Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

Search results for: Jale Tezcan

8 Ground Motion Modeling Using the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator

Authors: Yildiz Stella Dak, Jale Tezcan

Abstract:

Ground motion models that relate a strong motion parameter of interest to a set of predictive seismological variables describing the earthquake source, the propagation path of the seismic wave, and the local site conditions constitute a critical component of seismic hazard analyses. When a sufficient number of strong motion records are available, ground motion relations are developed using statistical analysis of the recorded ground motion data. In regions lacking a sufficient number of recordings, a synthetic database is developed using stochastic, theoretical or hybrid approaches. Regardless of the manner the database was developed, ground motion relations are developed using regression analysis. Development of a ground motion relation is a challenging process which inevitably requires the modeler to make subjective decisions regarding the inclusion criteria of the recordings, the functional form of the model and the set of seismological variables to be included in the model. Because these decisions are critically important to the validity and the applicability of the model, there is a continuous interest on procedures that will facilitate the development of ground motion models. This paper proposes the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO) in selecting the set predictive seismological variables to be used in developing a ground motion relation. The LASSO can be described as a penalized regression technique with a built-in capability of variable selection. Similar to the ridge regression, the LASSO is based on the idea of shrinking the regression coefficients to reduce the variance of the model. Unlike ridge regression, where the coefficients are shrunk but never set equal to zero, the LASSO sets some of the coefficients exactly to zero, effectively performing variable selection. Given a set of candidate input variables and the output variable of interest, LASSO allows ranking the input variables in terms of their relative importance, thereby facilitating the selection of the set of variables to be included in the model. Because the risk of overfitting increases as the ratio of the number of predictors to the number of recordings increases, selection of a compact set of variables is important in cases where a small number of recordings are available. In addition, identification of a small set of variables can improve the interpretability of the resulting model, especially when there is a large number of candidate predictors. A practical application of the proposed approach is presented, using more than 600 recordings from the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) database, where the effect of a set of seismological predictors on the 5% damped maximum direction spectral acceleration is investigated. The set of candidate predictors considered are Magnitude, Rrup, Vs30. Using LASSO, the relative importance of the candidate predictors has been ranked. Regression models with increasing levels of complexity were constructed using one, two, three, and four best predictors, and the models’ ability to explain the observed variance in the target variable have been compared. The bias-variance trade-off in the context of model selection is discussed.

Keywords: ground motion modeling, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator, penalized regression, variable selection

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7 Computational Fluid Dynamics and Experimental Evaluation of Two Batch Type Electrocoagulation Stirred Tank Reactors Used in the Removal of Cr (VI) from Waste Water

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un

Abstract:

In this study, hydrodynamics analysis of two batch type electrocoagulation stirred tank reactors, used for the electrocoagulation treatment of Cr(VI) wastewater, was carried using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of mixing characteristics on overall performance of electrocoagulation reactor. The CFD simulations were performed using ANSYS FLUENT 14.4 software. The mixing performance of each reactor was evaluated by numerically modelling tracer dispersion in each reactor configuration. The uniformity in tracer dispersion was assumed when 90% of the ratio of the maximum to minimum concentration of the tracer was realized. In parallel, experimental evaluation of both the electrocoagulation reactors for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater was also carried out. The results of CFD and experimental analysis clearly show that the reactor which can give higher uniformity in lesser time, will perform better as an electrocoagulation reactor for removal of Cr(VI) from wastewater.

Keywords: CFD, stirred tank reactors, electrocoagulation, Cr(VI) wastewater

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6 Effect of Aging on the Second Law Efficiency, Exergy Destruction and Entropy Generation in the Skeletal Muscles during Exercise

Authors: Jale Çatak, Bayram Yılmaz, Mustafa Ozilgen

Abstract:

The second law muscle work efficiency is obtained by multiplying the metabolic and mechanical work efficiencies. Thermodynamic analyses are carried out with 19 sets of arms and legs exercise data which were obtained from the healthy young people. These data are used to simulate the changes occurring during aging. The muscle work efficiency decreases with aging as a result of the reduction of the metabolic energy generation in the mitochondria. The reduction of the mitochondrial energy efficiency makes it difficult to carry out the maintenance of the muscle tissue, which in turn causes a decline of the muscle work efficiency. When the muscle attempts to produce more work, entropy generation and exergy destruction increase. Increasing exergy destruction may be regarded as the result of the deterioration of the muscles. When the exergetic efficiency is 0.42, exergy destruction becomes 1.49 folds of the work performance. This proportionality becomes 2.50 and 5.21 folds when the exergetic efficiency decreases to 0.30 and 0.17 respectively.

Keywords: aging mitochondria, entropy generation, exergy destruction, muscle work performance, second law efficiency

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5 Rheological Properties of Red Beet Root Juice Squeezed from Ultrasounicated Red Beet Root Slices

Authors: M. Çevik, S. Sabancı, D. Tezcan, C. Çelebi, F. İçier

Abstract:

Ultrasound technology is the one of the non-thermal food processing method in recent years which has been used widely in the food industry. Ultrasound application in the food industry is divided into two groups: low and high intensity ultrasound application. While low intensity ultrasound is used to obtain information about physicochemical properties of foods, high intensity ultrasound is used to extract bioactive components and to inactivate microorganisms and enzymes. In this study, the ultrasound pre-treatment at a constant power (1500 W) and fixed frequency (20 kHz) was applied to the red beetroot slices having the dimension of 25×25×50 mm at the constant temperature (25°C) for different application times (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min). The red beet root slices pretreated with ultrasonication was squeezed immediately. The changes on rheological properties of red beet root juice depending on ultrasonication duration applied to slices were investigated. Rheological measurements were conducted by using Brookfield viscometer (LVDV-II Pro, USA). Shear stress-shear rate data was obtained from experimental measurements for 0-200 rpm range by using spindle 18. Rheological properties of juice were determined by fitting this data to some rheological models (Newtonian, Bingham, Power Law, Herschel Bulkley). It was investigated that the best model was Power Law model for both untreated red beet root juice (R2=0.991, χ2=0.0007, RMSE=0.0247) and red beetroot juice produced from ultrasonicated slices (R2=0.993, χ2=0.0006, RMSE=0.0216 for 20 min pre-treatment). k (consistency coefficient) and n (flow behavior index) values of red beetroot juices were not affected from the duration of ultrasonication applied to the slices. Ultrasound treatment does not result in any changes on the rheological properties of red beetroot juice. This can be explained by lack of ability to homogenize of the intensity of applied ultrasound.

Keywords: ultrasonication, rheology, red beet root slice, juice

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4 Changes on Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Red Beetroot Juice during Ultrasound Pretreatment

Authors: Serdal Sabanci, Mutlu Çevik, Derya Tezcan, Cansu Çelebi, Filiz Içier

Abstract:

Ultrasound is defined as sound waves having frequencies higher than 20 kHz, which is greater than the limits of the human hearing range. In recent years, ultrasonic treatment is an emerging technology being used increasingly in the food industry. It is applied as an alternative technique for different purposes such as microbial and enzyme inactivation, extraction, drying, filtration, crystallization, degas, cutting etc. Red beetroot (Beta vulgaris L.) is a root vegetable which is rich in mineral components, folic acid, dietary fiber, anthocyanin pigments. In this study, the application of low frequency high intensity ultrasound to the red beetroot slices and red beetroot juice for different treatment times (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 min) was investigated. Ultrasonicated red beetroot slices were also squeezed immediately. Changes on colour, betanin, pH and titratable acidity properties of red beetroot juices (the ultrasonicated juice (UJ) and the juice from ultrasonicated slices (JUS)) were determined. Although there was no significant difference statistically in the changes of color value of JUS samples due to ultrasound application (p>0.05), the color properties of UJ samples ultrasonicated for low durations were statistically different from raw material (p<0.05). The difference between color values of UJ and raw material disappeared (p>0.05) as the ultrasonication duration increased. The application of ultrasound to red beet root slices adversely affected and decreased the betanin content of JUS samples. On the other hand, the betanin content of UJ samples increased as the ultrasonication duration increased. Ultrasound treatment did not affect pH and titratable acidity of red beetroot juices statistically (p>0.05). The results suggest that ultrasound technology is the simple and economical technique which may successfully be employed for the processing of red beetroot juice with improved color and betanin quality. However, further investigation is still needed to confirm this.

Keywords: red beetroot, ultrasound, color, betanin

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3 Accurately Measuring Stress Using Latest Breathing Technology and Its Relationship with Academic Performance

Authors: Farshid Marbouti, Jale Ulas, Julia Thompson

Abstract:

The main sources of stress among college students are: changes in sleeping and eating habits, undertaking new responsibilities, and financial difficulties as the most common sources of stress, exams, meeting new people, career decisions, fear of failure, and pressure from parents, transition to university especially if it requires leaving home, working with people that they do not know, trouble with parents, and relationship with the opposite sex. The students use a variety of stress coping strategies, including talking to family and friends, leisure activities and exercising. The Yerkes–Dodson law indicates while a moderate amount of stress may be beneficial for performance, too high stress will result in weak performance. In other words, if students are too stressed, they are likely to have low academic performance. In a preliminary study conducted in 2017 with engineering students enrolled in three high failure rate classes, the majority of the students stated that they have high levels of stress mainly for academic, financial, or family-related reasons. As the second stage of the study, the main purpose of this research is to investigate the students’ level of stress, sources of stress, their relationship with student demographic background, students’ coping strategies, and academic performance. A device is being developed to gather data from students breathing patterns and measure their stress levels. In addition, all participants are asked to fill out a survey. The survey under development has the following categories: exam stressor, study-related stressors, financial pressures, transition to university, family-related stress, student response to stress, and stress management. After the data collection, Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) analysis will be conducted in order to identify the relationship among students’ level of stress, coping strategies, and academic performance.

Keywords: college student stress, coping strategies, academic performance, measuring stress

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2 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Physical Mass Transfer of CO₂ by N₂O Analogy Using One Fluid Formulation in OpenFOAM

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un, Ahmet Ozan Celik

Abstract:

Removal of CO₂ by MEA (monoethanolamine) in structured packing columns depends highly on the gas-liquid interfacial area and film thickness (liquid load). CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is used to find the interfacial area, film thickness and their impact on mass transfer in gas-liquid flow effectively in any column geometry. In general modeling approaches used in CFD derive mass transfer parameters from standard correlations based on penetration or surface renewal theories. In order to avoid the effect of assumptions involved in deriving the correlations and model the mass transfer based solely on fluid properties, state of art approaches like one fluid formulation is useful. In this work, the one fluid formulation was implemented and evaluated for modeling the physical mass transfer of CO₂ by N₂O analogy in OpenFOAM CFD software. N₂O analogy avoids the effect of chemical reactions on absorption and allows studying the amount of CO₂ physical mass transfer possible in a given geometry. The computational domain in the current study was a flat plate with gas and liquid flowing in the countercurrent direction. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate, the concentration of MEA and angle of inclination on the physical mass transfer is studied in detail. Liquid side mass transfer coefficients obtained by simulations are compared to the correlations available in the literature and it was found that the one fluid formulation was effectively capturing the effects of interface surface instabilities on mass transfer coefficient with higher accuracy. The high mesh refinement near the interface region was found as a limiting reason for utilizing this approach on large-scale simulations. Overall, the one fluid formulation is found more promising for CFD studies involving the CO₂ mass transfer.

Keywords: one fluid formulation, CO₂ absorption, liquid mass transfer coefficient, OpenFOAM, N₂O analogy

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1 Climate Change and Health in Policies

Authors: Corinne Kowalski, Lea de Jong, Rainer Sauerborn, Niamh Herlihy, Anneliese Depoux, Jale Tosun

Abstract:

Climate change is considered one of the biggest threats to human health of the 21st century. The link between climate change and health has received relatively little attention in the media, in research and in policy-making. A long term and broad overview of how health is represented in the legislation on climate change is missing in the legislative literature. It is unknown if or how the argument for health is referred in legal clauses addressing climate change, in national and European legislation. Integrating scientific based evidence into policies regarding the impacts of climate change on health could be a key step to inciting the political and societal changes necessary to decelerate global warming. This may also drive the implementation of new strategies to mitigate the consequences on health systems. To provide an overview of this issue, we are analyzing the Global Climate Legislation Database provided by the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment. This institution was established in 2008 at the London School of Economics and Political Science. The database consists of (updated as of 1st January 2015) legislations on climate change in 99 countries around the world. This tool offers relevant information about the state of climate related policies. We will use the database to systematically analyze the 829 identified legislations to identify how health is represented as a relevant aspect of climate change legislation. We are conducting explorative research of national and supranational legislations and anticipate health to be addressed in various forms. The goal is to highlight how often, in what specific terms, which aspects of health or health risks of climate change are mentioned in various legislations. The position and recurrence of the mention of health is also of importance. Data will be extracted with complete quotation of the sentence which mentions health, which will allow for second qualitative stage to analyze which aspects of health are represented and in what context. This study is part of an interdisciplinary project called 4CHealth that confronts results of the research done on scientific, political and press literature to better understand how the knowledge on climate change and health circulates within those different fields and whether and how it is translated to real world change.

Keywords: climate change, explorative research, health, policies

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