Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1506

Search results for: Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Viru

1506 Isolation and Elimination of Latent and Productive Herpes Simplex Virus from the Sacral and Trigeminal Ganglions

Authors: Bernard L. Middleton, Susan P. Cosgrove

Abstract:

There is an immediate need for alternative anti-herpetic treatment options effective for both primary infections and reoccurring reactivations of herpes simplex virus types 1 (HSV-1) and 2 (HSV-2). Alternatives currently approved for the purposes of clinical administration includes antivirals and a reduced set of nucleoside analogues. The present article tests a treatment based on a systemic understanding of how the herpes virus affects cell inhibition and breakdown and targets different phases of the viral cycle, including the entry stage, reproductive cross mutation, and cell-to-cell infection. The treatment consisted of five immunotherapeutic core compounds (5CC), which were hypothesized to be capable of neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies. The tested 5CC were noted as being functional in the application of eliminating the DNA synthesis of herpes viral interferon (IFN) - induced cellular antiviral response. They were here found to neutralize antiviral reproduction by blocking cell-to-cell infection. The activity of the 5CC was tested on RC-37 in vitro using an assay plaque reduction and in vivo against HSV-1 and HSV-2. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 5CC was 0.0009% for HSV-1 plaque formation and 0.0008% for HSV-2 plaque formation. Further tests were performed to evaluate the susceptibility of HSV-1 and HSV-2 to anti-herpetic drugs in Vero cells after virus entry. There were high-level markers of the 5CC virucidal activity in the viral suspension of HSV-1 and HSV-2. These concentrations of the 5CC are nontoxic and reduced plaque formation by 98.2% for HSV-1 and 93.0% for HSV-2. Virus HSV-1 and HSV-2 titers were reduced significantly by 5CC to the point of being negative, ranging 0.01–0.09 in 72%. The results concluded the 5CC as being an effective treatment option for the herpes simplex virus.

Keywords: synergy pharmaceuticals, herpes treatment, herpes cure, synergy pharmaceuticals treatment

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1505 Inhibition of Mixed Infection Caused by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Virus by Fullerene Compound

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Olga Lobach, Elli Kaplina, Marina Chataeva, Lev Rasnetsov

Abstract:

Background and aims: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection is very often associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) infection but HIV patients are treated with a cocktail of antiretroviral drugs which are toxic. The use of an antiviral drug which will be active against both viruses like ferrovir found in our previous studies is rather actual. Earlier we had shown that Fullerene poly-amino capronic acid (FPACA) was active in case of monoinfection of HIV-1 or HSV-1. The aim of the study was to analyze the efficiency of FPACA against mixed infection of HIV and HSV. Methods: The peripheral blood lymphocytes, CEM, MT-4 cells were simultaneously infected with HIV-1 and HSV-1. FPACA was added 1 hour before infection. Cells viability was detected by MTT assay, virus antigens detected by ELISA, syncytium formation detected by microscopy. The different multiplicity of HIV-1/HSV-1 ratio was used. Results: The double viral HIV-1/HSV-1 infection was more cytopathic comparing with monoinfections. In mixed infection by the HIV-1/HSV-1 concentration of HIV-1 antigens and syncytium formations increased by 1,7 to 2,3 times in different cells in comparison with the culture infected with HIV-1 alone. The concentration of HSV-1 increased by 1,5-1,7 times, respectively. Administration of FPACA (1 microg/ml) protected cells: HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:1) – 80,1%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:4) – 57,2%; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:8) – 46,3 %; HIV-1/HSV-1 (1:16) – 17,0%. Virus’s antigen levels were also reduced. Syncytium formation was totally inhibited in all cases of mixed infection. Conclusion: FPACA showed antiviral activity in case of mixed viral infection induced by Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus. The effect of viral inhibition increased with the multiplicity of HIV-1 in the inoculum. The mechanism of FPACA action is connected with the blocking of the virus particles adsorption to the cells and it could be suggested that it can have an antiviral activity against some other viruses too. Now FPACA could be considered as a potential drug for treatment of HIV disease complicated with opportunistic herpes viral infection.

Keywords: Antiviral Drug, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), herpes simplex virus (hsv), mixed viral infection

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1504 Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus and Rubella Confection in Tropical Regions in Bihar, India

Authors: Krishna Pandey, Maneesh Kumar, Pradeep Das, Roshan Kamal Topno, Manas Ranjan Dikhit, Ganesh Chandra Sahoo, Bhawana, Major Madhukar, Rishikesh Kumar, Devendra Prasad Yadav, Surya Suman

Abstract:

Viral co-infection is now very common across taxa and environments that are involved in congenital infections. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) and Rubella are the two serious viral infections, well categorized in TORCH Syndrome. Here we had endeavoured the seroprevalence of co-infection of HSV and Rubella. Systematic tests have been performed to check the virulence pattern of the co-infection. The study was conducted at Department of Virology, Rajendra Memorial Research Institute of Medical Sciences (ICMR), Patna, Bihar, India during January 2018-July 2018. 299 newly cases were attended with the sign and symptoms of HSV and Rubella. After taking written consent forms from all the subjects, blood samples were collected for serological detection. ELISA was performed to detect the presence of IgM antibody level. 12 patients were found to be IgM positive from each HSV and Rubella infection. The findings of our study showed that 6 patients were positive for both HSV and rubella and hence were co-infected. Such co-infection causes severe health problems as it leads to the mortality rate of the patients during viral infectivity. Epidemiologically, proper screening should be needed to check any chance of occurrence of such co-infection in the affected regions in large scale and take suitable preventive approach to decrease the case totality. Concern has to be given to aid proper diagnosis and treatment in order to decrease the spread of HSV and Rubella co-infection.

Keywords: ELISA, seroprevalence, HSV, co-Infection, Rubella, viral infectivity

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1503 Genomic Identification of Anisakis Simplex Larvae by PCR-RAPD

Authors: Shuji Fujimoto, Fumiko Kojima

Abstract:

Anisakiasis is a disease caused by infection with an anisakid larvae, mostly Anisakis simplex. The larvae commonly infect in marine fish and the disease is frequently reported in areas of the world where fish is consumed raw, lightly pickled or salted. In Japan, people have the habit of eating raw fish such as ‘sushi’ or ‘sashimi’, so they have more chance of infection with larvae of anisakid nematodes. There are three sibling species in A. simplex larvae, namely, A. simplex sensu stricto (Asss), A. pegreffii (Ap) and A. simplex C. It was revealed that Ap is dominant among the larvae from fish (Scomber japonics) in the Japan Sea side and Asss is dominant among those of the Pacific Ocean side conversely. Although anisakiasis has happened in Japan among both the Japan Sea side area and the Pacific Ocean side area. The aim of this study was to investigate genetic variations between the siblings (Asss and Ap) and within the same sibling species by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. In order to investigate the genetic difference among the each A. simplex larvae, we used RAPD technique to differentiate individuals of A. simplex obtained from Scomber japonics fish those were caught in the Japan sea (Goto Islands in Nagasaki Prefecture) and the cost of Pacific Ocean (Kanagawa Prefecture). The RAPD patterns of the control DNA (Genus Raphidascaris) were markedly different from those of the A. simplex. There were differences in amplification patterns between Asss and Ap. The RAPD patterns for larvae obtained from fish of the same sea were somewhat different and variations were detected even among larvae from the same fish. These results suggest the considerable high genetic variability between Asss and Ap and the possible existence of genetic variation within the sibling species.

Keywords: PCR-RAPD, Anisakiasis in Japan, Anisakis simplex, genomic identification

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1502 Optimal Cropping Pattern in an Irrigation Project: A Hybrid Model of Artificial Neural Network and Modified Simplex Algorithm

Authors: Safayat Ali Shaikh

Abstract:

Software has been developed for optimal cropping pattern in an irrigation project considering land constraint, water availability constraint and pick up flow constraint using modified Simplex Algorithm. Artificial Neural Network Models (ANN) have been developed to predict rainfall. AR (1) model used to generate 1000 years rainfall data to train the ANN. Simulation has been done with expected rainfall data. Eight number crops and three types of soil class have been considered for optimization model. Area under each crop and each soil class have been quantified using Modified Simplex Algorithm to get optimum net return. Efficacy of the software has been tested using data of large irrigation project in India.

Keywords: Artificial Neural Network, large irrigation project, modified simplex algorithm, optimal cropping pattern

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1501 Diverse Sensitivity to Ultraviolet Radiation of DNA and RNA Viruses

Authors: Nickolay Nosik, Dmitry Nosik, Marina Bochkova, Nina Kondrashina, Olga Lobach

Abstract:

The bactericidal effect of UV radiation is known for long time and widely used for inactivation of pathogens but for viruses it is not so uniform. Due to a wide variety of viruses their sensitivity to UV radiation is quite different and not quite predictable. The goal of the study was to determine the inactivation kinetics of UV radiation ( 254 nm) of the viruses of social importance (HIV), as well as test-viruses (poliovirus, adenovirus) used for the evaluation of the viral inactivation efficacy of germicides. Methods: DNA viruses- adenovirus, type 5; Herpes simplex virus (HSV), type 1, and RNA viruses–human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), type 1 and poliovirus, type 1 (Sabin strain) were obtained from State collection of viruses ( The D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology). The source of UV radiation was a 15-watt low-pressure mercury vapor lamp (over 60% 254nm). The samples of 5cm2 were placed direct under the UV lamp flow (h-0.3m). Log reduction value was used as a marker for the rate of virus inactivation. Results: The data obtained indicate that poliovirus (one of the viruses most resistant to chemical germicides) and HSV are rather sensitive to UV radiation ( D90 =250-311 J/m2). Adenovirus is much more resistant to UV radiation (750 J/m2 ). The kinetics of adenovirus inactivation : 0 min- 5.0 lg TCID50, 10 min - 5,0, 15 min -4,0, 30 min – 3.5, 60 min – 1,0, 75 min -0,5 lg TCID50, 90 min –virus not detectable. HIV is most resistant to UV radiation among the studied viruses. It takes more than 4 hrs to inactivate the virus on the surface. D90 = 2000 J/m2 Conclusion: The results of the study show that there is no direct dependence between sensitivity to UV light and the size of the virion or presence\absence of the envelope of the virus. Poliovirus and adenovirus are small viruses (20-30nm poliovirus and 70-90nm adenovirus) and both are non-enveloped viruses but adenovirus 3-fold more resistant to UV radiation than poliovirus. It can be expected that viruses with more complicate structure, like Herpes virus (200nm) or HIV (80-100 nm), would be more sensitive to UV light. However, the very high resistance of HIV to UV radiation needs further investigation. The diverse resistance of the different viruses to UV radiation should be taken into the account when UV light is used to inactivate infectious viruses in hospitals and other public environments.

Keywords: HIV, UV radiation, HSV, inhibition of viruses

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1500 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali

Abstract:

In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: Direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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1499 A Prediction Model of Adopting IPTV

Authors: Jeonghwan Jeon

Abstract:

With the advent of IPTV in the fierce competition with existing broadcasting system, it is emerged as an important issue to predict how much the adoption of IPTV service will be. This paper aims to suggest a prediction model for adopting IPTV using classification and Ranking Belief Simplex (CaRBS). A simplex plot method of representing data allows a clear visual representation to the degree of interaction of the support from the variables to the prediction of the objects. CaRBS is applied to the survey data on the IPTV adoption.

Keywords: prediction, Adoption, IPTV, CaRBS

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1498 Optimizing Human Diet Problem Using Linear Programming Approach: A Case Study

Authors: N. Guruprasad, P. Priyanka, S. Shruthi

Abstract:

Health is a common theme in most cultures. In fact all communities have their concepts of health, as part of their culture. Health continues to be a neglected entity. Planning of Human diet should be done very careful by selecting the food items or groups of food items also the composition involved. Low price and good taste of foods are regarded as two major factors for optimal human nutrition. Linear programming techniques have been extensively used for human diet formulation for quiet good number of years. Through the process, we mainly apply “The Simplex Method” which is a very useful statistical tool based on the theorem of Elementary Row Operation from Linear Algebra and also incorporate some other necessary rules set by the Simplex Method to help solve the problem. The study done by us is an attempt to develop a programming model for optimal planning and best use of nutrient ingredients.

Keywords: Optimization, Linear Programming, simplex method, diet formulation, nutrient ingredients

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1497 A Contribution to the Polynomial Eigen Problem

Authors: Malika Yaici, Kamel Hariche, Tim Clarke

Abstract:

The relationship between eigenstructure (eigenvalues and eigenvectors) and latent structure (latent roots and latent vectors) is established. In control theory eigenstructure is associated with the state space description of a dynamic multi-variable system and a latent structure is associated with its matrix fraction description. Beginning with block controller and block observer state space forms and moving on to any general state space form, we develop the identities that relate eigenvectors and latent vectors in either direction. Numerical examples illustrate this result. A brief discussion of the potential of these identities in linear control system design follows. Additionally, we present a consequent result: a quick and easy method to solve the polynomial eigenvalue problem for regular matrix polynomials.

Keywords: eigenvalues/eigenvectors, latent values/vectors, matrix fraction description, state space description

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1496 Herbal Based Fingerprint Powder Formulation for Latent Fingermark Visualization: Catechu (Kattha)

Authors: Pallavi Thakur, Rakesh K. Garg

Abstract:

Latent fingerprints are commonly encountered evidence at the scene of the crime. It is very important to decipher these fingerprints in order to explore their identity and a lot of research has been made on the visualization of latent fingermarks on various substrates by numerous researchers. During the past few years large number of powder formulations has been evolved for the development of latent fingermarks on different surfaces. This paper reports a new and simple fingerprint powder which is non-toxic and has been employed on different substrates successfully for the development and visualization of latent fingermarks upto the time period of twelve days in varying temperature conditions. In this study, a less expensive, simple and easily available catechu (kattha) powder has been used to decipher the latent fingermarks on different substrates namely glass, plastic, metal, aluminium foil, white paper, wall tile and wooden sheet. It is observed that it gives very clear results on all the mentioned substrates and can be successfully used for the development and visualization of twelve days old latent fingermarks in varying temperature conditions on wall tiles.

Keywords: Visualization, fingermarks, catechu, aged fingermarks

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1495 Seismic Isolation System for Irregular Structure with the Largest Isolation Building Area in the World

Authors: Houmame Benbouali

Abstract:

This paper introduces the design, analysis, tests and application of a new isolation system used in irregular structure, also briefly introduces the recent research, and development on seismic isolation of civil buildings in China. A very large platform (2 stories RC frame) with plane size 1500m wide and 2000m long was built to cover the city railway communication hub area. About 50 isolation house buildings (9 stories RC frame) with 480,000 M2 were built on the top floor of platform. A new advanced isolation system named Storied-Isolation was used to ensure the seismic safety for this irregular structure with the largest isolation house building area in the world. This new isolation system has been used widely in China. There are over 400 buildings with seismic isolation have been built in China until 2003. This paper will introduce the recent research, and development on seismic isolation of civil buildings in China, including the tendency of application on seismic isolation, different isolation systems, different design level being used, design codes, application status and examples of application. Also the paper makes discussion of some problems on the future development of seismic isolation in China.

Keywords: Seismic isolation, floor, irregular structure, civil buildings

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1494 Technologies of Isolation and Separation of Anthraquinone Derivatives

Authors: Raissa A. Muzychkina, Dmitry Yu. Korulkin

Abstract:

In review the generalized data about different methods of extraction, separation and purification of natural and modify anthraquinones is presented. The basic regularity of an isolation process is analyzed. Action of temperature, pH, and polarity of extragent, catalysts and other factors on an isolation process is revealed.

Keywords: Precipitation, Chromatography, Isolation, Extraction, Bioactivity, anthraquinones, phytopreparation, polarity, chrysophanol, aloe-emodin, emodin, physcion

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1493 Web 2.0 Enabling Knowledge-Sharing Practices among Students of IIUM: An Exploration of the Determinants

Authors: Shuaibu Hassan Usman, Ishaq Oyebisi Oyefolahan

Abstract:

This study was aimed to explore the latent factors in the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices instrument. Seven latent factors were identified through a factor analysis with orthogonal rotation and interpreted based on simple structure convergence, item loadings, and analytical statistics. The number of factors retains was based on the analysis of Kaiser Normalization criteria and Scree plot. The reliability tests revealed a satisfactory reliability scores on each of the seven latent factors of the web 2.0 enabled knowledge sharing practices. Limitation, conclusion, and future work of this study were also discussed.

Keywords: students, Factor Analysis, latent factors, knowledge sharing practices, web 2.0 enabled

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1492 An Efficient Approach to Optimize the Cost and Profit of a Tea Garden by Using Branch and Bound Method

Authors: Abu Hashan Md Mashud, M. Sharif Uddin, Aminur Rahman Khan

Abstract:

In this paper, we formulate a new problem as a linear programming and Integer Programming problem and maximize profit within the limited budget and limited resources based on the construction of a tea garden problem. It describes a new idea about how to optimize profit and focuses on the practical aspects of modeling and the challenges of providing a solution to a complex real life problem. Finally, a comparative study is carried out among Graphical method, Simplex method and Branch and bound method.

Keywords: Integer Programming, tea garden, graphical method, simplex method, branch and bound method

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1491 Fingerprint on Ballistic after Shooting

Authors: Narong Kulnides

Abstract:

This research involved fingerprints on ballistics after shooting. Two objectives of research were as follows; (1) to study the duration of the existence of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm and .223 cartridge case after shooting, and (2) to compare the effectiveness of the detection of latent fingerprints by Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The latent fingerprint appearance were studied on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases before and after shooting with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing. The detection times were 3 minute, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, 60, 66, 72, 78 and 84 hours respectively. As a result of the study, it can be conclude that: (1) Before shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on 38, .45, and 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue, Perma Blue and Gun Bluing can detect the fingerprints at all detection times. (2) After shooting, the detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. and .223 cartridge cases with Black Powder, Super Glue did not appear. The detection of latent fingerprints on .38, .45, 9 mm. cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 100% of the time and the detection of latent fingerprints on .223 cartridge cases with Perma Blue and Gun Bluing were found 40% and 46.67% of the time, respectively.

Keywords: Fingerprint, Shooting, ballistic, detection times

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1490 A Two-Week and Six-Month Stability of Cancer Health Literacy Classification Using the CHLT-6

Authors: Levent Dumenci, Laura A. Siminoff

Abstract:

Health literacy has been shown to predict a variety of health outcomes. Reliable identification of persons with limited cancer health literacy (LCHL) has been proved questionable with existing instruments using an arbitrary cut point along a continuum. The CHLT-6, however, uses a latent mixture modeling approach to identify persons with LCHL. The purpose of this study was to estimate two-week and six-month stability of identifying persons with LCHL using the CHLT-6 with a discrete latent variable approach as the underlying measurement structure. Using a test-retest design, the CHLT-6 was administered to cancer patients with two-week (N=98) and six-month (N=51) intervals. The two-week and six-month latent test-retest agreements were 89% and 88%, respectively. The chance-corrected latent agreements estimated from Dumenci’s latent kappa were 0.62 (95% CI: 0.41 – 0.82) and .47 (95% CI: 0.14 – 0.80) for the two-week and six-month intervals, respectively. High levels of latent test-retest agreement between limited and adequate categories of cancer health literacy construct, coupled with moderate to good levels of change-corrected latent agreements indicated that the CHLT-6 classification of limited versus adequate cancer health literacy is relatively stable over time. In conclusion, the measurement structure underlying the instrument allows for estimating classification errors circumventing limitations due to arbitrary approaches adopted by all other instruments. The CHLT-6 can be used to identify persons with LCHL in oncology clinics and intervention studies to accurately estimate treatment effectiveness.

Keywords: limited cancer health literacy, the CHLT-6, discrete latent variable modeling, latent agreement

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1489 Ensuring Consistency under the Snapshot Isolation

Authors: Thatiane Kawabata, Leandro Alves Neves, Julio Cesar Momente, Mario Luiz Tronco, Angelo Cesar Colombini, Carlos Roberto Valêncio, Fábio Renato de Almeida

Abstract:

By running transactions under the Snapshot isolation we can achieve a good level of concurrency, specially in databases with high-intensive read workloads. However, Snapshot is not immune to all the problems that arise from competing transactions and therefore no serialization warranty exists. We propose in this paper a technique to obtain data consistency with Snapshot by using some special triggers that we named Daemon Triggers. Besides keeping the benefits of the Snapshot isolation, the technique is specially useful for those database systems that do not have an isolation level that ensures serializability, like Firebird and Oracle. We describe all the anomalies that might arise when using the Snapshot isolation and show how to preclude them with Daemon Triggers. Based on the methodology presented here, it is also proposed the creation of a new isolation level: Daemon Snapshot.

Keywords: Isolation, data consistency, serialization, snapshot

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1488 Prevalence of Workplace Bullying in Hong Kong: A Latent Class Analysis

Authors: Catalina Sau Man Ng

Abstract:

Workplace bullying is generally defined as a form of direct and indirect maltreatment at work including harassing, offending, socially isolating someone or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks. Workplace bullying is unfortunately commonplace around the world, which makes it a social phenomenon worth researching. However, the measurements and estimation methods of workplace bullying seem to be diverse in different studies, leading to dubious results. Hence, this paper attempts to examine the prevalence of workplace bullying in Hong Kong using the latent class analysis approach. It is often argued that the traditional classification of workplace bullying into the dichotomous 'victims' and 'non-victims' may not be able to fully represent the complex phenomenon of bullying. By treating workplace bullying as one latent variable and examining the potential categorical distribution within the latent variable, a more thorough understanding of workplace bullying in real-life situations may hence be provided. As a result, this study adopts a latent class analysis method, which was tested to demonstrate higher construct and higher predictive validity previously. In the present study, a representative sample of 2814 employees (Male: 54.7%, Female: 45.3%) in Hong Kong was recruited. The participants were asked to fill in a self-reported questionnaire which included measurements such as Chinese Workplace Bullying Scale (CWBS) and Chinese Version of Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). It is estimated that four latent classes will emerge: 'non-victims', 'seldom bullied', 'sometimes bullied', and 'victims'. The results of each latent class and implications of the study will also be discussed in this working paper.

Keywords: Workplace bullying, Survey, Prevalence, latent class analysis

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1487 Visualization of Latent Sweat Fingerprints Deposit on Paper by Infrared Radiation and Blue Light

Authors: Xiaochun Huang, Xuejun Zhao, Yun Zou, Feiyu Yang, Wenbin Liu, Nan Deng, Ming Zhang, Nengbin Cai

Abstract:

A simple device termed infrared radiation (IR) was developed for rapid visualization of sweat fingerprints deposit on paper with blue light (450 nm, 11 W). In this approach, IR serves as the pretreatment device before the sweat fingerprints was illuminated by blue light. An annular blue light source was adopted for visualizing latent sweat fingerprints. Sample fingerprints were examined under various conditions after deposition, and experimental results indicate that the recovery rate of the latent sweat fingerprints is in the range of 50%-100% without chemical treatments. A mechanism for the observed visibility is proposed based on transportation and re-impregnation of fluorescer in paper at the region of water. And further exploratory experimental results gave the full support to the visible mechanism. Therefore, such a method as IR-pretreated in detecting latent fingerprints may be better for examination in the case where biological information of samples is needed for consequent testing.

Keywords: Visualization, Forensic Science, Detection, infrared radiation, blue light, latent sweat fingerprints

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1486 Relationship between Quality Improvement Strategies on the Basis of Different Management Activities

Authors: Anish Sachdeva, Manjinder Singh

Abstract:

Research on total quality management (TQM), total productive maintenance (TPM), international organization for standardization (ISO) and six sigma generally investigate the implementation and impact of these programs in isolation. However, none of these quality improvement programs is self-sufficient and they may not be powerful enough to deliver the improvements and innovations that are required nowadays to ensure the survival and growth of a firm. They are not mutually exclusive and inconsistent. On the contrary, they need complementary support and may reinforce mutually to make use of their complementarity, inducement of side-effects in favor of other quality improvement program, mutual simulation and exploitation of shared values. In this paper, first of all, the various management activities were identified which are normally under focus when any quality improvement program is implemented in any organization. Then TOPSIS methodology was applied to establish the ranking of various quality improvement programs (total quality management, total productive maintenance, ISO and six sigma which were brought to the corporate boardroom to improve the quality) with respect to different management activities (operations related activities, quality related activities, maintenance related activities, organizational related activities, human related activities and finance related activities).

Keywords: TOPSIS, total productive maintenance (TPM), total quality management (TQM), international organization for standardization (ISO)

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1485 Study Regarding Effect of Isolation on Social Behaviour in Mice

Authors: Ritu Shitak

Abstract:

Humans are social mammals, of the primate order. Our biology, behaviour, and pathologies are unique to us. In our desire to understand, reduce solitary confinement one source of information is the many reports of social isolation of other social mammals, especially primates. A behavioural study was conducted in the department of pharmacology at Indira Gandhi Medical College, Shimla in Himachal Pradesh province in India using white albino mice. Different behavioural parameters were observed by using open field, tail suspension, tests for aggressive behaviour and social interactions and the effect of isolation was studied. The results were evaluated and the standard statistics were applied. The said study was done to establish facts that isolation itself impairs social behaviour and can lead to alcohol dependence as well as related drug dependence.

Keywords: social isolation, albino mice, drug dependence, isolation on social behaviour

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1484 Evaluation of the Diagnostic Potential of IL-2 as Biomarker for the Discrimination of Active and Latent Tuberculosis

Authors: Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Setareh Mamishi, Majid Marjani

Abstract:

In the last years, the potential role of distinct T-cell subsets as biomarkers of active tuberculosis TB and/or latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in whole blood stimulated with M. tuberculosis-specific antigens in the QuantiFERON-TB Gold In Tube (QFT-G-IT) for the discrimination of active and latent tuberculosis. After 72-h of stimulation by antigens from the QFT-G-IT assay, IL-2 secretion was quantitated in supernatants by using ELISA (Mabtech AB, Sweden). Observing the level of IL-2 released after 72-h of incubation, we found that the level of IL-2 were significantly higher in LTBI group than in patients with active TB infection or control group (P value=0.019, Kruskal–Wallis test). The discrimination performance (assessed by the area under ROC curve) between LTBI and patients with active TB was 0.816 (95%CI: 0.72-0.97). Maximum discrimination was reached at a cut-off of 13.9 pg/mL for IL-2 following stimulation with 82% sensitivity and 86% specificity. In conclusion, although cytokine analysis has greatly contributed to the understanding of TB pathogenesis, data on cytokine profiles that might distinguish progression from latency of TB infection are scarce and even controversial. Our data indicate that the concomitant evaluation of IFN- γ and IL-2 could be instrumental in discriminating of active and latent TB infection.

Keywords: Discrimination, interleukin-2, active TB, latent TB

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1483 Symbolic Computation via Grobner Basis

Authors: Haohao Wang

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to find elimination ideals via Grobner basis. We first introduce the concept of Grobner bases, and then, we provide computational algorithms to applications for curves and surfaces.

Keywords: Surfaces, Curves, Grobner basis, elimination

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1482 Shock Isolation Performance of a Pre-Compressed Large Deformation Shock Isolator with Quasi-Zero-Stiffness Characteristic

Authors: Lei Zhang, Wei Zhang, Ying Li, Ji Chen, Chunhui Zhang, Fanming Zeng

Abstract:

Based on the synthetic principle of force, a pre-compressed nonlinear isolator with quasi-zero-stiffness (QZS) is developed for shock isolation of ship equipment. The proposed isolator consists of a vertical spring with positive stiffness and several lateral springs with negative stiffness. An analytical expression of vertical stiffness of the nonlinear isolator is derived and numerical simulation on the effect of the geometric design parameters is carried out. Besides, a pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system model is established. The stiffness characteristic of the system is studied and the effects of excitation amplitude and friction damping on shock isolation performance are discussed respectively. The research results show that in comparison with linear shock isolation system, the pre-compressed QZS shock isolation system could realize constant-force or approximately constant-force function and perform better anti-impact performance.

Keywords: large deformation, quasi-zero-stiffness, constant-force, pre-compressed, shock isolation, friction damping

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1481 CFD Simulation for Air-Borne Infection Analysis in AII-Room

Authors: Young Kwon Yang, In Sung Kang, Jung Ha Hwang, Jin Chul Park

Abstract:

The present study is a foundational study for performance improvements on isolation wards to prevent proliferation of secondary infection of infectious diseases such as SARS, H1N1, and MERS inside hospitals. Accordingly, the present study conducted an analysis of the effect of sealing mechanisms and filling of openings on ensuring air tightness performance in isolation wards as well as simulation on air currents in improved isolation wards. The study method is as follows. First, previous studies on aerial infection type and mechanism were reviewed, and the review results were utilized as basic data of analysis on simulation of air current. Second, national and international legislations and regulations in relation to isolation wards as well as case studies on developed nations were investigated in order to identify the problems in isolation wards in Korea and improvement plans. Third, construction and facility plans were compared and analyzed between general and isolation wards focusing on large general hospitals in Korea, thereby conducting comparison and analysis on the performance and effects of air-tightness of general and isolation wards through CFD simulations. The study results showed that isolation wards had better air-tightness performance than that of general wards.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, CFD, AII Room, air-borne infection

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1480 Soil Parameters Identification around PMT Test by Inverse Analysis

Authors: I. Toumi, Y. Abed, A. Bouafia

Abstract:

This paper presents a methodology for identifying the cohesive soil parameters that takes into account different constitutive equations. The procedure, applied to identify the parameters of generalized Prager model associated to the Drucker & Prager failure criterion from a pressuremeter expansion curve, is based on an inverse analysis approach, which consists of minimizing the function representing the difference between the experimental curve and the simulated curve using a simplex algorithm. The model response on pressuremeter path and its identification from experimental data lead to the determination of the friction angle, the cohesion and the Young modulus. Some parameters effects on the simulated curves and stresses path around pressuremeter probe are presented. Comparisons between the parameters determined with the proposed method and those obtained by other means are also presented.

Keywords: Finite Element Method, Cohesive Soils, cavity expansion, pressuremeter test, optimization procedure, simplex algorithm

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1479 Assess the Risk Behaviours and Safer Sex Practices among Male Attendees in a Sexual Health Setting

Authors: B. M. M. D. Mendis, L. I. Rajapaksa, P. S. K. Gunathunga, R. C. Fernando, M. Jayalath

Abstract:

Background / introduction: During the year 2011, 8511 males received services from the sexual health clinics island wide. At present there is only limited information on the risk behaviours of male attendees. Information on risk behaviours related to STI /HIV transmission is helpful in planning suitable prevention interventions. Aim(s)/objectives: The objectives were to determines the sexual partners (other than the marital partner and regular partners) responsible for transmitting STI( Sexually transmitted infections)/ HIV and to understand the practice of safer sex. Methods: Study was a clinic based prospective study conducted for a one year period using an interviewer administered questionnaire. Results: 983 attendees were interviewed. . Mean age was 34.02 years. 75% of the sample had completed GCE O/L (ordinary level examination). Skilled labourers, drivers and forces/police comprised 40% of the sample. 50% admitted sex with a casual female, 12% with a casual male, and 13% with CSW (commercial sex workers) while MSW (male sex workers) exposures were minimal. It was identified that younger males had more contacts with males, and regular female partners while more older males with CSW. Anal sex among males was reported by 11.5%. 20.5% used alcohol frequently and 5.9% used drugs and 1.4% injected. Common STI were genital herpes (7.9%), Non gonococcal urethritis (6.2%) and gonorrhoea (6.2%). Among those who had contacts with FSW 6.7% gonorrhoea (GC), 8.2% non gonococcal urethritis (NGU), 7.5% genital herpes and 0.7% HIV. Non regular partner exposures 3.7% had gonorrhoea, 8.3% NGU, 6.6% genital herpes and 0.8% HIV. Among MSM contacts 10.6% had GC, 4.5% NGU, 5.3% genital herpes, 5.3% secondary syphilis and 0.8% HIV. Only 9.0% used condoms correctly. Friends, doctors, newspapers, internet, and forces were important sources of information on condoms. Non use of condoms were due to worry about satisfaction (24.6%) and faith in the partner (25.6%). Discussion/conclusion: Casual partners for unsafe sex is a concern. MSM and CSW are remained as an important source of infection. Early Syphilis and gonorrhoea infections were mostly seen among MSM exposures. The findings indicate that the male population in the sample had satisfactory education. However, still the unsafe sexual contacts are common. . Newspapers, internet were more important sources of information on condoms. Low condom use remains another concern.. More males contracted STI through casual partners. Therefore strategies used for prevention need to be revisited also emphasizing on general population where casual partners represent. . Increasing awareness of men and women through mass media and primary health care teams may be important strategies that can be used to keep the HIV epidemic in a low level.

Keywords: HIV, STI, Males, safe sex practices

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1478 Kalman Filter Gain Elimination in Linear Estimation

Authors: Nicholas Assimakis

Abstract:

In linear estimation, the traditional Kalman filter uses the Kalman filter gain in order to produce estimation and prediction of the n-dimensional state vector using the m-dimensional measurement vector. The computation of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In this paper, a variation of the Kalman filter eliminating the Kalman filter gain is proposed. In the time varying case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix and the inversion of an m x m matrix in every iteration. In the time invariant case, the elimination of the Kalman filter gain requires the inversion of an n x n matrix in every iteration. The proposed Kalman filter gain elimination algorithm may be faster than the conventional Kalman filter, depending on the model dimensions.

Keywords: estimation, Kalman Filter, discrete time, Kalman filter gain

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1477 The Latent Model of Linguistic Features in Korean College Students’ L2 Argumentative Writings: Syntactic Complexity, Lexical Complexity, and Fluency

Authors: Jiyoung Bae, Gyoomi Kim

Abstract:

This study explores a range of linguistic features used in Korean college students’ argumentative writings for the purpose of developing a model that identifies variables which predict writing proficiencies. This study investigated the latent variable structure of L2 linguistic features, including syntactic complexity, the lexical complexity, and fluency. One hundred forty-six university students in Korea participated in this study. The results of the study’s confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that indicators of linguistic features from this study-provided a foundation for re-categorizing indicators found in extant research on L2 Korean writers depending on each latent variable of linguistic features. The CFA models indicated one measurement model of L2 syntactic complexity and L2 learners’ writing proficiency; these two latent factors were correlated with each other. Based on the overall findings of the study, integrated linguistic features of L2 writings suggested some pedagogical implications in L2 writing instructions.

Keywords: linguistic features, fluency, syntactic complexity, lexical complexity

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