Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 122

Search results for: Jeremy Ryan

122 Revisiting Ryan v Lennon to Make the Case against Judicial Supremacy

Authors: Tom Hickey

Abstract:

It is difficult to conceive of a case that might more starkly bring the arguments concerning judicial review to the fore than State (Ryan) v Lennon. Small wonder that it has attracted so much scholarly attention, although the fact that almost all of it has been in an Irish setting is perhaps surprising, given the illustrative value of the case in respect of a philosophical quandary that continues to command attention in all developed constitutional democracies. Should judges have power to invalidate legislation? This article revisits Ryan v Lennon with an eye on the importance of the idea of “democracy” in the case. It assesses the meaning of democracy: what its purpose might be and what practical implications might follow, specifically in respect of judicial review. Based on this assessment, it argues for a particular institutional model for the vindication of constitutional rights. In the context of calls for the drafting of a new constitution for Ireland, however forlorn these calls might be for the moment, it makes a broad and general case for the abandonment of judicial supremacy and for the taking up of a model in which judges have a constrained rights reviewing role that informs a more robust role that legislators would play, thereby enhancing the quality of the control that citizens have over their own laws. The article is in three parts. Part I assesses the exercise of judicial power over legislation in Ireland, with the primary emphasis on Ryan v Lennon. It considers the role played by the idea of democracy in that case and relates it to certain apparently intractable dilemmas that emerged in later Irish constitutional jurisprudence. Part II considers the concept of democracy more generally, with an eye on overall implications for judicial power. It argues for an account of democracy based on the idea of equally shared popular control over government. Part III assesses how this understanding might inform a new constitutional arrangement in the Irish setting for the vindication of fundamental rights.

Keywords: constitutional rights, democracy as popular control, Ireland, judicial power, republican theory, Ryan v Lennon

Procedia PDF Downloads 373
121 Bio-Mimetic Foot Design for Legged Locomotion over Unstructured Terrain

Authors: Hannah Kolano, Paul Nadan, Jeremy Ryan, Sophia Nielsen

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The hooves of goats and other ruminants, or the family Ruminantia, are uniquely structured to adapt to rough terrain. Their hooves possess a hard outer shell and a soft interior that allow them to both conform to uneven surfaces and hook onto prominent features. In an effort to apply this unique mechanism to a robotics context, artificial feet for a hexapedal robot have been designed based on the hooves of ruminants to improve the robot’s ability to traverse unstructured environments such as those found on a rocky planet or asteroid, as well as in earth-based environments such as rubble, caves, and mountainous regions. The feet were manufactured using a combination of 3D printing and polyurethane casting techniques and attached to a commercially available hexapedal robot. The robot was programmed with a terrain-adaptive gait and proved capable of traversing a variety of uneven surfaces and inclines. This development of more adaptable robotic feet allows legged robots to operate in a wider range of environments and expands their possible applications.

Keywords: biomimicry, legged locomotion, robotic foot design, ruminant feet, unstructured terrain navigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
120 Theoretical Appraisal of Satisfactory Decision: Uncertainty, Evolutionary Ideas and Beliefs, Satisfactory Time Use

Authors: Okay Gunes

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Unsatisfactory experiences due to an information shortage regarding the future pay-offs of actual choices, yield satisficing decision-making. This research will examine, for the first time in the literature, the motivation behind suboptimal decisions due to uncertainty by subjecting Adam Smith’s and Jeremy Bentham’s assumptions about the nature of the actions that lead to satisficing behavior, in order to clarify the theoretical background of a “consumption-based satisfactory time” concept. The contribution of this paper with respect to the existing literature is threefold: Firstly, it is showed in this paper that Adam Smith’s uncertainty is related to the problem of the constancy of ideas and not related directly to beliefs. Secondly, possessions, as in Jeremy Bentham’s oeuvre, are assumed to be just as pleasing, as protecting and improving the actual or expected quality of life, so long as they reduce any displeasure due to the undesired outcomes of uncertainty. Finally, each consumption decision incurs its own satisfactory time period, owed to not feeling hungry, being healthy, not having transportation…etc. This reveals that the level of satisfaction is indeed a behavioral phenomenon where its value would depend on the simultaneous satisfaction derived from all activities.

Keywords: decision-making, idea and belief, satisficing, uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
119 The Effect of Torsional Angle on Reversible Electron Transfer in Donor: Acceptor Frameworks Using Bis(Imino)Pyridines as Proxy

Authors: Ryan Brisbin, Hassan Harb, Justin Debow, Hrant Hratchian, Ryan Baxter

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Donor-Acceptor (DA) frameworks are crucial parts of any technology requiring charge transport. This type of behavior is ubiquitous across technologies from semi conductors to solar panels. Currently, most DA systems involve metallic components, but progressive research is being pursued to design fully organic DA systems to be used as both organic semi-conductors and light emitting diodes. These systems are currently comprised of conductive polymers and salts. However, little is known about the effect of various physical aspects (size, torsional angle, electron density) have on the act of reversible charge transfer. Herein, the effect of torsional angle on reductive stability in bis(imino)pyridines is analyzed using a combination of single crystal analysis and electro-chemical peak current ratios from cyclic voltammetry. The computed free energies of reduction and electron attachment points were also investigated through density functional theory and natural ionization orbital theory to gain greater understanding of the global effect torsional angles have on electron transfer in bis(imino)pyridines. Findings indicated that torsional angles are a multi-variable parameter affected by both local steric constraints and resonant electronic contributions. Local steric impacted torsional angles demonstrated a negligible effect on electrochemical reversibility, while resonant affected torsional angles were observed to significantly alter the electrochemical reversibility.

Keywords: cyclic voltammetry, bis(imino)pyridines, structure-activity relationship, torsional angles

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
118 Hybrid Knowledge Approach for Determining Health Care Provider Specialty from Patient Diagnoses

Authors: Erin Lynne Plettenberg, Jeremy Vickery

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In an access-control situation, the role of a user determines whether a data request is appropriate. This paper combines vetted web mining and logic modeling to build a lightweight system for determining the role of a health care provider based only on their prior authorized requests. The model identifies provider roles with 100% recall from very little data. This shows the value of vetted web mining in AI systems, and suggests the impact of the ICD classification on medical practice.

Keywords: electronic medical records, information extraction, logic modeling, ontology, vetted web mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 93
117 Exploring the Feasibility of Introducing Particular Polyphenols into Cow Milk Naturally through Animal Feeding

Authors: Steve H. Y. Lee, Jeremy P. E. Spencer

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The aim of the present study was to explore the feasibility of enriching polyphenols in cow milk via addition of flavanone-rich citrus pulp to existing animal feed. 8 Holstein lactating cows were enrolled onto the 4 week feeding study. 4 cows were fed the standard farm diet (control group), with another 4 (treatment group) which are fed a standard farm diet mixed with citrus pulp diet. Milk was collected twice a day, 3 times a week. The resulting milk yield and its macronutrient composition as well as lactose content were measured. The milk phenolic compounds were analysed using electrochemical detection (ECD).

Keywords: milk, polyphenol, animal feeding, lactating cows

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
116 On the Move: Factors Impacting the Migratory Decision-Making Capabilities of Gambians Relocating to Europe

Authors: Jeremy Goldsmith

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The Gambia, the smallest country in mainland Africa and one of the poorest countries on Earth, is currently experiencing historically unprecedented levels of out-migration to Europe. As a result, Gambians are currently among the top four nationalities emigrating to Europe. The central question that this thesis will address is: what factors impact the migration-related decision-making capabilities of Gambians? Based on interviews with NGOs, as well as those who have migrated and returned, are planning to migrate, and their friends and families, a pattern will emerge. This pattern will be woven into first person narratives which will explore the politico-economic, environmental, and socio-cultural factors that inform individual decision-making with regards to migration.

Keywords: migration, The Gambia, Africa, politico-economic, sociocultural, environmental

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
115 Differentiation: A Risky Route To An Inclusive Reality

Authors: Marie C. Ryan

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The current paper seeks to reconsider differentiation in order to establish whether differentiation has succeeded in its benevolent aim to support individual needs through teaching adaptations or whether paradoxically our attention to differentiation has served to exclude and marginalise. This paper does not deny variation in learner needs and accepts that inclusion requires teachers to adapt and modify curricular content; rather it seeks to examine whether differentiation as it is conceptualised and implemented is fit for purpose when it comes to adapting teaching in view of learner differences. The paper will also explore an alternative approach to supporting learner differences through teaching modifications which may offer a safer path to an inclusive educational reality.

Keywords: inclusion, differentiation, special education, universal design for learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 398
114 Status and Results from EXO-200

Authors: Ryan Maclellan

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EXO-200 has provided one of the most sensitive searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay utilizing 175 kg of enriched liquid xenon in an ultra-low background time projection chamber. This detector has demonstrated excellent energy resolution and background rejection capabilities. Using the first two years of data, EXO-200 has set a limit of 1.1x10^25 years at 90% C.L. on the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life of Xe-136. The experiment has experienced a brief hiatus in data taking during a temporary shutdown of its host facility: the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. EXO-200 expects to resume data taking in earnest this fall with upgraded detector electronics. Results from the analysis of EXO-200 data and an update on the current status of EXO-200 will be presented.

Keywords: double-beta, Majorana, neutrino, neutrinoless

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
113 How Tattoos and Brands Impact the Recovery of Sex Trafficking Victim: An Exploratory Study of Sex Trafficking Survivors.

Authors: Jeremy Berry, Shannon Rodrigue, Caroline Norris

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This study explores the impact of tattoos and/or brands on the recovery of sex trafficking survivors. Many victims of sex trafficking are forced or coerced to take markings of ownership while in the sex trafficking trade in the form of painful tattoos or brands. As a result, victims who are rescued and in recovery often must live with permanent reminders of their traumatic experiences or are left to resort to expensive cosmetic or cover-up jobs, which for many are out of reach. As is often true of domestic violence victims who are left with scars from their abusers, the impact of these permanent markers can delay the healing process and contribute to post-traumatic stress. This study tells the story from the perspectives of the survivors of sex trafficking, how these specific permanent reminders impacted their healing. The study employs a thematic analysis of interviews with sex trafficking victims via focus group interviews.

Keywords: sex trafficking, tattoos, trauma, healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
112 Open Educational Resources (OER): Deciding upon Openness

Authors: Eunice H. Li

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This e-poster explores some of the issues that are linked to Open Educational Resources (OER). It describes how OER is explained by experts in the field and relates its value in attaining and using knowledge. ‘Open', 'open pedagogy', self-direction, freedom, and autonomy are the main issues identified for the discussion. All of these issues make essential contributions to OER in one way or another. Nevertheless, there are seemingly areas of contentions with regard to applying these concepts in teaching and learning practices. For this e-Poster, it is the teaching-learning aspects of OER that it is primarily concerned with. The basis for the discussion comes from a 2013 critique of OER presented by Jeremy Knox of the University of Edinburgh, tutor of the MSc in Digital Education Programme. This discussion is also supported by the analysis of other research work and papers in this area. The general view on OER is that it is a useful tool for the advancement of learner-centred models of education, but in whatever context, pedagogy cannot be diminished and overlooked. It should take into consideration how to deal with the issues identified above in order to allow learners to gain full benefit from OER.

Keywords: open, pedagogy, e-learning technologies, autonomy, knowledge

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
111 Utilization of Bauxite Residue in Construction Materials: An Experimental Study

Authors: Ryan Masoodi, Hossein Rostami

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Aluminum has been credited for the massive advancement of many industrial products, from aerospace and automotive to electronics and even household appliances. These developments have come with a cost, which is a toxic by-product. The rise of aluminum production has been accompanied by the rise of a waste material called Bauxite Residue or Red Mud. This toxic material has been proved to be harmful to the environment, yet, there is no proper way to dispose or recycle it. Herewith, a new experimental method to utilize this waste in the building material is proposed. A method to mix red mud, fly ash, and some other ingredients is explored to create a new construction material that can satisfy the minimum required strength for bricks. It concludes that it is possible to produce bricks with enough strength that is suitable for constriction in environments with low to moderate weather conditions.

Keywords: bauxite residue, brick, red mud, recycling

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110 The Next Generation Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Experiment nEXO

Authors: Ryan Maclellan

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The nEXO Collaboration is designing a very large detector for neutrinoless double beta decay of Xe-136. The nEXO detector is rooted in the current EXO-200 program, which has reached a sensitivity for the half-life of the decay of 1.9x10^25 years with an exposure of 99.8 kg-y. The baseline nEXO design assumes 5 tonnes of liquid xenon, enriched in the mass 136 isotope, within a time projection chamber. The detector is being designed to reach a half-life sensitivity of > 5x10^27 years covering the inverted neutrino mass hierarchy, with 5 years of data. We present the nEXO detector design, the current status of R&D efforts, and the physics case for the experiment.

Keywords: double-beta, Majorana, neutrino, neutrinoless

Procedia PDF Downloads 341
109 Container Chaos: The Impact of a Casual Game on Learning and Behavior

Authors: Lori L. Scarlatos, Ryan Courtney

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This paper explores the impact that playing a casual game can have on a player's learning and subsequent behavior. A casual mobile game, Container Chaos, was created to teach undergraduate students about the carbon footprint of various disposable beverage containers. Learning was tested with a short quiz, and behavior was tested by observing which beverage containers players choose when offered a drink and a snack. The game was tested multiple times, under a variety of different circumstances. Findings of these tests indicate that, with extended play over time, players can learn new information and sometimes even change their behavior as a result. This has implications for how other casual games can be used to teach concepts and possibly modify behavior.

Keywords: behavior, carbon footprint, casual games, environmental impact, material sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
108 Taiwan’s Democratic Institutions: The Electoral Rise and Recall of Kuomintang’s Han Kuo-YU Mayor

Authors: Ryan Brading

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The results of Taiwan’s presidential election, which took place on 11 January 2020, were alarming for the Kuomintang (KMT). A party that was once the pillar of Taiwan’s institutional apparatus is now losing its direction. Since 2016, the inability of KMT to construct a winning presidential election campaign strategy has made its Chinese ancestry an obstacle in Taiwan’s vibrant and transparent democracy. The appearance of the little-known legislator Han Kuo-yu as the leadership alternative opened the possibility of reigniting the party. Han’s victory in the Kaohsiung mayoral election in November 2018 provided hope that Han could also win the presidency. Wrongly described as a populist, Han, however, was defeated in the January 2020 presidential race. This article analyses why Han is not a populist, his triumph in Kaohsiung, humiliation in running for the presidency and suffering a complete ‘loss of face’ when Kaohsiungers democratically ousted him from the mayoral post on 6 June 2020.

Keywords: populism, 1992 consensus, youth vote, Taiwan, recall

Procedia PDF Downloads 72
107 Activation of TNF-α from Human Endothelial Cells by Exposure of the Mitochondrial Stress Protein (Hsp60) Secreted from THP-1 Monocytes to High Glucose

Authors: Ryan D. Martinus

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Inflammation of the endothelium is an important process leading to diabetic atherosclerosis. However, the molecular mechanisms by which diabetes contributes to endothelial inflammation remain to be established. Using In-vitro cultured Human cells and Hsp60 specific ELISA assays, we show that Hsp60 is not only induced in Human monocyte cells under hyperglycaemic conditions but that the Hsp60 is also secreted from these cells. Furthermore, we also demonstrate that the Hsp60 secreted from these monocyte cells is also able to activate Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) from Human endothelial cells. This suggests that a potential link may exist between the hyperglycaemia-induced expression of Hsp60 in monocyte cells and vascular inflammation. Circulating levels of Hsp60 due to mitochondrial stress in diabetes patients could, therefore, be an important modulator of inflammation in endothelial cells and thus contribute to the increased incidences of atherosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: mitochondria, Hsp60, inflammation, diabetes mellitus

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106 Safety System Design and Overfill Protection for Loading Asphalt onto Trucks

Authors: Wendy Ampadu, Ray Diezmos, Hassan Malik, Jeremy Hyslob

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There are several technologies out there for use as high-level switches as part of a system for shutting down flow to a vessel. Given that the asphalt truck loading poses issues such as poor visibility, coating, condensation, and fumes, a solution that is robust enough to last in these conditions is often needed in industries. Furthermore, the design of the loading arm, rack, and process equipment should allow for the safety of workers. The objective of this report includes the redesign of structures for use at loading facilities and selecting an overflow technology protection from hot bitumen. The report is based on loading facilities at a Canadian bitumen production company. The engineering design approach was used to create multiple redesign concepts for the loading dock system. Research on overfill systems was also completed by surveying the existing market for technologies and securing quotes from over 20 Canadian and United States instrumentation companies. A final loading dock redesign and level transmitter for overfill protection solution were chosen.

Keywords: bitumen, reliability engineering, safety system, process safety management, asphalt, loading docks, tanker trucks

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
105 On Boundary Values of Hardy Space Banach Space-Valued Functions

Authors: Irina Peterburgsky

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Let T be a unit circumference of a complex plane, E be a Banach space, E* and E** be its conjugate and second conjugate, respectively. In general, a Hardy space Hp(E), p ≥1, where functions act from the open unit disk to E, could contain a function for which even weak nontangential (angular) boundary value in the space E** does not exist at any point of the unit circumference T (C. Grossetete.) The situation is "better" when certain restrictions to the Banach space of values are applied (more or less resembling a classical case of scalar-valued functions depending on constrains, as shown by R. Ryan.) This paper shows that, nevertheless, in the case of a Banach space of a general type, the following positive statement is true: Proposition. For any function f(z) from Hp(E), p ≥ 1, there exists a function F(eiθ) on the unit circumference T to E** whose Poisson (in the Pettis sense) is integral regains the function f(z) on the open unit disk. Some characteristics of the function F(eiθ) are demonstrated.

Keywords: hardy spaces, Banach space-valued function, boundary values, Pettis integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
104 Prophet and Philosopher Mohammed: A Precursor of Feminism

Authors: Mohammad Mozammel Haque

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That feminism is nothing but the name of a belief that women should have the same rights as men needs no telling. The history of modern western feminism is divided into three waves and each is described as dealing with different aspects of the same feminist issues. The first wave refers to the movement of the 19th through early 20th centuries, which dealt mainly with suffrage, working conditions and educational rights for women. The second wave (1960s-1980s) dealt with the inequality of laws and the role of women in society. The third wave (late 1980s-early 2000s) is seen as both a continuation of the second wave and a response to the perceived failures. Mary Wollstonecraft struggled for the emancipation and freedom of the women of Europe, Begum Rokeya brought about revolution for the women of the East and West Bengal, Jeremy Bentham wrote for the independence of women in England. But if feminism refers to the movement of giving women what they deserve, then it won’t be an overstatement to state that Mohammad is the precursor of what we call feminism. This paper investigates the background of official starting of feminism, and also the backdrop of the women of Muhammad’s time. The article, besides showing that this great prophet and philosopher firstly brought about a movement for the education and rights of women and took them out of grave where they were buried alive, also delineates Mohammedan endeavours he attempted to give the women what they ought to have.

Keywords: education, equality, feminism, precursor

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
103 Digital Activism and the Individual: A Utilitarian Perspective

Authors: Tania Mitra

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Digital Activism or Cyber Activism uses digital media as a means to disseminate information and mobilize masses towards a specific goal. When digital activism was first born in the early 1990s, it was primarily used by groups of organized political activists. However, with the advent of social media, online activism has filtered down to the individual- one who does not necessarily belong to or identify with an agenda, group, or political party. A large part of digital activism today stems from the individual’s notion of what is right and wrong. This gives rise to a discourse around descriptive ethics and the implications of the independent digital activist. Although digital activism has paved the way for and bolstered support for causes like the MeToo Movement and Black Lives Matter, the lack of a unified, organized body has led to counterintuitive progressions and suspicions regarding the movements. The paper introduces the ideas of 'clout' culture, click baits, and clicktivism (the phenomenon where activism is reduced to a blind following of the online trends), to discuss the impacts of exclusive digital activism. By using Jeremy Bentham's utilitarian approach to ethics, that places emphasis on the best possible outcome for a society, the paper will show how individual online activism reaching for a larger, more common end can sometimes lead to an undermining of that end, not only in the online space but also how it manifests in the real world.

Keywords: digital activism, ethics, independent digital activist, utilitarianism

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
102 Health Promoting Properties of Phytochemicals from Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) for Cancer and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Authors: Jeremy J. Johnson

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Mediterranean herbs including rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) contain a variety of phytochemicals including diterpenes that possess extensive biological activity. Applications of diterpenes, including the more abundant forms carnosol and carnosic acid, have been shown to possess anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and anti-proliferation properties. To confirm these properties, we have evaluated rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for biological activity in cancer and inflammatory models. Our preliminary data have revealed that select diterpenes can disrupt androgen receptor functionality in prostate and breast cancer cells. This property is unique among natural products for hormone-responsive cancers. The second area of interest has been evaluating rosemary extract and selected diterpenes for activation of sestrin-2, an antioxidant protein, in colon cancer cells. A combination of in vitro and in vivo approaches have been utilized to characterize the activity of rosemary diterpenes in rosemary. Taken together, these results suggest that phytochemicals found in rosemary have distinct pharmacological actions for disrupting cell-signaling pathways in cancer and inflammatory bowel disease.

Keywords: rosemary, diterpene, cancer, inflammation

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
101 Deep Learning and Accurate Performance Measure Processes for Cyber Attack Detection among Web Logs

Authors: Noureddine Mohtaram, Jeremy Patrix, Jerome Verny

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As an enormous number of online services have been developed into web applications, security problems based on web applications are becoming more serious now. Most intrusion detection systems rely on each request to find the cyber-attack rather than on user behavior, and these systems can only protect web applications against known vulnerabilities rather than certain zero-day attacks. In order to detect new attacks, we analyze the HTTP protocols of web servers to divide them into two categories: normal attacks and malicious attacks. On the other hand, the quality of the results obtained by deep learning (DL) in various areas of big data has given an important motivation to apply it to cybersecurity. Deep learning for attack detection in cybersecurity has the potential to be a robust tool from small transformations to new attacks due to its capability to extract more high-level features. This research aims to take a new approach, deep learning to cybersecurity, to classify these two categories to eliminate attacks and protect web servers of the defense sector which encounters different web traffic compared to other sectors (such as e-commerce, web app, etc.). The result shows that by using a machine learning method, a higher accuracy rate, and a lower false alarm detection rate can be achieved.

Keywords: anomaly detection, HTTP protocol, logs, cyber attack, deep learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
100 Effective Width of Reinforced Concrete U-Shaped Walls Due to Shear Lag Effects

Authors: Ryan D. Hoult

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The inherent assumption in the elementary theory of bending that plane sections remain plane is commonly used in the design of reinforced concrete members. However, in reality, a shear flow would develop in non-rectangular sections, where the longitudinal strains in between the web and flanges of the element would lag behind those at the boundary ends. This phenomenon, known as shear lag, can significantly reduce the expected moment capacity of non-rectangular reinforced concrete walls. This study focuses on shear lag effects in reinforced concrete U-shaped walls, which are commonly used as lateral load resisting elements in reinforced concrete buildings. An extensive number of finite element modelling analyses are conducted to estimate the vertical strain distributions across the web and flanges of a U-shaped wall with different axial load ratios and longitudinal reinforcement detailing. The results show that shear lag effects are prominent and sometimes significant in U-shaped walls, particularly for the wall sections perpendicular to the direction of loading.

Keywords: shear lag, walls, U-shaped, moment-curvature

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
99 A Case Study of Meningoencephalitis following Le Fort I Osteotomy

Authors: Ryan Goh, Nicholas Beech

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Introduction: Le Fort I Osteotomies, although are common procedures in Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, carry a degree of risk of unfavourable propagation of the down-fracture of the maxilla. This may be the first reported case in the literature for meningoencephalitis to occur following a Le Fort I Osteotomy. Case: A 32-year-old female was brought into the Emergency Department four days after a Le Fort I Osteotomy, with a Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) of 8 (E3V1M4). A Computed Tomography (CT) Head showed a skull base fracture at the right sphenoid sinus. Lumbar puncture was completed, and Klebsiella oxytoca was found in the Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF). She was treated with Meropenem, and rapidly improved thereafter. CSF rhinorrhoea was identified when she was extubated, which was successfully managed via a continuous lumbar drain. She was discharged on day 14 without any neurological deficits. Conclusion: The most likely aspect of the Le Fort I Osteotomy to obtain a skull base fracture is during the pterygomaxillary disjunction. Care should always be taken to avoid significant risks of skull base fractures, CSF rhinorrhoea, meningitis and encephalitis.

Keywords: meningitis, orthognathic surgery, post-operative complication, skull base, rhinorrhea

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98 Religious Cognition and Intergroup Bias in the Trolley Dilemma: Experimental Fieldwork in Fiji

Authors: Crystal Shackleford, Michael Pasek, Julia Smith, Jeremy Ginges

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There is extensive debate about the causal role of religion in intergroup conflict. It is commonly accepted that religious beliefs promote in-group cohesion, but religion is often believed to exacerbate inter-group conflict. Fiji is religiously diverse and has a lengthy history of ethno-religious conflict. In a preregistered field experiment using a modified version of the trolley problem dilemma, Christian and Muslim Fijians were asked, first from their own perspective, and then from their God’s perspective, whether a religious ingroup member should sacrifice their life to save five children who were ingroup or outgroup members. Almost all Muslim participants believed that the person should always sacrifice themselves to save the children. Amongst Christian participants, thinking from God’s perspective increased their likelihood of saying the children should be saved by 35% and removed a 27% gap between responses to saving ingroup versus outgroup children. These results replicate previous findings from a Palestinian sample and demonstrate, in another cross-cultural context with a history of violent conflict, that religious cognition can decrease bias and promote the application of universal moral principles.

Keywords: conflict, moral dilemma, psychology, religion, thought experiments

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97 Framework for Socio-Technical Issues in Requirements Engineering for Developing Resilient Machine Vision Systems Using Levels of Automation through the Lifecycle

Authors: Ryan Messina, Mehedi Hasan

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This research is to examine the impacts of using data to generate performance requirements for automation in visual inspections using machine vision. These situations are intended for design and how projects can smooth the transfer of tacit knowledge to using an algorithm. We have proposed a framework when specifying machine vision systems. This framework utilizes varying levels of automation as contingency planning to reduce data processing complexity. Using data assists in extracting tacit knowledge from those who can perform the manual tasks to assist design the system; this means that real data from the system is always referenced and minimizes errors between participating parties. We propose using three indicators to know if the project has a high risk of failing to meet requirements related to accuracy and reliability. All systems tested achieved a better integration into operations after applying the framework.

Keywords: automation, contingency planning, continuous engineering, control theory, machine vision, system requirements, system thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
96 Political will in Fighting Corruption in Vietnam

Authors: Anh Dao Vu, Bill Ryan

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The Vietnamese government struggles to grapple with the problem of rampant corruption, one of the most challenging difficulties the country faces. According to Transparency International’s Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI) 2014, Vietnam ranks 119 out of 175 countries. The CPI gives Vietnam a score of 31 on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 indicates ‘highly corrupt’ and 100 represents ‘very clean’. Corruption eats into the national GDP of Vietnam, causing a loss of 3% to 4% of GDP per annum. In general, the Vietnamese people’s trust in their government to wage an effective fight against corruption, especially in the public sector, has been greatly eroded in recent years. Some substantial public demonstrations persuaded the government to implement strong anti-corruption measures. However, so far those measures have not been particularly successful. One of the main reasons for this shortcoming is that neither the Communist Party of Vietnam nor the government has demonstrated sufficiently strong ‘political will’ in fighting corruption. There remains a large gap between rhetoric and reality. This paper will examine the reasons why insufficient ‘political will’ is displayed in the ostensible fight against public sector corruption, and how certain anti-corruption strategies will both strengthen levels of political commitment to the fight against corruption while enhancing the effectiveness of that essential national endeavor.

Keywords: corruption, political will, Vietnam, anti-corruption

Procedia PDF Downloads 239
95 TomoTherapy® System Repositioning Accuracy According to Treatment Localization

Authors: Veronica Sorgato, Jeremy Belhassen, Philippe Chartier, Roddy Sihanath, Nicolas Docquiere, Jean-Yves Giraud

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We analyzed the image-guided radiotherapy method used by the TomoTherapy® System (Accuray Corp.) for patient repositioning in clinical routine. The TomoTherapy® System computes X, Y, Z and roll displacements to match the reference CT, on which the dosimetry has been performed, with the pre-treatment MV CT. The accuracy of the repositioning method has been studied according to the treatment localization. For this, a database of 18774 treatment sessions, performed during 2 consecutive years (2016-2017 period) has been used. The database includes the X, Y, Z and roll displacements proposed by TomoTherapy® System as well as the manual correction of these proposals applied by the radiation therapist. This manual correction aims to further improve the repositioning based on the clinical situation and depends on the structures surrounding the target tumor tissue. The statistical analysis performed on the database aims to define repositioning limits to be used as security and guiding tool for the manual adjustment implemented by the radiation therapist. This tool will participate not only to notify potential repositioning errors but also to further improve patient positioning for optimal treatment.

Keywords: accuracy, IGRT MVCT, image-guided radiotherapy megavoltage computed tomography, statistical analysis, tomotherapy, localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
94 Construction of a Desktop Arduino Controlled Propeller Test Stand

Authors: Brian Kozak, Ryan Ferguson, Evan Hockeridge

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Aerospace engineering and aeronautical engineering students studying propulsion often learn about propellers and their importance in aviation propulsion. In order to reinforce concepts introduced in the classroom, laboratory projects are used. However, to test a full scale propeller, an engine mounted on a test stand must be used. This engine needs to be enclosed in a test cell for appropriated safety requirements, is expensive to operate, and requires a significant amount of time to change propellers. In order to decrease costs and time requirements, the authors designed and built an electric motor powered desktop Arduino controlled test stand. This test stand is used to enhance student understanding of propeller size and pitch on thrust. The test stand can accommodate propellers up to 25 centimeters in diameter. The code computer allowed for the motor speed to be increased or decreased by 1% per second. Outputs that are measured are thrust, motor rpm, amperes, voltage, and motor temperature. These data are exported as a .CVS file and can be imported into a graphing program for data analysis.

Keywords: Arduino, Laboratory Project, Test stand, Propeller

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
93 Wine Tourism in Rural Russia: Perceptions of Vineyard Managers

Authors: Jeremy Schultz

Abstract:

The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of vineyard managers in the Krasnodar Region of Southern Russia located between the city of Kransnodar and the Black Sea. In recent years, wine tourism throughout the region has seen tremendous growth due in part to the concurrent growth in the number of tourists vacationing at the Black Sea. This trend has contributed to the development of large-scale wine operations developing in numerous rural locations along the tourists’ travel path. Niche areas of tourism, such as wine tourism, have proven to provide economic viability for rural communities all around the world. Understanding their shared group characteristics while honoring their unique qualities as individuals aids in responsible wine tourism development that provides a sense of well-being for the communities and stakeholders involved. Semi-structured interviews and lived experience methodologies were used in locations that were associated with wine food tourism operations. By understanding management perspectives, it lends insight into sustainable destination management and wine tourism product development, furthering our progress toward ethical, responsible, and financially feasible operations. This research also represents a collaborative effort between Russia and the United States that supports an agenda of sustainable destination development and management. As a global community, we need to continue to investigate stakeholder perceptions and strategic management techniques that best support the pillars upon which responsible tourism was founded.

Keywords: wine tourism, tourism development, Russia, rural tourism

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