Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: J. D. Mallapur

5 Modified RSA in Mobile Communication

Authors: Nagaratna Rajur, J. D. Mallapur, Y. B. Kirankumar


The security in mobile communication is very different from the internet or telecommunication, because of its poor user interface and limited processing capacity, as well as combination of complex network protocols. Hence, it poses a challenge for less memory usage and low computation speed based security system. Security involves all the activities that are undertaken to protect the value and on-going usability of assets and the integrity and continuity of operations. An effective network security strategies requires identifying threats and then choosing the most effective set of tools to combat them. Cryptography is a simple and efficient way to provide security in communication. RSA is an asymmetric key approach that is highly reliable and widely used in internet communication. However, it has not been efficiently implemented in mobile communication due its computational complexity and large memory utilization. The proposed algorithm modifies the current RSA to be useful in mobile communication by reducing its computational complexity and memory utilization.

Keywords: M-RSA, sensor networks, sensor applications, security

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4 Intrusion Detection In MANET Using Game Theory

Authors: S. B. Kumbalavati, J. D. Mallapur, K. Y. Bendigeri


A mobile Ad-hoc network (MANET) is a multihop wireless network where nodes communicate each other without any pre-deployed infrastructure. There is no central administrating unit. Hence, MANET is generally prone to many of the attacks. These attacks may alter, release or deny data. These attacks are nothing but intrusions. Intrusion is a set of actions that attempts to compromise integrity, confidentiality and availability of resources. A major issue in the design and operation of ad-hoc network is sharing the common spectrum or common channel bandwidth among all the nodes. We are performing intrusion detection using game theory approach. Game theory is a mathematical tool for analysing problems of competition and negotiation among the players in any field like marketing, e-commerce and networking. In this paper mathematical model is developed using game theory approach and intruders are detected and removed. Bandwidth utilization is estimated and comparison is made between bandwidth utilization with intrusion detection technique and without intrusion detection technique. Percentage of intruders and efficiency of the network is analysed.

Keywords: ad-hoc network, IDS, game theory, sensor networks

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3 Node Optimization in Wireless Sensor Network: An Energy Approach

Authors: Y. B. Kirankumar, J. D. Mallapur


Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is an emerging technology, which has great invention for various low cost applications both for mass public as well as for defence. The wireless sensor communication technology allows random participation of sensor nodes with particular applications to take part in the network, which results in most of the uncovered simulation area, where fewer nodes are located at far distances. The drawback of such network would be that the additional energy is spent by the nodes located in a pattern of dense location, using more number of nodes for a smaller distance of communication adversely in a region with less number of nodes and additional energy is again spent by the source node in order to transmit a packet to neighbours, thereby transmitting the packet to reach the destination. The proposed work is intended to develop Energy Efficient Node Placement Algorithm (EENPA) in order to place the sensor node efficiently in simulated area, where all the nodes are equally located on a radial path to cover maximum area at equidistance. The total energy consumed by each node compared to random placement of nodes is less by having equal burden on fewer nodes of far location, having distributed the nodes in whole of the simulation area. Calculating the network lifetime also proves to be efficient as compared to random placement of nodes, hence increasing the network lifetime, too. Simulation is been carried out in a qualnet simulator, results are obtained on par with random placement of nodes with EENP algorithm.

Keywords: energy, WSN, wireless sensor network, energy approach

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2 Investigations on Control Efficacy of Insecticides with Drone Application in Soybean Against Defoliator Insect Pests Under Field Condition

Authors: D. N. Kambrekar, C. P. Mallapur, Gurupad Balol, P. S. Tippannavar, Kartik Nidagundi


In India, soybean has been the number one oilseed crop in terms of both area and production and has shown unparallel growth over the last few decades in terms of area and production. However, its continuous cultivation with simultaneous increase in the area has led to increase in insect pests incidence. Currently, soybean is severely attacked about a dozen of insect pest. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (Drone Technology) are a recently developed aerial spraying technology. However, the effect of spray volume variation on deposition and pesticides control efficacy is unknown. The effect of drone technology in terms of droplet deposition and soybean insect pest control efficiency was assessed in the Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad (Karnataka-India) during Kharif 2021. As a traditional method, Air Pressure Knapsack (APK) sprayer was used as a comparison. There was a significant difference in the spray deposition and control efficacy of insecticides with the drone technology and APK. The drone technology with ultra low volume spray (20 litres per hectare) with four finest droplet nozzles resulted in higher deposition of spray inside the crop canopy with 30-50 droplets/ and higher control efficacy of insect pests. High spray volume (500 litres per hectare) with knapsack sprayer led to better deposition only on the top crop canopy, but less percolation inside the crop resulted in poor control efficacy of the insecticides. The insecticide combi product, chlorantraniliprole 9.3% w/w + Lambda-cyhalothrin 4.6% w/w ZC (Ampligo 150 ZC) @ 200ml/ha sprayed with UAV at a spray volume of 20 litres per ha has recorded maximum protection of crop from defoliator insect pests in soybean (100 per cent control of defoliators viz., Spodoptera litura, and Thysanoplusia orichalcea at 24 hours after spraying) as compared to spraying of same insecticides with same dose with APK sprayer at the spray volume of 500 litres per ha (50 per cent control of defoliators at 24 hours after spraying). During the current year of investigation (Kharif 2021), there was a severe outbreak of S. litura in soybean, which was successfully managed with the drone application of insecticides with two sprays at a spray interval of 15 days. Further, chlorantraniliprole 9.3% w/w + Lambda cyhalothrin 4.6% w/w ZC at 200ml/ha has recorded highest grain yield of soybean compared to the application of same insecticide at the same dose with APK sprayer. This study clearly suggests the integration of drone technology in the management of insect pests very effectively.

Keywords: drone technology, control efficacy, insecticides, soybean, field condition

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1 Yield Loss in Maize Due to Stem Borers and Their Integrated Management

Authors: C. P. Mallapur, U. K. Hulihalli, D. N. Kambrekar


Maize (Zea mays L.) an important cereal crop in the world has diversified uses including human consumption, animal feed, and industrial uses. A major constraint in low productivity of maize in India is undoubtedly insect pests particularly two species of stem borers, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe) and Sesamia inferens (Walker). The stem borers cause varying level of yield losses in different agro-climate regions (25.7 to 80.4%) resulting in a huge economic loss to the farmers. Although these pests are rather difficult to manage, efforts have been made to combat the menace by using effective insecticides. However, efforts have been made in the present study to integrate various possible approaches for sustainable management of these borers. Two field experiments were conducted separately during 2016-17 at Main Agricultural Research Station, University of Agricultural Sciences, Dharwad, Karnataka, India. In the first experiment, six treatments were randomized in RBD. The insect eggs at pinhead stage (@ 40 eggs/plant) were stapled to the under surface of leaves covering 15-20 % of plants in each plot after 15 days of sowing. The second experiment was planned with nine treatments replicated thrice. The border crop with NB -21 grass was planted all around the plots in the specific treatments while, cowpea intercrop (@6:1-row proportion) was sown along with the main crop and later, the insecticidal spray with chlorantraniliprole and nimbecidine was taken upon need basis in the specific treatments. The results indicated that the leaf injury and dead heart incidence were relatively more in the treatments T₂ and T₄ wherein, no insect control measures were made after the insect release (58.30 & 40.0 % leaf injury and 33.42 and 25.74% dead heart). On the contrary, these treatments recorded higher stem tunneling (32.4 and 24.8%) and resulted in lower grain yield (17.49 and 26.79 q/ha) compared to 29.04, 32.68, 40.93 and 46.38 q/ha recorded in T₁, T₃, T₅ and T₆ treatments, respectively. A maximum yield loss of 28.89 percent was noticed in T₂ followed by 19.59 percent in T₄ where no sprays were imposed. The data on integrated management trial revealed the lowest stem borer damage (19.28% leaf injury and 1.21% dead heart) in T₅ (seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed + cow intercrop along with nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC spray @ 0.2 ml/l). The next best treatment was T₆ (ST+ NB-21 borer with nimbecidine and chlorantraniliprole spray) with 21.3 and 1.99 percent leaf injury and dead heart incidence, respectively. These treatments resulted in highest grain yield (77.71 and 75.53 q/ha in T₅ and T₆, respectively) compared to the standard check, T₁ (ST+ chlorantraniliprole spray) wherein, 27.63 percent leaf injury and 3.68 percent dead heart were noticed with 60.14 q/ha grain yield. The stem borers can cause yield loss up to 25-30 percent in maize which can be well tackled by seed treatment with thiamethoxam 70FS @ 8ml/kg seed and sowing the crop along with cowpea as intercrop (6:1 row proportion) or NB-21 grass as border crop followed by application of nimbecidine 0.03EC @ 5.0 ml/l and chlorantraniliprole 18.5SC @ 0.2 ml/l on need basis.

Keywords: Maize stem borers, Chilo partellus, Sesamia inferens, crop loss, integrated management

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