Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Jeyatharan Kumarasamy

8 A Statistical Approach to Rationalise the Number of Working Load Test for Quality Control of Pile Installation in Singapore Jurong Formation

Authors: Nuo Xu, Kok Hun Goh, Jeyatharan Kumarasamy

Abstract:

Pile load testing is significant during foundation construction due to its traditional role of design validation and routine quality control of the piling works. In order to verify whether piles can take loadings at specified settlements, piles will have to undergo working load test where the test load should normally up to 150% of the working load of a pile. Selection or sampling of piles for the working load test is done subject to the number specified in Singapore National Annex to Eurocode 7 SS EN 1997-1:2010. This paper presents an innovative way to rationalize the number of pile load test by adopting statistical analysis approach and looking at the coefficient of variance of pile elastic modulus using a case study at Singapore Tuas depot. Results are very promising and have shown that it is possible to reduce the number of working load test without influencing the reliability and confidence on the pile quality. Moving forward, it is suggested that more load test data from other geological formations to be examined to compare with the findings from this paper.

Keywords: elastic modulus of pile under soil interaction, jurong formation, kentledge test, pile load test

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7 From Orthodox to Haploid Mitochondrial DNA Markers: Exploring the Datum Folder of population of Sindh in Pakistan

Authors: Shahzad Bhattiab, M. Aslamkhana, Sana Abbasbc, Marcella Attimonellid, Kumarasamy Thangaraje, Erica Martinha Silva de Souzaf, Uzay U. Sezen

Abstract:

The present study was designed to investigate three regions of mitochondrial DNA, HVI, HVII and HVIII, to hold a powwow genetic diversity and affiliations in 115 probands of 6 major ethnic groups, viz., Bijarani, Chandio, Ghallu, Khoso, Nasrani and Solangi, in the province of Sindh of Pakistan. For this purpose 88 haplotypes were scrutinized, defined by particular set of nucleotides (ignoring the C insertions around position 309 and 315). In spite of that 82% sequences were observed once, 12 % twice and 5.2 % thrice. The most common South Asian haplotypes were observed M (42%), N (6.9%) and R (6.9%) whereas west Eurasian haplotypes were J (1.7%), U (23.4%), H (9.5%), W (6.9%) and T (0.86%), in six ethnic groups. A random match probability between two unrelated individuals was found 0.06 %, while genetic diversity was ranged to be 0.991 to 0.999, and nucleotide diversity ranged from 0.0089 to 0.0142 for the whole control region of the population studied.

Keywords: mtDNA haplogroups, control region, Pakistan, Sindh, ethnicity

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6 Modelling, Assessment, and Optimisation of Rules for Selected Umgeni Water Distribution Systems

Authors: Khanyisile Mnguni, Muthukrishnavellaisamy Kumarasamy, Jeff C. Smithers

Abstract:

Umgeni Water is a water board that supplies most parts of KwaZulu Natal with bulk portable water. Currently, Umgeni Water is running its distribution system based on required reservoir levels and demands and does not consider the energy cost at different times of the day, number of pump switches, and background leakages. Including these constraints can reduce operational cost, energy usage, leakages, and increase performance. Optimising pump schedules can reduce energy usage and costs while adhering to hydraulic and operational constraints. Umgeni Water has installed an online hydraulic software, WaterNet Advisor, that allows running different operational scenarios prior to implementation in order to optimise the distribution system. This study will investigate operation scenarios using optimisation techniques and WaterNet Advisor for a local water distribution system. Based on studies reported in the literature, introducing pump scheduling optimisation can reduce energy usage by approximately 30% without any change in infrastructure. Including tariff structures in an optimisation problem can reduce pumping costs by 15%, while including leakages decreases cost by 10%, and pressure drop in the system can be up to 12 m. Genetical optimisation algorithms are widely used due to their ability to solve nonlinear, non-convex, and mixed-integer problems. Other methods such as branch and bound linear programming have also been successfully used. A suitable optimisation method will be chosen based on its efficiency. The objective of the study is to reduce energy usage, operational cost, and leakages, and the feasibility of optimal solution will be checked using the Waternet Advisor. This study will provide an overview of the optimisation of hydraulic networks and progress made to date in multi-objective optimisation for a selected sub-system operated by Umgeni Water.

Keywords: energy usage, pump scheduling, WaterNet Advisor, leakages

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5 Whole Exome Sequencing in Characterizing Mysterious Crippling Disorder in India

Authors: Swarkar Sharma, Ekta Rai, Ankit Mahajan, Parvinder Kumar, Manoj K Dhar, Sushil Razdan, Kumarasamy Thangaraj, Carol Wise, Shiro Ikegawa M.D., K.K. Pandita M.D.

Abstract:

Rare disorders are poorly understood hence, remain uncharacterized or patients are misdiagnosed and get poor medical attention. A rare mysterious skeletal disorder that remained unidentified for decades and rendered many people physically challenged and disabled for life has been reported in an isolated remote village ‘Arai’ of Poonch district of Jammu and Kashmir. This village is located deep in mountains and the population residing in the region is highly consanguineous. In our survey of the region, 70 affected people were reported, showing similar phenotype, in the village with a population of approximately 5000 individuals. We were able to collect samples from two multi generational extended families from the village. Through Whole Exome sequencing (WES), we identified a rare variation NM_003880.3:c.156C>A NP_003871.1:p.Cys52Ter, which results in introduction of premature stop codon in WISP3 gene. We found this variation perfectly segregating with the disease in one of the family. However, this variation was absent in other family. Interestingly, a novel splice site mutation at position c.643+1G>A of WISP3 gene, perfectly segregating with the disease was observed in the second family. Thus, exploiting WES and putting different evidences together (familial histories and genetic data, clinical features, radiological and biochemical tests and findings), the disease has finally been diagnosed as a very rare recessive hereditary skeletal disease “Progressive Pseudorheumatoid Arthropathy of Childhood” (PPAC) also known as “Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda with Progressive Arthropathy” (SEDT-PA). This genetic characterization and identification of the disease causing mutations will aid in genetic counseling, critically required to curb this rare disorder and to prevent its appearance in future generations in the population. Further, understanding of the role of WISP3 gene the biological pathways should help in developing treatment for the disorder.

Keywords: whole exome sequencing, Next Generation Sequencing, rare disorders

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4 Inbreeding and Its Effect on Growth Performance in a Closed Herd of New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The influence of inbreeding on growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India was studied in a closed herd. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). The traits studied were body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing. The effects of inbreeding along with other non-genetic factors (sex of the kit, season and period of birth of the kit) were analyzed using least-squares method. The inbreeding (F) and equivalent inbreeding (EF) coefficients were taken as fixed classes as well as covariates in separate analyses. When taken as covariate, the effect was analyzed as partial regression of respective growth trait on individual inbreeding coefficient (F or EF). The mean body weights at weaning, post-weaning and marketing were 0.715, 1.276 and 2.187 kg, respectively. The maximum growth efficiency was noticed between weaning and post-weaning. Season and period had highly significant influence on all the growth parameters studied and sex of the kit had significant influence on certain growth efficiency traits only. The average coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding in the population were 13.233 and 17.585 percent, respectively. About 11.17 percent of total matings were highly inbred in which full-sib, half-sib and parent-offspring matings were 1.20, 6.30 and 3.67 percent, respectively. The regression of body weight traits on F and EF showed negative effect whereas most of the growth efficiency traits showed positive effects. Significant inbreeding depression was observed in W42 and W70. The depression in W42 was 0.214 kg and 0.139 kg and in W70 was 0.269 kg and 0.172 kg for every one unit increase in F and EF, respectively. Though the trait W135 showed positive value and ADG1 showed depression, the effects of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were non-significant in these traits. Higher values of inbreeding depression could be due to more variance of F or EF in the population. The analysis of the effect of level of inbreeding on growth traits revealed that the inbreeding class was significant on W70, ADG2, RGR2 and KR2 while EF classes had significant influence only on ADG2, RGR2 and KR2. Obviously, inbreeding does not have a positive effect, therefore, these results suggest that inbreeding had no effect on these traits.

Keywords: growth parameters, equivalent inbreeding, inbreeding effects, rabbit genetics

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3 Estimates of (Co)Variance Components and Genetic Parameters for Body Weights and Growth Efficiency Traits in the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The genetic parameters of growth traits in the New Zealand White rabbits maintained at Sheep Breeding and Research Station, Sandynallah, The Nilgiris, India were estimated by partitioning the variance and covariance components. The (co)variance components of body weights at weaning (W42), post-weaning (W70) and marketing (W135) age and growth efficiency traits viz., average daily gain (ADG), relative growth rate (RGR) and Kleiber ratio (KR) estimated on a daily basis at different age intervals (1=42 to 70 days; 2=70 to 135 days and 3=42 to 135 days) from weaning to marketing were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood, fitting six animal models with various combinations of direct and maternal effects. Data were collected over a period of 15 years (1998 to 2012). A log-likelihood ratio test was used to select the most appropriate univariate model for each trait, which was subsequently used in bivariate analysis. Heritability estimates for W42, W70 and W135 were 0.42 ± 0.07, 0.40 ± 0.08 and 0.27 ± 0.07, respectively. Heritability estimates of growth efficiency traits were moderate to high (0.18 to 0.42). Of the total phenotypic variation, maternal genetic effect contributed 14 to 32% for early body weight traits (W42 and W70) and ADG1. The contribution of maternal permanent environmental effect varied from 6 to 18% for W42 and for all the growth efficiency traits except for KR2. Maternal permanent environmental effect on most of the growth efficiency traits was a carryover effect of maternal care during weaning. Direct maternal genetic correlations, for the traits in which maternal genetic effect was significant, were moderate to high in magnitude and negative in direction. Maternal effect declined as the age of the animal increased. The estimates of total heritability and maternal across year repeatability for growth traits were moderate and an optimum rate of genetic progress seems possible in the herd by mass selection. The estimates of genetic and phenotypic correlations among body weight traits were moderate to high and positive; among growth efficiency traits were low to high with varying directions; between body weights and growth efficiency traits were very low to high in magnitude and mostly negative in direction. Moderate to high heritability and higher genetic correlation in body weight traits promise good scope for genetic improvement provided measures are taken to keep the inbreeding at the lowest level.

Keywords: genetic parameters, growth traits, maternal effects, rabbit genetics

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2 Genetic Structure Analysis through Pedigree Information in a Closed Herd of the New Zealand White Rabbits

Authors: M. Sakthivel, A. Devaki, D. Balasubramanyam, P. Kumarasamy, A. Raja, R. Anilkumar, H. Gopi

Abstract:

The New Zealand White breed of rabbit is one of the most commonly used, well adapted exotic breeds in India. Earlier studies were limited only to analyze the environmental factors affecting the growth and reproductive performance. In the present study, the population of the New Zealand White rabbits in a closed herd was evaluated for its genetic structure. Data on pedigree information (n=2508) for 18 years (1995-2012) were utilized for the study. Pedigree analysis and the estimates of population genetic parameters based on gene origin probabilities were performed using the software program ENDOG (version 4.8). The analysis revealed that the mean values of generation interval, coefficients of inbreeding and equivalent inbreeding were 1.489 years, 13.233 percent and 17.585 percent, respectively. The proportion of population inbred was 100 percent. The estimated mean values of average relatedness and the individual increase in inbreeding were 22.727 and 3.004 percent, respectively. The percent increase in inbreeding over generations was 1.94, 3.06 and 3.98 estimated through maximum generations, equivalent generations, and complete generations, respectively. The number of ancestors contributing the most of 50% genes (fₐ₅₀) to the gene pool of reference population was 4 which might have led to the reduction in genetic variability and increased amount of inbreeding. The extent of genetic bottleneck assessed by calculating the effective number of founders (fₑ) and the effective number of ancestors (fₐ), as expressed by the fₑ/fₐ ratio was 1.1 which is indicative of the absence of stringent bottlenecks. Up to 5th generation, 71.29 percent pedigree was complete reflecting the well-maintained pedigree records. The maximum known generations were 15 with an average of 7.9 and the average equivalent generations traced were 5.6 indicating of a fairly good depth in pedigree. The realized effective population size was 14.93 which is very critical, and with the increasing trend of inbreeding, the situation has been assessed to be worse in future. The proportion of animals with the genetic conservation index (GCI) greater than 9 was 39.10 percent which can be used as a scale to use such animals with higher GCI to maintain balanced contribution from the founders. From the study, it was evident that the herd was completely inbred with very high inbreeding coefficient and the effective population size was critical. Recommendations were made to reduce the probability of deleterious effects of inbreeding and to improve the genetic variability in the herd. The present study can help in carrying out similar studies to meet the demand for animal protein in developing countries.

Keywords: effective population size, genetic structure, pedigree analysis, rabbit genetics

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1 4-Channel CWDM Optical Transceiver Applying Silicon Photonics Ge-Photodiode and MZ-Modulator

Authors: Do-Won Kim, Andy Eu Jin Lim, Raja Muthusamy Kumarasamy, Vishal Vinayak, Jacky Wang Yu-Shun, Jason Liow Tsung Yang, Patrick Lo Guo Qiang

Abstract:

In this study, we demonstrate 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM) optical transceiver based on silicon photonics integrated circuits (PIC) of waveguide Ge-photodiode (Ge-PD) and Mach Zehnder (MZ)-modulator. 4-channel arrayed PICs of Ge-PD and MZ-modulator are verified to operate at 25 Gbps/ch achieving 4x25 Gbps of total data rate. 4 bare dies of single-channel commercial electronics ICs (EICs) of trans-impedance amplifier (TIA) for Ge-PD and driver IC for MZ-modulator are packaged with PIC on printed circuit board (PCB) in a chip-on-board (COB) manner. Each single-channel EIC is electrically connected to the one channel of 4-channel PICs by wire bonds to trace. The PICs have 4-channel multiplexer for MZ-modulator and 4-channel demultiplexer for Ge-PD. The 4-channel multiplexer/demultiplexer have echelle gratings for4 CWDM optic signals of which center wavelengths are 1511, 1531, 1553, and 1573 nm. Its insertion loss is around 4dB with over 15dB of extinction ratio.The dimension of 4-channel Ge-PD is 3.6x1.4x0.3mm, and its responsivity is 1A/W with dark current of less than 20 nA.Its measured 3dB bandwidth is around 20GHz. The dimension of the 4-channel MZ-modulator is 3.6x4.8x0.3mm, and its 3dB bandwidth is around 11Ghz at -2V of reverse biasing voltage. It has 2.4V•cmbyVπVL of 6V for π shift to 4 mm length modulator.5x5um of Inversed tapered mode size converter with less than 2dB of coupling loss is used for the coupling of the lensed fiber which has 5um of mode field diameter.The PCB for COB packaging and signal transmission is designed to have 6 layers in the hybrid layer structure. 0.25 mm-thick Rogers Duroid RT5880 is used as the first core dielectric layer for high-speed performance over 25 Gbps. It has 0.017 mm-thick of copper layers and its dielectric constant is 2.2and dissipation factor is 0.0009 at 10 GHz. The dimension of both single ended and differential microstrip transmission lines are calculated using full-wave electromagnetic (EM) field simulator HFSS which RF industry is using most. It showed 3dB bandwidth at around 15GHz in S-parameter measurement using network analyzer. The wire bond length for transmission line and ground connection from EIC is done to have less than 300 µm to minimize the parasitic effect to the system.Single layered capacitors (SLC) of 100pF and 1000pF are connected as close as possible to the EICs for stabilizing the DC biasing voltage by decoupling. Its signal transmission performance is under measurement at 25Gbps achieving 100Gbps by 4chx25Gbps. This work can be applied for the active optical cable (AOC) and quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP) for high-speed optical interconnections. Its demands are quite large in data centers targeting 100 Gbps, 400 Gbps, and 1 Tbps. As the demands of high-speed AOC and QSFP for the application to intra/inter data centers increase, this silicon photonics based high-speed 4 channel CWDM scheme can have advantages not only in data throughput but also cost effectiveness since it reduces fiber cost dramatically through WDM.

Keywords: active optical cable(AOC), 4-channel coarse wavelength division multiplexing (CWDM), communication system, data center, ge-photodiode, Mach Zehnder (MZ) modulator, optical interconnections, optical transceiver, photonics integrated circuits (PIC), quad small form-factor pluggable (QSFP), silicon photonics

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