Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 86

Search results for: Jessica Chinonso Ehilegbu

86 Assessment of the Physico-Chemical Parameters and Heavy Metal Concentration in Water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in a Crude Oil Exposed Community (Bodo Creek), Rivers State, Nigeria

Authors: Ehiedu Philomina Kika, Jessica Chinonso Ehilegbu

Abstract:

The exploration and production of fossil fuel particularly crude oil has led to some serious environmental damage in some oil producing communities like the Bodo Community who rely heavily on their aquatic environment for food and water. This study was therefore carried out to investigate the level of some heavy metals in water and Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab) in the month of August, September and October from Bodo creek, Rivers State, Nigeria. The physico-chemical parameters of the water were also analyzed in-situ. The levels of heavy metals, Lead (Pb), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu) were analyzed in water and in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS) after acid digestion. For the concentration of heavy metals in water, Pb ranged from 0.103 - 0.791 mg/l, Zn 0.0025 - 0.342 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - 0.304 mg/l, Cd 0.011 - 0.116 mg/l and Cu <0.001 - 0.079 mg/l. For the concentration of heavy metals in Callinectes amnicola (Swimming Crab), the level of Pb ranged from 0.359 - 0.849 mg/l, Zn 0.134 - 0.342 mg/l, Cd 0.053 - 0.103 mg/l, Cr < 0.001 - <0.001 mg/l, Cu < 0.001 - 0.131 mg/l. The concentrations of Pb, Cd and Cr for all water and crab samples collected from the various stations were higher than permissible level suggesting serious anthropogenic influence. Thus, precaution needs to be taken to prevent further contamination and adequate purification measures need to be put in place. Therefore, there should be periodic environmental pollution monitoring, for assessment and awareness especially with regards heavy metal.

Keywords: Bodo creek, crude oil, heavy metal, swimming crab

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
85 Modelling and Simulation of a Commercial Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Obiora E. Anisiji, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

Abstract:

This paper developed a mathematical model of a commercial biogas plant for urban area clean energy requirement. It identified biodegradable waste materials like domestic/city refuse as economically viable alternative source of energy. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analyses were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500 m3 power gas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of bio gas production is essentially a function of the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: energy and mass conservation, specific growth rate, thermophilic bacteria, temperature, rate of bio gas production

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
84 Integrated Process Modelling of a Thermophilic Biogas Plant

Authors: Obiora E. Anisiji, Jeremiah L. Chukwuneke, Chinonso H. Achebe, Paul C. Okolie

Abstract:

This work developed a mathematical model of a biogas plant from a mechanistic point of view, for urban area clean energy requirement. It aimed at integrating thermodynamics; which deals with the direction in which a process occurs and Biochemical kinetics; which gives the understanding of the rates of biochemical reaction. The mathematical formulation of the proposed gas plant follows the fundamental principles of thermodynamics, and further analysis were accomplished to develop an algorithm for evaluating the plant performance preferably in terms of daily production capacity. In addition, the capacity of the plant is equally estimated for a given cycle of operation and presented in time histories. A nominal 1500m3 biogas plant was studied characteristically and its performance efficiency evaluated. It was observed that the rate of biogas production is essentially a function of enthalpy ratio, the reactor temperature, pH, substrate concentration, rate of degradation of the biomass, and the accumulation of matter in the system due to bacteria growth. The results of this study conform to a very large extent with reported empirical data of some existing plant and further model validations were conducted in line with classical records found in literature.

Keywords: anaerobic digestion, biogas plant, biogas production, bio-reactor, energy, fermentation, rate of production, temperature, therm

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
83 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

Abstract:

A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: egg, serum, cholesterol, garlic

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
82 Design of a Dietetic Food: Case of Lebanese Kishk

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Dona Shalhoub, Elias Atallah, Jessica Koura

Abstract:

Due to the increase of demand on dietetic food and the need for more types of diet food, the production of dietetic food is increasing and improving. This demand on dietetic food has triggered us to study the market in which we found that Kishk (Lebanese dairy product) diet is not available. Production of a low fat product which is diet Kishk was our concern. A strategy was followed to choose the right idea that will satisfy the need of the market. The whole process was studied and explained thoroughly. The percentage of fat was found to be 32.52 % in regular Kishk and 3.84 % in the diet Kishk produced. The new product has the advantage to be high in protein, low in fat.

Keywords: design and industrialization, dietetic, diet Kishk, fat

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
81 Extraction of Squalene from Lebanese Olive Oil

Authors: Henri El Zakhem, Christina Romanos, Charlie Bakhos, Hassan Chahal, Jessica Koura

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Squalene is a valuable component of the oil composed of 30 carbon atoms and is mainly used for cosmetic materials. The main concern of this article is to study the Squalene composition in the Lebanese olive oil and to compare it with foreign oil results. To our knowledge, extraction of Squalene from the Lebanese olive oil has not been conducted before. Three different techniques were studied and experiments were performed on three brands of olive oil, Al Wadi Al Akhdar, Virgo Bio and Boulos. The techniques performed are the Fractional Crystallization, the Soxhlet and the Esterification. By comparing the results, it is found that the Lebanese oil contains squalene and Soxhlet method is the most effective between the three methods extracting about 6.5E-04 grams of Squalene per grams of olive oil.

Keywords: squalene, extraction, crystallization, Soxhlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
80 Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education: Aligning Core Values and the Community of Practice for Today’s Educational Practitioners

Authors: Jessica Bogunovich, Kimberly Greene

Abstract:

As a grounded theory, Professional Reciprocal Altruism in Education (PRAE) offers an empowering means of understanding how the predominant motivator of those entering the teaching profession, altruism, serves as a shared value to inspire the individual’s personal practice beyond a siloed experience and into one of authentic engagement within the Community of Practice (CoP) of professional educators. The process of aligning one’s personal values, attitudes, and preconceived cultural constructs with those of the CoP, affords the alignment of the authentic and professional self; thus, continuously fostering one’s intrinsic motivation to remain engaged in their individual continuous process of growth and development for their students, community, profession, and themselves.

Keywords: altruism, Community of Practice. cultural constructs, teacher attrition, reciprocal altruism, value congruence

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79 Probabilistic-Based Design of Bridges under Multiple Hazards: Floods and Earthquakes

Authors: Kuo-Wei Liao, Jessica Gitomarsono

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Bridge reliability against natural hazards such as floods or earthquakes is an interdisciplinary problem that involves a wide range of knowledge. Moreover, due to the global climate change, engineers have to design a structure against the multi-hazard threats. Currently, few of the practical design guideline has included such concept. The bridge foundation in Taiwan often does not have a uniform width. However, few of the researches have focused on safety evaluation of a bridge with a complex pier. Investigation of the scouring depth under such situation is very important. Thus, this study first focuses on investigating and improving the scour prediction formula for a bridge with complicated foundation via experiments and artificial intelligence. Secondly, a probabilistic design procedure is proposed using the established prediction formula for practical engineers under the multi-hazard attacks.

Keywords: bridge, reliability, multi-hazards, scour

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
78 Psychological Contract Violation and Occupational Stressors amongst UK Police Officers

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Psychological contract refers to the perceptions of an employee and their employer regarding their mutual obligations towards each other. The rationale for applying the psychological contract theory in UK policing was to investigate its impact on their wellbeing because the psychological contract is a useful tool in identifying factors having a negative effect on the wellbeing of employees. The paper will report on a study, which examined how occupational stressors and psychological contract violation may influence the wellbeing (e.g. Physical Stress and General Health) of a sample of police officers (N=127). The design of the study was cross-sectional and based on data collected through a self-report survey. The results of hierarchical regression analyses and structural equation model, suggest that occupational stressors and psychological contract violation play a critical role in both physical and psychological health. The implications of these findings and the utility of considering the psychological contract will be discussed.

Keywords: police officers, psychological contract, occupational stressors, wellbeing

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
77 The Role of the Returned Migration in the Regional Economic Growth

Authors: Jessica Ordoñez, Francisco Ochoa, Pascual García

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to analyze the relationship between return migration in Ecuador and economic growth. The improvement of macroeconomic conditions in Latin America, starting in 2012, makes the region a new migratory destination, in both senses in north-south and south-south flows. Current studies highlight only the role of the entrepreneurial migrant in generating employment and economic growth in the region. Nevertheless, it has not been considered that not all migrants are entrepreneurs and that not all entrepreneurs contribute to economic growth. This research compares the socioeconomic and labor characteristics of migrant returnees working as freelancers in Ecuador. The principal aim is to demystify the role of migrant entrepreneurs in regional growth and to identify socioeconomic characteristics that can enhance growth. A panel econometric model was used, which is part of the information from labor and macroeconomic surveys.

Keywords: economic growth, entrepreneur, migration, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
76 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil

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Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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75 Psychological Contract Breach and Violation Relationships with Stress and Wellbeing

Authors: Fazeelat Duran, Darren Bishopp, Jessica Woodhams

Abstract:

Negative emotions resulting from the breach of perceived obligations by an employer is called the psychological contract violation. Employees perceiving breach and feelings of negative emotions result in adverse outcomes for both the employee and employer. This paper aims to identify the relationships between contract breach, violation, stress and wellbeing and investigate whether fairness and self-efficacy mediate the relationships. A mixed method approach was used to analyze the online-surveys and semi-structured interviews with the police officers. It was identified that the psychological contract violation predicts stress and job-related well-being. Fairness and self-efficacy were identified as significant mediators to understand the underlying mechanisms of association. Whilst, in the interviews social support was identified as a popular mediator. Practical implications for employers are discussed.

Keywords: psychological contract violation and breach, stressors, depression, anxiety

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
74 Evaluation of Methodologies for Measuring Harmonics and Inter-Harmonics in Photovoltaic Facilities

Authors: Anésio de Leles Ferreira Filho, Wesley Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jéssica Santoro Gonçalves, Jorge Andrés Cormane Angarita

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The increase in electric power demand in face of environmental issues has intensified the participation of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics, in the energy matrix of various countries. Due to their operational characteristics, they can generate time-varying harmonic and inter-harmonic distortions. For this reason, the application of methods of measurement based on traditional Fourier analysis, as proposed by IEC 61000-4-7, can provide inaccurate results. Considering the aspects mentioned herein, came the idea of the development of this work which aims to present the results of a comparative evaluation between a methodology arising from the combination of the Prony method with the Kalman filter and another method based on the IEC 61000-4-30 and IEC 61000-4-7 standards. Employed in this study were synthetic signals and data acquired through measurements in a 50kWp photovoltaic installation.

Keywords: harmonics, inter-harmonics, iec61000-4-7, parametric estimators, photovoltaic generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
73 'The Network' - Cradle to Cradle Engagement Framework for Women in STEM

Authors: Jessica Liqin Kong

Abstract:

Female engineers and scientists face unique challenges in their careers that make the development of professional networks crucial, but also more difficult. Working to overcome these challenges, ‘The Network’ was established in 2013 at the Queensland University of Technology (QUT) in Australia as an alumni chapter with the purpose of evoking continuous positive change for female participation and retention in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM). ‘The Network’ adopts an innovative model for a Women in STEM alumni chapter which was inspired by the cradle to cradle approach to engagement, and the concept of growing and harvesting individual and collective social capital through a variety of initiatives. ‘The Network’ fosters an environment where the values exchanged in social and professional relationships can be capitalized for both current and future women in STEM. The model of ‘The Network’ acts as a simulation and opportunity for participants to further develop their leadership and other soft skills through learning, building and experimenting with ‘The Network’.

Keywords: women in STEM, engagement, Cradle-to-Cradle, social capital

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
72 Unfolding the Social Clash between Online and Non-Online Transportation Providers in Bandung

Authors: Latifah Putti Tiananda, Sasti Khoirunnisa, Taniadiana Yapwito, Jessica Noviena

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Innovations are often met with two responses, acceptance or rejection. In the past few years, Indonesia is experiencing a revolution of transportation service, which utilizes online platform for its operation. Such improvement is welcomed by consumers and challenged by conventional or ‘non-online’ transportation providers simultaneously. Conflicts arise as the existence of this online transportation mode results in declining income of non-online transportation workers. Physical confrontations and demonstrations demand policing from central authority. However, the obscurity of legal measures from the government persists the social instability. Bandung, a city in West Java with the highest rate of online transportation usage, has recently issued a recommendation withholding the operation of online transportation services to maintain peace and order. Thus, this paper seeks to elaborate the social unrest between the two contesting transportation actors in Bandung and explore community-based approaches to solve this problem. Using qualitative research method, this paper will also feature in-depth interviews with directly involved sources from Bandung.

Keywords: Bandung, market competition, online transportation services, social unrest

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
71 Study of Pre-Handwriting Factors Necessary for Successful Handwriting in Children

Authors: Lalitchandra J. Shah, Katarzyna Bialek, Melinda L. Clarke, Jessica L. Jansson

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Handwriting is essential to academic success; however, the current literature is limited in the identification of pre-handwriting skills. The purpose of this study was to identify the pre-handwriting skills, which occupational therapy practitioners deem important to handwriting success, as well as those which aid in intervention planning. The online survey instrument consisted of 33 questions that assessed various skills related to the development of handwriting, as well as captured demographic information. Both occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants were included in the survey study. The survey found that the respondents were in agreement that purposeful scribbling, the ability of a child to copy (vertical/horizontal lines, circle, squares, and triangles), imitating an oblique cross, cognitive skills (attention, praxis, self-regulation, sequencing), grasp patterns, hand dominance, in hand manipulation skills (shift, translation, rotation), bilateral integration, stabilization of paper, crossing midline, and visual perception were important indicators of handwriting readiness. The results of the survey support existing research regarding the skills necessary for the successful development of handwriting in children.

Keywords: development, handwriting, occupational therapy, visual perceptual skills

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
70 The X-Ray Response Team: Building a National Health Pre-Hospital Service

Authors: Julian Donovan, Jessica Brealey, Matthew Bowker, Marianne Feghali, Gregory Smith, Lee Thompson, Deborah Henderson

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This article details the development of the X-ray response team (XRT), a service that utilises innovative technology to safely deliver acute and elective imaging and medical assessment service in the pre-hospital and community setting. This involves a partnership between Northumbria Healthcare NHS Foundation Trust’s Radiology and Emergency Medicine departments and the North East Ambulance Service to create a multidisciplinary prehospital team. The team committed to the delivery of a two-day acute service every week, alongside elective referrals, starting in November 2020. The service was originally made available to a 15-mile radius surrounding the Northumbria Hospital. Due to demand, this was expanded to include the North Tyneside and Northumberland regions. The target population was specified as frail and vulnerable patients, as well as those deemed to benefit from staying in their own environment. Within the first two months, thirty-six percent of patients assessed were able to stay at home due to the provision of off-site imaging. In the future, this service aims to allow patient transfer directly to an appropriate ward or clinic, bypassing the emergency department to improve the patient journey and reduce emergency care pressures.

Keywords: frailty, imaging, pre-hospital, X-ray

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
69 The Other Dreamers: A Study of the Relationship between Returned Migration and Entrepreneurship

Authors: Pascual García, Francisco Ochoa, Jessica Ordoñez

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The links between migration and development have been widely written and analyzed from different perspectives. However, the nexus between entrepreneurship and migration is of recent interest. The different studies related to this have focused on the ventures of ethnic enclaves, or on transnational businesses, which link the community of origin and destination. Beyond this perspective, this work analyzes the return migration, (a few studies until now, but forming part of a theoretical body of migration). As a result of the European crisis started between 2007-2008. Many Ecuadorians who lived in Europe, decided to return to their place of origin. The rise of the price of the oil and commodities presented a better panorama in Ecuador than in Europe. Faced with the magnitude of returnees, the opportunities for entrepreneurship in Ecuador increased (Accumulation of human capital, social capital, learned skills and capital). Thus there is an interest in the possibility of returned migrants in the country to start a business in their place of origin. The following study is the result of this. A survey of 110 returned migrants was carried out in the south of Ecuador and, using a Probit econometric model, we determined that the variables specified as geographic area, sex, education level are not significant, so they are not determinant when undertaking. However, time abroad and skills learned, if they were significant at the time of the decision to start a business.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, development, migration, returned migration

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
68 Criminals not Addicts: Newspaper Framing of Gambling-Related Crimes

Authors: Cameron Brown, Jessica Vanburen, Scott Hunt

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This study analyzed 411 international newspaper stories pertaining to gambling-related crimes from January 2013 to December 2014. These stories included accounts of crimes committed to fund gambling or pay gambling debts or that occurred at gambling establishments. Our analysis pays particular attention to those crimes that were imputed to be committed by “problem” or “addictive” gamblers, who commit crimes to fund gambling or pay gambling debts. Previous research on problem/addictive gambling has focused on its etiology or prevalence rates and has not attended to the media portrayals of this behavior and its association with crime. Using frame analysis concepts, the data demonstrate that the newspaper stories typically frame the events as “crimes” and not the result of illness or addiction. The “evidence” of motive that could have indicated psychological problems or additions were rather framed as “criminal motive.” This framing practice advances an identity of a “problem/addictive gambler” as a deviant criminal perpetrator and not a victim of addiction. The paper concludes with a discussion of how these findings can be used to advance research on social portrayals of problem/addictive gamblers. Specifically, we consider how these media frames impede an understanding of problem/addictive gambling as a public health problem.

Keywords: problem gambling, addictive gambling, identity resonace, frame analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
67 Domestic Violence, Well-Being and Women's Inclusion: Evidence from Northern Ireland

Authors: Jessica Leigh Doyle

Abstract:

In recent years there has been increasing academic and policy interest in domestic violence (DV) and in the implications of DV for the physical and psychological well-being of those who experience it. Yet, despite this interest, very few detailed empirical explorations of these issues have been conducted to date. Of the detailed empirical work that does exist, most studies have focused narrowly on physical violence and the impact of physical violence on rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use. This has often been to the exclusion of wider experiences of DV in relation to psychological, sexual and financial abuse, and of broader victim self-perceptions of psychological well-being that include self-esteem, social participation and quality of life as core components. This paper contributes towards filling this gap by examining these issues on the basis of comprehensive empirical evidence from the Northern Ireland context. Using qualitative methods, the paper presents the findings from 63 semi-structured interviews with women victims of DV from across Northern Ireland. The findings discuss the varied types of violence (physical, psychological, sexual, and financial) that women experience, how these experiences shape their broad physical and psychological well-being and capacity to live active and fulfilling lives and the processes of recovery from IPV. The implications of these findings for research and policy are then discussed.

Keywords: domestic violence, gender equality, intimate partner violence, violence against women, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 185
66 Optimal Health and Older Adults: The Existential Health Dimension as a Health-Promoting Potential

Authors: Jessica Hemberg, Anna K. Forsman, Johanna Nordmyr

Abstract:

With a considerable increase in the aging population in the Nordic countries there is a call for a deeper understanding of healthy aging and its underlying mechanisms. The aim of this study is to uncover health and well-being for older adults according to their own views and understand what role the existential dimension play? The study uses a hermeneutical approach. Material was collected through focus group interviews with 18 older adults. The texts were interpreted through hermeneutical reading. The underlying mechanisms of health among older adults are described, illustrating the key prerequisites for health as being in the present. This implies ‘living on the continuums of life and death’ and in this field of forces also ‘living on the continuum of the past and the future’. Important aspects for being in the present was balancing ambivalent emotions, considering existential issues, and being in connectedness. Health for older adults may be understood in the light of the metaphor of taking it one day at a time. Being in the present was emphasized as a health potential for older adults highlighting the existential health dimension. From a societal point of view, this implies that health promotion should focus on highlighting the importance of the existential dimension of health since it holds health-promoting potentials for older adults. Optimal health for older adults requires awareness of one’s attitude to life through being in the present as a basis for a positive and healthy outlook on life.

Keywords: focus group interviews, hermeneutics, life experiences, older adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
65 Characterization of Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli Recovered from a Beef Processing Facility within Southern Ontario and Comparative Performance of Molecular Diagnostic Platforms

Authors: Jessica C. Bannon, Cleso M. Jordao Jr., Mohammad Melebari, Carlos Leon-Velarde, Roger Johnson, Keith Warriner

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There has been an increased incidence of non-O157 Shiga Toxin Escherichia coli (STEC) with six serotypes (Top 6) being implicated in causing haemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Beef has been suggested to be a significant vehicle for non-O157 STEC although conclusive evidence has yet to be obtained. The following aimed to determine the prevalence of the Top 6 non-O157 STEC in beef processing using three different diagnostic platforms then characterize the recovered isolates. Hide, carcass and environmental swab samples (n = 60) were collected from a beef processing facility over a 12 month period. Enriched samples were screened using Biocontrol GDS, BAX or PALLgene molecular diagnostic tests. Presumptive non-O157 STEC positive samples were confirmed using conventional PCR and serology. STEC was detected by GDS (55% positive), BAX (85% positive), and PALLgene (93%). However, during confirmation testing only 8 of the 60 samples (13%) were found to harbour STEC. Interestingly, the presence of virulence factors in the recovered isolates was unstable and readily lost during subsequent sub-culturing. There is a low prevalence of Top 6 non-O157 STEC associated with beef although other serotypes are encountered. Yet, the instability of the virulence factors in recovered strains would question their clinical relevance.

Keywords: beef, food microbiology, shiga toxin, STEC

Procedia PDF Downloads 357
64 Enhancing Student Learning Experience Online through Collaboration with Pre-Service Teachers

Authors: Jessica Chakowa

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Learning a foreign language requires practice that needs to be undertaken beyond the classroom. Nowadays, learners can find a lot of resources online, but it can be challenging for them to find suitable material, receive timely and effective feedback on their progress, and, more importantly practice the target language with native speakers. This paper focuses on the development of interactive activities combined with online tutoring sessions to consolidate and enhance the learning experience of beginner students of French at * University. This project is based on collaboration with four pre-service teachers from a French university. It calls for authentic language learning material, real-life situations, cultural awareness, and aims for the sustainability of learning and teaching. The paper will first present the design of the project as part of a holistic approach. It will then provide some examples of activities before commenting on the learners and the teachers’ experiences based on quantitative and qualitative data obtained through activity reports, surveys and focus groups. The main findings of the study lie in the tension between the willingness to achieve pedagogical goals and to be involved in authentic interactions, highlighting the complementary between the role of the learner and the role of teacher. The paper will conclude on benefits, challenges and recommendations when implementing such educational projects.

Keywords: authenticity, language teaching and learning, online interaction, sustainability

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63 Traumatic Brachiocephalic Artery Pseudoaneurysm

Authors: Sally Shepherd, Jessica Wong, David Read

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Traumatic brachiocephalic artery aneurysm is a rare injury that typically occurs as a result of a blunt chest injury. A 19-year-old female sustained a head-on, high speed motor vehicle crash into a tree. Upon release after 45 minutes of entrapment, she was tachycardic but normotensive, with a significant seatbelt sign across her chest and open deformed right thigh with weak pulses in bilateral lower limbs. A chest XR showed mild upper mediastinal widening. A CT trauma series plus gated CT chest revealed a grade 3a aortic arch transection with brachiocephalic pseudoaneurysm. Endovascular repair of the brachiocephalic artery was attempted post-presentation but was unsuccessful as the first stent migrated to the infrarenal abdominal aorta and the second stent across the brachiocephalic artery origin had a persistent leak at the base. She was transferred to Intensive Care for strict blood pressure control. She returned to theatre 5 hours later for a median sternotomy, aortic arch repair with an 8mm graft extraction, and excision of the innominate artery pseudoaneurysm. She had an uncomplicated post-operative recovery. This case highlights that brachiocephalic artery injury is a rare but potentially lethal injury as a result of blunt chest trauma. Safe management requires a combined Vascular and Cardiothoracic team approach, as stenting alone may be insufficient.

Keywords: blunt chest injury, Brachiocephalic aneurysm, innominate artery, trauma

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62 Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Cases of Fluid Flow Using Modified Dynamic Boundary Condition (mDBC) in Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics Models

Authors: Exa Heydemans, Jessica Sjah, Dwinanti Rika Marthanty

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This paper presents numerical simulations using an open boundary algorithm with modified dynamic boundary condition (mDBC) for weakly compressible smoothed particle hydrodynamics models from particle-based code Dualsphysics. The problems of piping erosion in dams and dikes are aimed for studying the algorithm. The case 2D model of unsteady fluid flow past around a fixed cylinder is simulated, where various values of Reynold’s numbers (Re40, Re60, Re80, and Re100) and different model’s resolution are considered. A constant velocity with different values of viscosity for generating various Reynold’s numbers and different numbers of particles over a cylinder for the resolution are modeled. The interaction between solid particles of the cylinder and fluid particles is concerned. The cylinder is affected by the hydrodynamics force caused by the flow of fluid particles. The solid particles of the cylinder are the observation points to obtain force and pressure due to the hydrodynamics forces. As results of the simulation, which is to show the capability to model 2D unsteady with various Reynold’s numbers, the pressure coefficient, drag coefficient, lift coefficient, and Strouhal number are compared to the previous work from literature.

Keywords: hydrodynamics, internal erosion, dualsphysics, viscous fluid flow

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61 Economic Valuation of Environmental Services Sustained by Flamboyant Park in Goiania-Go, Brazil

Authors: Brenda R. Berca, Jessica S. Vieira, Lucas G. Candido, Matheus C. Ferreira, Paulo S. A. Lopes Filho, Rafaella O. Baracho

Abstract:

This study aims to estimate the economic value environmental services sustained by Flamboyant Lourival Louza Municipal Park in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil. The Flamboyant Park is one of the most relevant urban parks, and it is located near a stadium, a shopping center, and two supercenters. In order to define the methods used for the valuation of Flamboyant Park, the first step was carrying out bibliographical research with the view to better understand which method is most feasible to valuate the Park. Thus, the following direct methods were selected: travel cost, hedonic pricing, and contingent valuation. In addition, an indirect method (replacement cost) was applied at Flamboyant Park. The second step was creating and applying two surveys. The first survey aimed at the visitors of the park, addressing socio-economic issues, the use of the Park, as well as its importance and the willingness the visitors, had to pay for its existence. The second survey was destined to the existing trade in the Park, in order to collect data regarding the profits obtained by them. In the end, the characterization of the profile of the visitors and the application of the methods of contingent valuation, travel cost, replacement cost and hedonic pricing were obtained, thus monetarily valuing the various ecosystem services sustained by the park. Some services were not valued due to difficulties encountered during the process.

Keywords: contingent valuation, ecosystem services, economic environmental valuation, hedonic pricing, travel cost

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60 Short and Long Term Effects of an Attachment-Based Intervention on Child Behaviors

Authors: Claire Baudry, Jessica Pearson, Laura-Emilie Savage, George Tarbulsy

Abstract:

Over the last fifty years, maternal sensitivity and child development among vulnerable families have been a priority for researchers. For this reason, attachment-based interventions have been implemented and been shown to be effective in enhancing child development. Most of the time, child outcomes are measured shortly after the intervention. Objectives: The goal of the study was to investigate the effects of an attachment-based intervention on child development shortly after the intervention ended and one-year post-intervention. Methods: Over the seventy-two mother-child dyads referred by Child Protective Services in the province of Québec, Canada, forty-two were included in this study: 24 dyads who received 6 to 8 intervention sessions and 18 dyads who did not. Intervention and none intervention dyads were matched for the following variables: duration of child protective services, the reason for involvement with child protection, age, sex, and family status. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors were measured 3 and 12 months after the end of the intervention when the average age of children were respectively 45 and 54 months old. Findings: Independent-sample t-tests were conducted to compare scores between the two groups and the two data collection times. In general, on differences observed between the two groups three months after the intervention ended, just a few of them were still present nine months later. Conclusions: This first set of analyses suggests that the effects of attachment-based intervention observed three months following the intervention are not lasting for most of them. Those results inform us of the importance of considering the possibility to offer more attachment-based intervention sessions for those highly vulnerable families.

Keywords: attachment-based intervention, child behaviors, child protective services, highly vulnerable families

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59 Miracle Fruit Application in Sour Beverages: Effect of Different Concentrations on the Temporal Sensory Profile and Overall Linking

Authors: Jéssica F. Rodrigues, Amanda C. Andrade, Sabrina C. Bastos, Sandra B. Coelho, Ana Carla M. Pinheiro

Abstract:

Currently, there is a great demand for the use of natural sweeteners due to the harmful effects of the high sugar and artificial sweeteners consumption on the health. Miracle fruit, which is known for its unique ability to modify the sour taste in sweet taste, has been shown to be a good alternative sweetener. However, it has a high production cost, being important to optimize lower contents to be used. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of different miracle fruit contents on the temporal (Time-intensity - TI and Temporal Dominance of Sensations - TDS) sensory profile and overall linking of lemonade, to determine the better content to be used as a natural sweetener in sour beverages. TI and TDS results showed that the concentrations of 150 mg, 300 mg and 600 mg miracle fruit were effective in reducing the acidity and promoting the sweet perception in lemonade. Furthermore, the concentrations of 300 mg and 600 mg obtained similar profiles. Through the acceptance test, the concentration of 300 mg miracle fruit was shown to be an efficient substitute for sucrose and sucralose in lemonade, once they had similar hedonic values between ‘I liked it slightly’ and ‘I liked it moderately’. Therefore, 300mg miracle fruit consists in an adequate content to be used as a natural sweetener of lemonade. The results of this work will help the food industry on the efficient application of a new natural sweetener- the Miracle fruit extract in sour beverages, reducing costs and providing a product that meets the consumer desires.

Keywords: acceptance, natural sweetener, temporal dominance of sensations, time-intensity

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58 Pale, Firm and Non-Exudative (PFN): An Emerging Major Broiler Breast Meat Group

Authors: Cintia Midori Kaminishikawahara, Fernanda Jéssica Mendonça, Moisés Grespan, Elza Iouko Ida, Massami Shimokomaki, Adriana Lourenço Soares

Abstract:

The quality of broiler breast meat is changing as a result of continuing emphasis on genetically bird’s selection for efficiently higher meat production. The consumer is experiencing a cooked product that is drier and less juicy when consumed. Breast meat has been classified as PSE (pale, soft, exudative), DFD (dark, firm, dry) and normal color meat. However, recently variations of this color have been observed and they are not in line with the specificity of the meat functional properties. Thus, the objective of this work was to report the finding of a new pale meat color group characterized as Pale, Firm and Non-exudative (PFN) based on its pH, color, meat functional properties and micro structural evaluation. Breast meat fillets samples (n=1045) from commercial line were classified into PSE (pH ≤5.8, L* ≥ 53.0), PFN (pH > 5.8 and L* ≥ 53.0) and Normal (pH >5.8 and L* < 53.0), based on pH and L* values. In sequence, a total of 30 samples of each group were analyzed for the water holding capacity (WHC) and shear force (SF). The incidence was 9.1% for PSE meat, 85.7% for PFN and 5.2% for Normal meat. The PSE meat presented lower values of WHC (P ≤ 0.05) followed in sequence by PFN and Normal samples and also the SF values of fresh PFN was higher than PSE meat (P ≤ 0.05) and similar to Normal samples. Under optical microscopy, the cell diameter was 10% higher for PFN in relation to PSE meat and similar to Normal meat. These preliminary results indicate an emerging group of breast meat and it should be considered that the Pale, Firm and Non-exudative should be considered as an ideal broiler breast meat quality.

Keywords: broiler PSE meat, light microscopy, texture, water holding capacity

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57 Carbon Aerogel Spheres from Resorcinol/Phenol and Formaldehyde for CO₂ Adsorption

Authors: Jessica Carolina Hernandez Galeano, Juan Carlos Moreno Pirajan, Liliana Giraldo

Abstract:

Carbon gels are materials whose structure and porous texture can be designed and controlled on a nanoscale. Among their characteristics it is found their low density, large surface area and high degree of porosity. These materials are produced by a sol-gel polymerization of organic monomers using basic or acid catalysts, followed by drying and controlled carbonization. In this work, the synthesis and characterization of carbon aerogels from resorcinol, phenol and formaldehyde in ethanol is described. The aim of this study is obtaining different carbonaceous materials in the form of spheres using the Stöber method to perform a further evaluation of CO₂ adsorption of each material. In general, the synthesis consisted of a sol-gel polymerization process that generates a cluster (cross-linked organic monomers) from the precursors in the presence of NH₃ as a catalyst. This cluster was subjected to specific conditions of gelling and curing (30°C for 24 hours and 100°C for 24 hours, respectively) and CO₂ supercritical drying. Finally, the dry material was subjected to a process of carbonization or pyrolysis, in N₂ atmosphere at 350°C (1° C / min) for 2 h and 600°C (1°C / min) for 4 hours, to obtain porous solids that retain the structure initially desired. For this work, both the concentrations of the precursors and the proportion of ammonia in the medium where modify to describe the effect of the use of phenol and the amount of catalyst in the resulting material. Carbon aerogels were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), N₂ isotherms, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) showing the obtention of carbon spheres in the nanometric scale with BET areas around 500 m2g-1.

Keywords: carbon aerogels, carbon spheres, CO₂ adsorption, Stöber method

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