomes an essential step whenever grouping of points with common attributes is required. In this paper, members segmentation algorithm was presented to separate a raw point cloud which includes only 3D coordinates. This paper presents a clustering approach based on a fuzzy method for this objective. The Fuzzy C-Means (FCM) is reviewed and used in combination with a similarity-driven cluster merging method. It is applied to the point cloud acquired with Lecia Scan Station C10/C5 at the test bed. The test-bed was a bridge which connects between 1st and 2nd engineering building in Sungkyunkwan University in Korea. It is about 32m long and 2m wide. This bridge was used as pedestrian between two buildings. The 3D point cloud of the test-bed was constructed by a measurement of the TLS. This data was divided by segmentation algorithm for each member. Experimental analyses of the results from the proposed unsupervised segmentation process are shown to be promising. It can be processed to manage configuration each member, because of the segmentation process of point cloud.

Keywords: Segmentation, point cloud, fuzzy c-means (FCM), terrestrial laser scanner (TLS)

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566 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Laser Cladding in Various Tilting Pad Bearing Materials

Authors: Jin-Young Park, Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Jin-Ho Lim, Joo-Young Oh, Jae-Il Jeong Seock-Sam Kim, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim


The tilting pad bearing is a kind of the fluid film bearing and it can contribute to the high speed and the high load performance compared to other bearings including the rolling element bearing. Furthermore, the tilting bearing has many advantages such as high stability at high-speed performance, long life, high damping, high impact resistance and low noise. Therefore, it mostly used in mid to large size turbomachines, despite the high price disadvantage. Recently, manufacture and process employing laser techniques advancing at a fast-growing rate in mechanical industry, the dissimilar metal weld process employing laser techniques is actively studied. Moreover, also, Industry fields try to apply for welding the white metal and the back metal using laser cladding method for high durability. Furthermore, it has followed that laser cladding method has a lot better bond strength, toughness, anti-abrasion and environment-friendly than centrifugal casting method through preceding research. Therefore, the laser cladding method has a lot better quality, cost reduction, eco-friendliness and permanence of technology than the centrifugal casting method or the gravity casting method. In this study, we compare the mechanical properties of different bearing materials by evaluating the behavior of laser cladding layer with various materials (i.e. SS400, SCM440, S20C) under the same parameters. Furthermore, we analyze the porosity of various tilting pad bearing materials which white metal treated on samples. SEM, EDS analysis and hardness tests of three materials are shown to understand the mechanical properties and tribological behavior. W/D ratio, surface roughness results with various materials are performed in this study.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Laser Cladding, tilting pad bearing, white metal

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565 Orchids of Coastal Karnataka, India: Diversity, Trends in Population, Threats and Conservation Strategies

Authors: Sankaran Potti Narasimhan


Costal Karnataka is sandwiched between Arabian Sea and the biodiversity hotspot of Western Ghats. This has provided a rich vegetation, canopy and humidity for the sustainable growth and evolution of many orchid populations. Similar to many other biodiversity hostpot regions of India and the world, this region also faces threat from anthropogenic activities and climate change. Hence, there is a need to study the current orchid diversity and trends in population as well as an effective conservation strategy. Costal belt of Karnataka state of India extends over 325 kilometers and an area of 18,000 km2. The region encompasses two national parks such as the Anshi National Park and the Kudremukh National Park. The study regions also include two Wild Life Sanctuaries such as the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary and Mookambika Wildlife Sanctuary. The estimated number of orchids in the region includes 30 genera and 45 species. Both terrestrial and epiphytic orchids are found in this region. The region contains many red listed orchids such as Trias stocksii (Critically endangered), Eriad alzellii (Lower risk vulnerable) and Dendrobnium ovatum (Vulnerable). The important terrestrial orchids of the region are Geodorum, Habenaria, Lipparis, Malaxis, Nervilia, Pachystoma, Pectelis, Peristylus, Tropidia and Zeuxine. The epiphytic forms includes Acampe, Aerides, Bulbophyllum, Cleisostoma, Conchidum, Cottonia, Cymbidium, Dendronium, Eria, Flickingeria, Gastrochilus, Kingidium, Luisia, Oberonia, Phalaenopsis, Pholidota, Porpax, Rhynchostylis, Sirhookera and Trias. The current paper discusses the population strength and changes in the population structure of these orchids along with proposed conservation strategies.

Keywords: orchid diversity, bulbophyllum, dendrobium, orchid conservation

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564 Blood Analysis of Diarrheal Calves Using Portable Blood Analyzer: Analysis of Calves by Age

Authors: Suhee Kim, Kwangman Park, Jinhee Kang, Dohyeon Yu, Kyoungseong Choi, Jinho Park


Statement of the Problem: Diarrhea is a major cause of death in young calves. This causes great economic damage to the livestock industry. These diarrhea cause dehydration, decrease blood flow, lower the pH and degrade enzyme function. In the past, serum screening was not possible in the field. However, now with the spread of portable serum testing devices, it is now possible to conduct tests directly on field. Thus, accurate serological changes can be identified and used in the field of large animals. Methodology and Theoretical Orientation: The test groups were calves from 1 to 44 days old. The status of the feces was divided into four grade to determine the severity of diarrhea (grade 0,1,2,3). Grade 0, 1 is considered to have no diarrhea. Grade 2, 3 is considered to diarrhea positive group. One or more viruses were detected in this group. Diarrhea negasitive group consisted of 57 calves (Asan=30, Samrye=27). Diarrhea positive group consisted of 34 calves (Kimje=27, Geochang=7). The feces of all calves were analyzed by PCR Test. Blood sample was measured using an automatic blood analyzer(i-STAT, Abbott inc. Illinois, US). Calves were divided into 3 groups according to age. Group 1 is 1 to 14 days old. Group 2 is 15 to 28 days old. Group 3 is more than 28 days old. Findings: Diarrhea caused an increase in HCT due to dehydration. The difference from normal was highest in 15 to 28 days old (p < 0.01). At all ages, bicarbonate decreased compared to normal, and therefore pH decreased. Similar to HCT, the largest difference was observed between 15 and 28 days (p < 0.01). The pCO₂ decreases to compensate for the decrease in pH. Conclusion and Significance: At all ages, HCT increases, and bicarbonate, pH, and pCO₂ decrease in diarrhea calves. The calf from 15 days to 28 days shows the most difference from normal. Over 28 days of age, weight gain and homeostasis ability increase, diarrhea is seen in the stool, there are fewer hematologic changes than groups below 28 days of age.

Keywords: Diarrhea, calves, hematological changes, i-STAT

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563 Redefining "Dedhee" in Terms of Knowledge Gathering and Conserving Hazara Literature

Authors: Urooj Shafique, Salman Jamil


In the context of an urban human life, city requires to meeting some standards which, at a glance are called the standards of a quality life. Measuring the quality of life according to particular social, economic and cultural conditions of a country and also the emphasis of a country twenty years visions on this issue has special importance. Cultural gathering spaces improve social and economic vitality on one side and on the other side provide favorable conditions for citizen leisure. But unfortunately these cultural gathering spaces in our society are losing their meaning and importance with time. Like coffee houses and libraries. Dedhee was the most prominent place among the cultural gathering spaces in Hazara division. People used to visit them in order to get something out of these spaces. At present they lie in our cities as places of no interest. Libraries are converted into storage houses where books lie untouched for years and years. The aim of my project is to create unique space that engage community members in the learning and creation process, where people can share their knowledge with others as well as enjoy their personal space. The spaces are flexible enough to accommodate people of different moods and interests, with the purpose of helping communities to become aware of their own cultures and to be socially engaged. The site for this specific project has been selected near Cantonment Park Abbottabad, Pakistan. The city of Abbottabad is famous for its writers, poets and storytellers. The site is selected next to the Cantonment Park, at a central location in the whole city so that it can attract users from almost every point of the city. The project provides a cultural gathering space for the people of the city where they can sit and discuss their ideas within a creative and expressive environment, which can represent the cultures of a community.

Keywords: cultural gathering space, Dedhee, Hazara literature, intellectuals’ hub

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562 Discussion as a Means to Improve Peer Assessment Accuracy

Authors: Jooyong Park, Jung Ae Park


Writing is an important learning activity that cultivates higher level thinking. Effective and immediate feedback is necessary to help improve students' writing skills. Peer assessment can be an effective method in writing tasks because it makes it possible for students not only to receive quick feedback on their writing but also to get a chance to examine different perspectives on the same topic. Peer assessment can be practiced frequently and has the advantage of immediate feedback. However, there is controversy about the accuracy of peer assessment. In this study, we tried to demonstrate experimentally how the accuracy of peer assessment could be improved. Participants (n=76) were randomly assigned to groups of 4 members. All the participant graded two sets of 4 essays on the same topic. They graded the first set twice, and the second set or the posttest once. After the first grading of the first set, each group in the experimental condition 1 (discussion group), were asked to discuss the results of the peer assessment and then to grade the essays again. Each group in the experimental condition 2 (reading group), were asked to read the assessment on each essay by an expert and then to grade the essays again. In the control group, the participants were asked to grade the 4 essays twice in different orders. Afterwards, all the participants graded the second set of 4 essays. The mean score from 4 participants was calculated for each essay. The accuracy of the peer assessment was measured by Pearson correlation with the scores of the expert. The results were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANOVA. The main effect of grading was observed: Grading accuracy got better as the number of grading experience increased. Analysis of posttest accuracy revealed that the score variations within a group of 4 participants decreased in both discussion and reading conditions but not in the control condition. These results suggest that having students discuss their grading together can be an efficient means to improve peer assessment accuracy. By discussing, students can learn from others about what to consider in grading and whether their grading is too strict or lenient. Further research is needed to examine the exact cause of the grading accuracy.

Keywords: peer assessment, evaluation accuracy, discussion, score variations

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561 Highly Efficient Ca-Doped CuS Counter Electrodes for Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells

Authors: Mohammed Panthakkal Abdul Muthalif, Shanmugasundaram Kanagaraj, Jumi Park, Hangyu Park, Youngson Choe


The present study reports the incorporation of calcium ions into the CuS counter electrodes (CEs) in order to modify the photovoltaic performance of quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). Metal ion-doped CuS thin film was prepared by the chemical bath deposition (CBD) method on FTO substrate and used directly as counter electrodes for TiO₂/CdS/CdSe/ZnS photoanodes based QDSSCs. For the Ca-doped CuS thin films, copper nitrate and thioacetamide were used as anionic and cationic precursors. Calcium nitrate tetrahydrate was used as doping material. The surface morphology of Ca-doped CuS CEs indicates that the fragments are uniformly distributed, and the structure is densely packed with high crystallinity. The changes observed in the diffraction patterns suggest that Ca dopant can introduce increased disorder into CuS material structure. EDX analysis was employed to determine the elemental identification, and the results confirmed the presence of Cu, S, and Ca on the FTO glass substrate. The photovoltaic current density – voltage characteristics of Ca-doped CuS CEs shows the specific improvements in open circuit voltage decay (Voc) and short-circuit current density (Jsc). Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results display that Ca-doped CuS CEs have greater electrocatalytic activity and charge transport capacity than bare CuS. All the experimental results indicate that 20% Ca-doped CuS CE based QDSSCs exhibit high power conversion efficiency (η) of 4.92%, short circuit current density of 15.47 mA cm⁻², open circuit photovoltage of 0.611 V, and fill factor (FF) of 0.521 under illumination of one sun.

Keywords: Surface Morphology, Ca-doped CuS counter electrodes, chemical bath deposition method, electrocatalytic activity

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560 Some Issues with Extension of an HPC Cluster

Authors: Pil Seong Park


Homemade HPC clusters are widely used in many small labs, because they are easy to build and cost-effective. Even though incremental growth is an advantage of clusters, it results in heterogeneous systems anyhow. Instead of adding new nodes to the cluster, we can extend clusters to include some other Internet servers working independently on the same LAN, so that we can make use of their idle times, especially during the night. However extension across a firewall raises some security problems with NFS. In this paper, we propose a method to solve such a problem using SSH tunneling, and suggest a modified structure of the cluster that implements it.

Keywords: Security, extension of HPC clusters, NFS, SSH tunneling

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559 Ripening Conditions Suitable for Marketing of Winter Squash ‘Bochang’

Authors: Do Su Park, Sang Jun Park, Cheon Soon Jeong


This study was performed in order to investigate the optimum ripening conditions for the marketing of Squash. Research sample 'Bochang' was grown at Hongcheonin in Gangwon province in August 2014. Ripening the samples were stored under the conditions of 25℃, 30℃, and 35℃ with the humidity RH70 ± 5%. They were checked every 3 days for 21 days. The respiration rate, water loss, hardness, coloration, the contents of soluble solids, starch, total sugar were evaluated after storage. Respiration rate was reduced in all treatments with longer storage period. Water loss was increased in the higher temperature. The 13% water loss was found at 35℃ on 21st storage day. The store initially 25℃ and 30℃ Hardness 47N and the ripening 21 days decreased slightly. On the other hand, in the case of 35℃ showed a large reduction than 25℃ and 30℃. Soluble solid contents were increased with longer ripening period. 30℃ and 35℃ was highest ripening 15 days. In the case of 25℃, it was highest on 21th day. The higher the temperature, the higher the soluble solids content are. 25℃ and 30℃ Coloration was increased rapidly until the ripening 12 days. In case of 35℃, continued increase up to 21 days. 25℃ and 30℃ showed no differences. Meanwhile, in case of 35℃, appearance quality was reduced in Occurrence of yellowing phenomenon of pericarp occurs from after ripening for 9 days. The coloration of fruit flesh is increase until after ripening for 9 days and decrease from after ripening for 9 days. There was no significant difference depending on the conditions of temperature. The higher the temperature, the lower the content of the starch. In case of 30℃ and 35℃, was reduced with longer storage period. 25℃ was minimal content change. Total sugar was increased in all treatments with longer storage period. The higher the temperature, the higher the amount of total sugar content is. Therefore, at 25℃ for 18-21 days and at 30℃ for 12-15 days is suitable for ripening.

Keywords: Marketing, temperature, ripening, winter squash

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558 Effects of Non-Diagnostic Haptic Information on Consumers' Product Judgments and Decisions

Authors: Eun Young Park, Jongwon Park


A physical touch of a product can provide ample diagnostic information about the product attributes and quality. However, consumers’ product judgments and purchases can be erroneously influenced by non-diagnostic haptic information. For example, consumers’ evaluations of the coffee they drink could be affected by the heaviness of a cup that is used for just serving the coffee. This important issue has received little attention in prior research. The present research contributes to the literature by identifying when and how non-diagnostic haptic information can have an influence and why such influence occurs. Specifically, five studies experimentally varied the content of non-diagnostic haptic information, such as the weight of a cup (heavy vs. light) and the texture of a cup holder (smooth vs. rough), and then assessed the impact of the manipulation on product judgments and decisions. Results show that non-diagnostic haptic information has a biasing impact on consumer judgments. For example, the heavy (vs. light) cup increases consumers’ perception of the richness of coffee in it, and the rough (vs. smooth) texture of a cup holder increases the perception of the healthfulness of fruit juice in it, which in turn increases consumers’ purchase intentions of the product. When consumers are cognitively distracted during the touch experience, the impact of the content of haptic information is no longer evident, but the valence (positive vs. negative) of the haptic experience influences product judgments. However, consumers are able to avoid the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information, if and only if they are both knowledgeable about the product category and undistracted from processing the touch experience. In sum, the nature of the influence by non-diagnostic haptic information (i.e., assimilation effect vs. contrast effect vs. null effect) is determined by the content and valence of haptic information, the relative impact of which depends on whether consumers can identify the content and source of the haptic information. Theoretically, to our best knowledge, this research is the first to document the empirical evidence of the interplay between cognitive and affective processes that determines the impact of non-diagnostic haptic information. Managerial implications are discussed.

Keywords: Consumer behavior, haptic information, product judgments, touch effect

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557 Delay-Dependent Passivity Analysis for Neural Networks with Time-Varying Delays

Authors: J. H. Park, H. Y. Jung, Jing Wang, Hao Shen


This brief addresses the passivity problem for neural networks with time-varying delays. The aim is focus on establishing the passivity condition of the considered neural networks.

Keywords: Neural Networks, passivity analysis, time-varying delays, linear matrix inequality

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556 Bamboo as the Frontier for Economically Sustainable Solution to Flood Control and Human Wildlife Conflict

Authors: Nirman Kumar Ojha


Bamboo plantation can be integrated for natural embankment against flood and live fencing against wild animals, at the same time provide economic opportunity for the poor farmers as a sustainable solution and adaptation alternative. 2010 flood in the Rui River completely inundated fields of four VDCs in Madi, Chitwan National Park with extensive bank erosion. The main aim of this action research was to identify an economically sustainable natural embankment against flood and also providing wildlife friendly fencing to reduce human-wildlife conflict. Community people especially poor farmers were trained for soil testing, land identification, plantation, and the harvesting regime, nursery set up and intercropping along with bamboo plantation on the edge of the river bank in order to reduce or minimize soil erosion. Results show that farmers are able to establish cost efficient and economically sustainable river embankment with bamboo plantation also creating a fence for wildlife which has also promoted bamboo cultivation and conservation. This action research has amalgamated flood control and wildlife control with the livelihood of the farmers which otherwise would cost huge resource. Another major impact of the bamboo plantation is its role in climate change and its adaptation process reducing degradation and improving vegetation cover contributing to landscape management. Based on this study, we conclude that bamboo plantation in Madi, Chitwan promoted the livelihood of the poor farmers providing a sustainable economic solution to reduce bank erosion, human-wildlife conflict and contributes to landscape management.

Keywords: Flood control, national park, climate change and conservation, economic opportunity

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
555 Comparison of Tribological and Mechanical Properties of White Metal Produced by Laser Cladding and Conventional Methods

Authors: Jin-Young Park, Si-Geun Choi, Hoon-Jae Park, Jung-Woo Cho, Joo-Young Oh, Young Tae Cho, Chan Gyu Kim, Jong-Hyoung Kim, Jae-Il Jeong, Yang-Gon Kim, Seock-Sam Kim


Bearing component has strongly required to decrease vibration and wear to achieve high durability and life time. In the industry field, bearing durability is improved by surface treatment on the bearing surface by centrifugal casting or gravity casting production method. However, this manufacturing method has caused problems such as long processing time, defect rate, and health harmful effect. To solve this problem, there is a laser cladding deposition treatment, which provides fast processing and food adhesion. Therefore, optimum conditions of white metal laser deposition should be studied to minimize bearing contact axis wear using laser cladding techniques. In this study, we deposit a soft white metal layer on SCM440, which is mainly used for shaft and bolt. On laser deposition process, the laser power and powder feed rate and laser head speed factors are controlled to find out the optimal conditions. We also measure hardness using micro Vickers, analyze FE-SEM (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) and EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy) to study the mechanical properties and surface characteristics with various parameters change. Furthermore, this paper suggests the optimum condition of laser cladding deposition to apply in industrial fields. This work was supported by the Industrial Innovation Project of the Korea Evaluation Institute of Industrial Technology (KEIT) granted financial resource from the Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy, Republic of Korea (Research no. 10051653).

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, bearing, white metal, laser deposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
554 Utility, Satisfaction and Necessity of Urban Parks: An Empirical Study of Two Suburban Parks of Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India

Authors: Jaydip De


Urban parks are open places, green fields and riverside gardens usually maintained by public or private authorities, or eventually by both jointly; and utilized for a multidimensional purpose by the citizens. These parks are indeed the lung of urban centers. In urban socio-environmental setup, parks are the nucleus of social integration, community building, and physical development. In contemporary cities, these green places seem to perform as the panacea of congested, complex and stressful urban life. The alarmingly increasing urban population and the resultant congestion of high-rises are making life wearisome in neo-liberal cities. This has made the citizen always quest for open space and fresh air. In such a circumstance, the mere existence of parks is not capable of satisfying the growing aspirations. Therefore in this endeavour, a structured attempt is so made to empirically identify the utility, visitors’ satisfaction, and future needs through the cases of two urban parks of Kolkata Metropolitan Area, India. This study is principally based upon primary information collected through visitors’ perception survey conducted at the Chinsurah ground and Chandernagore strand. The correlation between different utility categories is identified and analyzed systematically. At the same time, indices like Weighted Satisfaction Score (WSS), Facility wise Satisfaction Index (FSI), Urban Park Satisfaction Index (UPSI) and Urban Park Necessity Index (UPNI) are advocated to quantify the visitors’ satisfaction and future necessities. It is explored that the most important utilities are passive in nature. Simultaneously, satisfaction levels of visitors are average, and their requirements are centred on the daily needs of the next generation, i.e., the children. Further, considering the visitors’ opinion planning measures are promulgated for holistic development of urban parks to revitalize sustainability of citified life.

Keywords: utility, Urban Parks, citified life, future needs, visitors’ satisfaction

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553 The Location of Park and Ride Facilities Using the Fuzzy Inference Model

Authors: Agnieszka Szumilas, Anna Lower, Michal Lower, Robert Masztalski


Contemporary cities are facing serious congestion and parking problems. In urban transport policy the introduction of the park and ride system (P&R) is an increasingly popular way of limiting vehicular traffic. The determining of P&R facilities location is a key aspect of the system. Criteria for assessing the quality of the selected location are formulated generally and descriptively. The research outsourced to specialists are expensive and time consuming. The most focus is on the examination of a few selected places. The practice has shown that the choice of the location of these sites in a intuitive way without a detailed analysis of all the circumstances, often gives negative results. Then the existing facilities are not used as expected. Methods of location as a research topic are also widely taken in the scientific literature. Built mathematical models often do not bring the problem comprehensively, e.g. assuming that the city is linear, developed along one important communications corridor. The paper presents a new method where the expert knowledge is applied to fuzzy inference model. With such a built system even a less experienced person could benefit from it, e.g. urban planners, officials. The analysis result is obtained in a very short time, so a large number of the proposed location can also be verified in a short time. The proposed method is intended for testing of car parks location in a city. The paper will show selected examples of locations of the P&R facilities in cities planning to introduce the P&R. The analysis of existing objects will also be shown in the paper and they will be confronted with the opinions of the system users, with particular emphasis on unpopular locations. The research are executed using the fuzzy inference model which was built and described in more detail in the earlier paper of the authors. The results of analyzes are compared to documents of P&R facilities location outsourced by the city and opinions of existing facilities users expressed on social networking sites. The research of existing facilities were conducted by means of the fuzzy model. The results are consistent with actual users feedback. The proposed method proves to be good, but does not require the involvement of a large experts team and large financial contributions for complicated research. The method also provides an opportunity to show the alternative location of P&R facilities. The performed studies show that the method has been confirmed. The method can be applied in urban planning of the P&R facilities location in relation to the accompanying functions. Although the results of the method are approximate, they are not worse than results of analysis of employed experts. The advantage of this method is ease of use, which simplifies the professional expert analysis. The ability of analyzing a large number of alternative locations gives a broader view on the problem. It is valuable that the arduous analysis of the team of people can be replaced by the model's calculation. According to the authors, the proposed method is also suitable for implementation on a GIS platform.

Keywords: fuzzy logic inference, park and ride system, P&R facilities, P&R location

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552 Submarine Topography and Beach Survey of Gang-Neung Port in South Korea, Using Multi-Beam Echo Sounder and Shipborne Mobile Light Detection and Ranging System

Authors: Won Hyuck Kim, Chang Hwan Kim, Hyun Wook Kim, Myoung Hoon Lee, Chan Hong Park, Hyeon Yeong Park


We conducted submarine topography & beach survey from December 2015 and January 2016 using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001(Kongsberg corporation) & Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System. Our survey area were the Anmok beach in Gangneung, South Korea. We made Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System for these survey. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System includes LiDAR (RIEGL LMS-420i), IMU ((Inertial Measurement Unit, MAGUS Inertial+) and RTKGNSS (Real Time Kinematic Global Navigation Satellite System, LEIAC GS 15 GS25) for beach's measurement, LiDAR's motion compensation & precise position. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System scans beach on the movable vessel using the laser. We mounted Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System on the top of the vessel. Before beach survey, we conducted eight circles IMU calibration survey for stabilizing heading of IMU. This exploration should be as close as possible to the beach. But our vessel could not come closer to the beach because of latency objects in the water. At the same time, we conduct submarine topography survey using multi-beam echo sounder EM3001. A multi-beam echo sounder is a device observing and recording the submarine topography using sound wave. We mounted multi-beam echo sounder on left side of the vessel. We were equipped with a motion sensor, DGNSS (Differential Global Navigation Satellite System), and SV (Sound velocity) sensor for the vessel's motion compensation, vessel's position, and the velocity of sound of seawater. Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System was able to reduce the consuming time of beach survey rather than previous conventional methods of beach survey.

Keywords: Anmok, beach survey, Shipborne Mobile LiDAR System, submarine topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
551 A Case Study on the Field Surveys and Repair of a Marine Approach-Bridge

Authors: S. H. Park, D. W. You


This study is about to the field survey and repair works in a marine approach-bride. In order to evaluate the stability of the ground and the structure, field surveys such as exterior inspection, non-destructive inspection, measurement, and geophysical exploration are carried out. Numerical analysis is conducted to investigate the cause of the abutment displacement at the same time. In addition, repair works are practiced to the region damaged with intent to sustain long-term safety.

Keywords: Maintenance, repair, field survey, expansion joint

Procedia PDF Downloads 157